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This chapter presents the information and the identification schemes which adhere in many aspects to the phenotypic classification system. In a study of the genus based on sequence comparisons of small-subunit (16S) rRNA genes, five species groups of viridans group streptococci were demonstrated in addition to the pyogenic group (beta-hemolytic, large-colony formers. Streptococci can cause infections in humans and in many different animal species including mammals and fish. Reflecting the ongoing changes in the epidemiology of group B streptococcal disease, the highest attack rates were observed in patients less than 1 year and adults greater than 65 years of age. The predominant reservoir for subsp. strains is the human host, and transmission usually occurs among humans. A rapid method for the detection of in pharyngeal specimens is based on a single-stranded chemiluminescent nucleic acid probe assay to identify specific rRNA sequences. It is important to distinguish from prior to L-pyrrolidonyl-β-naphthylamide (PYR) testing, and strains of other related genera may be PYR positive (including the genera , , , , and ). The VP test can be performed for the identification of beta-hemolytic streptococci. In the majority of cases, typing of streptococci has no immediate clinical or therapeutic consequences. It is most often performed by reference laboratories for the purposes of epidemiologic studies and the evaluation of vaccine efficacy. Determination of streptococcal antibodies is indicated for the diagnosis of poststreptococcal disease.

Citation: Spellerberg B, Brandt C. 2011. , p 331-349. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch20
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Image of FIGURE 1

Colony morphology of selected streptococci. (A) strain ATCC12344; (B) clinical isolate of (C) clinical isolate of subsp. (Lancefield group G); (D) mixed culture of (ATCC12395, open arrow) and clinical isolate of subsp. (closed arrow) (note the difference in colony size); (E) clinical isolate of (note the central depression of the colonies); (F) clinical isolate of (note the mucoid appearance of colonies).

Citation: Spellerberg B, Brandt C. 2011. , p 331-349. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch20
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Image of FIGURE 2

CAMP factor test. An arrowhead-shaped zone of hemolysis in the zone of the beta-hemolysin is shown. (A) Clinical isolate of a weakly beta-hemolytic strain. (B) Beta-hemolytic strain O90R. (C) Nonhemolytic strain R268.

Citation: Spellerberg B, Brandt C. 2011. , p 331-349. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch20
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Generic image for table

Phenotypic characteristics of beta-hemolytic streptococci

Symbols and abbreviations: +, positive; −, negative; v, variable.

subsp. is alpha-hemolytic on sheep blood agar plates.

subsp. , , and are primarily animal pathogens that are only rarely isolated from humans.

Species included in the group can be beta-hemolytic, alpha-hemolytic, or nonhemolytic on sheep blood agar plates.

Large colony size refers to colonies >0.5 mm after 24 h of incubation, whereas small colony size is <0.5 mm.

Presence of the enzyme pyrrolidonyl aminopeptidase.

CAMP factor reaction (cohemolysis in the presence of the beta-hemolysin)

Voges-Proskauer test (formation of acetoin from glucose fermentation).

Parenthetical entries indicate hosts from which the organism is rarely isolated.

Citation: Spellerberg B, Brandt C. 2011. , p 331-349. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch20
Generic image for table

Phenotypic characteristics of major streptococcal groups

Symbols and abbreviations: +, positive; −, negative; v, variable.

This group comprises the species , , , , , , , , , , , , . , , , and are arginine hydrolysis positive; other species from the group are arginine hydrolysis negative.

, , and belong to the group.

The group includes , , and the following species rarely isolated from humans: , , and .

The group contains , , and . is variable, is positive, and is negative for urea hydrolysis.

The group now includes , , , and . subsp is positive for the acidification of mannitol; the other species from the group are negative.

Citation: Spellerberg B, Brandt C. 2011. , p 331-349. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch20
Generic image for table

Phenotypic characteristics of streptococcal species of the group

Symbols and abbreviations: +, positive; –, negative; v, variable. Data are from Summanen et al. ( ), Facklam ( ), and Whiley et al. ( ).

The species subsp. is β--fucosidase, β--acetylglucosaminidase, β--acetylgalactosaminidase, and β--glucosidase positive, in contrast to subsp. , which is negative for these activities.

Voges-Proskauer test (formation of acetoin from glucose fermentation).

Citation: Spellerberg B, Brandt C. 2011. , p 331-349. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch20

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