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The majority of cases of listeriosis occur in individuals who have an underlying condition that leads to suppression of their cell-mediated immunity. Among veterinarians and abattoir workers, primary cutaneous listeriosis with or without bacteremia has been reported. Transient bacteremia can result in placentitis and/or amnionitis, and since is able to cross the placenta, it can infect the fetus, causing abortion, stillbirth, or, most commonly, preterm labor. In general, specimens for detection of do not need special handling during collection. colonies appear blue, and colonies of other bacteria appear yellowish or orange. The CAMP (Christie, Atkins, Munch-Petersen) test can be used to differentiate among hemolytic species. Commercially available miniaturized tests considerably speed up biochemical identification of spp. The matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (mass spectrometry) (MALDI-TOF [MS]) technique has recently been introduced and allows discrimination of the species by use of the respective software. Treatment with an aminopenicillin (ampicillin or amoxicillin) plus gentamicin is still regarded as the most effective therapeutic regimen for listeriosis. species are catalase positive, motile, esculin positive, and not alpha-hemolytic. The genus has three validly published species, , , and the more recently described . has been recognized for more than 100 years as the agent of swine erysipelas, an acute or chronic disease. Occurrence of this species in wound or tissue specimen indicates erysipeloid rather than contamination. Species identification is essential in order to ensure adequate antimicrobial therapy.

Citation: Wellinghausen N. 2011. and , p 403-412. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch25
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Image of FIGURE 1

Macroscopic view of colonies on 5% human blood agar plates after 24 h of incubation. (A) : discrete zone of beta-hemolysis under the removed colonies. (B) : no hemolysis. (C) : wide zone of beta-hemolysis around the colonies.

Citation: Wellinghausen N. 2011. and , p 403-412. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch25
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Image of FIGURE 2

CAMP test done with CIP 5710 (top plate) and CIP 5869 (bottom plate) after 24 h of incubation. Upper right, ; lower right, ; middle left, .

Citation: Wellinghausen N. 2011. and , p 403-412. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch25
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Generic image for table

Biochemical differentiation of species in the genus

Symbols and abbreviations: +, ≥90% of strains are positive; –, ≥90% of strains are negative; ND, not determined; V, variable; US, undesignated serotype; S, specific.

++, usually a wide zone or multiple zones.

See text and Fig. 2 .

Citation: Wellinghausen N. 2011. and , p 403-412. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch25

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