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The family is currently the only family within the order , which in addition to the genus contains , , and 27 other genera. Multiple-locus instead of single-locus approaches might therefore be more suitable for the resolution of species identification within the genus . species produce acid from carbohydrates by oxidation, not fermentation. Several kits combine carbohydrate utilization tests and direct enzyme detection assays for rapid confirmation of isolates belonging to . The Api NH system can be used for the identification of , , and and uses 13 miniaturized tests. The pan- MLST has the capacity to provide sufficient information for accurate species assignment. The two commercially available hybridization assays include Digene CT/GC Dual ID HC2 and Gen-Probe Pace 2, which use RNA probes targeting genomic DNA and DNA probes targeting rRNA, respectively. The difficulties in treatment and control of gonorrhea are aggravated by the ability of to mount resistance against a wide range of antibiotics. Fluoroquinolones may be used for treatment only if antimicrobial susceptibility can be documented by culture. A definitive diagnosis of requires (i) isolation of oxidase-positive gram-negative diplococci from sites of exposure by culture on selective media; and (ii) confirmation by biochemical or molecular methods.

Citation: Elias J, Frosch M, Vogel U. 2011. , p 559-573. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch32
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Image of FIGURE 1

Gram stain of cerebrospinal fluid from a patient with meningococcal meningitis.

Citation: Elias J, Frosch M, Vogel U. 2011. , p 559-573. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch32
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Image of FIGURE 2

Slide agglutination of meningococci with anticapsular sera. Serogroup C strain WUE2120 shows no agglutination with serum against serogroup B (left) but does show a marked reaction with serum against capsular polysaccharide of serogroup C (right). The control for autoagglutination is not shown.

Citation: Elias J, Frosch M, Vogel U. 2011. , p 559-573. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch32
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Image of FIGURE 3

Colony morphology (left) and Gram stain (right) of the proposed new species N. bacilliformis sp. nov. ( ). The strain was isolated from a human periodontal pocket. It was characterized by near-complete sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The species is noteworthy due to its rod-like morphology.

Citation: Elias J, Frosch M, Vogel U. 2011. , p 559-573. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch32
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Characteristics of species of human origin

Symbols and abbreviations: 0, negative; +, positive; (+), weakly positive; R, rods; C, cocci; GLU, glucose; MAL, maltose; LAC, lactose; SUC, sucrose; FRU, fructose; V, variable; ND, not determined.

Citation: Elias J, Frosch M, Vogel U. 2011. , p 559-573. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch32
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Molecular typing methods for

Abbreviations: PorA, porin A; FetA, ferric enterobactin transport protein A; PorB, porin B; , putative ABC transporter; , adenylate kinase; , shikimate dehydrogenase; , fumarate hydratase; , glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase; , pyruvate dehydrogenase subunit; , phosphoglucomutase; , gene encoding PBP2.

Citation: Elias J, Frosch M, Vogel U. 2011. , p 559-573. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch32

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