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is the genera that is pathogenic for humans. The use of frequent reclassifications and constant amended or extended descriptions within taxonomy can often be initially puzzling to microbiologists not working with these organisms on a daily basis. However, information in this chapter should clarify the identification and significance of those species most often associated with human disease. Aeromonads are inhabitants of aquatic ecosystems worldwide such as groundwater, reservoirs, and clean or polluted lakes and rivers. Majority of studies have found a seasonal relationship between the recovery of aeromonads from specimens and the warmer months of the year. Although there have been several DNA probe and realtime PCR methods described for the possible identification of aeromonads from either water, food, or veterinary sources, there are no widely recognized antigen detection and/or nucleic acid detection methods available for detection within clinical specimens. Two of the earliest articles on antimicrobial susceptibilities included only strains well characterized to the species level and expanded previously known susceptibility information on aeromonads isolated less frequently from clinical specimens. Regardless of the site of isolation (intestinal or extraintestinal), aeromonads should be identified either as belonging to the or complex or as complex and not "", which is now . For extraintestinal isolates (from blood or wounds), the general rules should apply to species identification of aeromonads.

Citation: Horneman A, Ali A. 2011. , p 658-665. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch38
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Generic image for table

Members of the genus

—, not applicable.

May be synonymous with sp. nov. ( ).

There are motile strains of that grow at 37°C and resemble clinical strains that have been isolated from human feces; these can be distinguished using the tests in Table 3 .

Citation: Horneman A, Ali A. 2011. , p 658-665. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch38
Generic image for table

Biochemical identification of to complex level

The first number is the overall percent positive for each complex for a given trait; the numbers in parentheses are percent positive for each species listed within that complex. Data are derived and modified from Table 5 in reference and reprinted with permission.

Biovar sobria (DNA hybridization group 8); the separation of bv. veronii (DNA hybridization group 10) from bv. sobria is achieved with bv. veronii having positive reactions for ornithine decarboxylase and esculin hydrolysis and a negative reaction for arginine dihydrolase.

Citation: Horneman A, Ali A. 2011. , p 658-665. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch38
Generic image for table

Tests useful in the separation of members within the species complexes

Data compiled from Tables 2, 6, 7, and 8 in reference and reprinted with permission. +, ≥85% of the strains positive; –, <15% positive; V, 15 to 85% positive (results at 48 h). Numbers in parentheses indicate percent positive for test at the final day of reading. Gluconate, 2 days; dl-lactate and urocanic acid, 3 days; citrate, 4 days; carbohydrates, indole, and lipase, 7 days; pyrazinamidase (PZA), 2 days; Amp, resistance to 10 µg of ampicillin, 1 day; Voges-Proskauer, 3 days. ND, not done.

Biovar sobria (DNA hybridization group 8); the separation of bv. veronii (DNA hybridization group 10) from bv. sobria is achieved with bv. veronii having positive reactions for ornithine decarboxylase and esculin hydrolysis and a negative reaction for arginine dihydrolase.

For each of the three species complexes, the discriminatory reactions between the species within each complex are presented in bold type.

Citation: Horneman A, Ali A. 2011. , p 658-665. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch38
Generic image for table

species susceptibilities

Resistant or susceptible, ≥90% of all isolates resistant or susceptible; variable, 10 to 90% of isolates susceptible ( ).

Data for susceptibility found in references and .

Data for resistance to nalidixic acid and pipemidic acid in 26 and 20% of and strains and 88% of clinical strains suggest possible future resistance to fluoroquinolones ( ).

Citation: Horneman A, Ali A. 2011. , p 658-665. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch38

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