Chapter 46 :

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap46-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap46-2.gif


species are members of the alpha-2 subgroup of the class , within the order. There are now more than 22 species or subspecies described, and DNA sequences from numerous other species or strains have been deposited in GenBank. Warthin-Starry silver stain is recommended for microscopic detection of organisms in fixed tissue sections but is not highly specific and is insensitive, even with lymph node biopsy samples from cat scratch disease (CSD) patients. In contrast, even when isolation of the infecting species is not possible, PCR amplification of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) DNA directly from diagnostic samples and/or from enrichment cultures followed by nucleic acid sequencing is an invaluable tool for primary identification at the species, subspecies, and genotype levels. The first serologic test for CSD was an immunofluorescence antibody assay (IFA) based on bacilli that were cocultivated with Vero cells to inhibit autoagglutination. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing can be performed by agar dilution methods using either blood or chocolate agar or by microdilution techniques using various media supplemented with blood. CSD typically does not respond to antibiotic therapy. Most investigators have observed no or minimal benefit with antibiotic treatment, whereas anecdotal reports indicate that ciprofloxacin, rifampin, and co-trimoxazole may be effective. Diagnosis of infection in humans, especially for typical forms of CSD, is mainly based on serologic data, which is the most cost-effective approach.

Citation: Maggi R, Kempf V, Chomel B, Breitschwerdt E. 2011. , p 786-798. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch46

Key Concept Ranking

Multiple-Locus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of FIGURE 1

(A and B) Electron micrographs of Marseille (A) and subsp. genotype III (B); (C) strain Houston I isolated on a blood agar plate after 10 days in culture at 36°C and 5% CO. Panel A is reprinted from reference .

Citation: Maggi R, Kempf V, Chomel B, Breitschwerdt E. 2011. , p 786-798. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch46
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Agan, B. K.,, and M. J. Dolan. 2002. Laboratory diagnosis of Bartonella infections. Clin. Lab. Med. 22: 937 962.
2. Bereswill, S.,, S. Hinkelmann,, M. Kist,, and A. Sander. 1999. Molecular analysis of riboflavin synthesis genes in Bartonella henselae and use of the ribC gene for differentiation of Bartonella species by PCR. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 3159 3166.
3. Berghoff, J.,, J. Viezens,, L. Guptill,, M. Fabbi,, and M. Arvand. 2007. Bartonella henselae exists as a mosaic of different genetic variants in the infected host. Microbiology 153: 2045 2051.
4. Bergmans, A. M.,, M. F. Peeters,, J. F. Schellekens,, M. C. Vos,, L. J. Sabbe,, J. M. Ossewaarde,, H. Verbakel,, H. J. Hooft,, and L. M. Schouls. 1997. Pitfalls and fallacies of cat scratch disease serology: evaluation of Bartonella henselae-based indirect fluorescence assay and enzyme-linked immunoassay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35: 1931 1937.
5. Billeter, S. A.,, M. G. Levy,, B. B. Chomel,, and E. B. Breitschwerdt. 2008. Vector transmission of Bartonella species with emphasis on the potential for tick transmission. Med. Vet. Entomol. 22: 1 15.
6. Boonjakuakul, J. K.,, H. L. Gerns,, Y. T. Chen,, L. D. Hicks,, M. F. Minnick,, S. E. Dixon,, S. C. Hall,, and J. E. Koehler. 2007. Proteomic and immunoblot analyses of Bartonella quintana total membrane proteins identify antigens recognized by sera from infected patients. Infect. Immun. 75: 2548 2561.
6a.. Boulouis, H. J.,, F. Barrat,, D. Bermond,, F. Bernex,, D. Thibault,, R. Heller,, J.-J. Fontaine,, Y. Piémont,, and B. B. Chomel. 2001. Kinetics of Bartonella birtlesii infection in experimentally infected mice and pathogenic effect on reproductive functions. Infect. Immun. 69: 5313 5317.
7. Boulouis, H. J.,, C. C. Chang,, J. B. Henn,, R. W. Kasten,, and B. B. Chomel. 2005. Factors associated with the rapid emergence of zoonotic Bartonella infections. Vet. Res. 36: 383 410.
8. Breitschwerdt, E. B. 2008. Feline bartonellosis and cat scratch disease. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 123: 167 171.
9. Breitschwerdt, E. B.,, C. E. Atkins,, T. T. Brown,, D. L. Kordick,, and P. S. Snyder. 1999. Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and related members of the alpha subdivision of the Proteobacteria in dogs with cardiac arrhythmias, endocarditis, or myocarditis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 3618 3626.
10. Breitschwerdt, E. B.,, B. C. Hegarty,, R. Maggi,, E. Hawkins,, and P. Dyer. 2005. Bartonella species as a potential cause of epistaxis in dogs. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43: 2529 2533.
11. Breitschwerdt, E. B.,, and D. L. Kordick. 2000. Bartonella infection in animals: carriership, reservoir potential, pathogenicity, and zoonotic potential for human infection. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 13: 428 438.
12. Breitschwerdt, E. B.,, and D. L. Kordick. 1995. Bartonellosis. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 206: 1928 1931.
13. Breitschwerdt, E. B.,, D. L. Kordick,, D. E. Malarkey,, B. Keene,, T. L. Hadfield,, and K. Wilson. 1995. Endocarditis in a dog due to infection with a novel Bartonella subspecies. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 154 160.
14. Breitschwerdt, E. B.,, R. G. Maggi,, A. W. Duncan,, W. L. Nicholson,, B. C. Hegarty,, and C. W. Woods. 2007. Bartonella species in blood of immunocompetent persons with animal and arthropod contact. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 13: 938 941.
15. Breitschwerdt, E. B.,, R. G. Maggi,, W. L. Nicholson,, N. A. Cherry,, and C. W. Woods. 2008. Bartonella sp. bacteremia in patients with neurological and neurocognitive dysfunction. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46: 2856 2861.
16. Breitschwerdt, E. B.,, R. G. Maggi,, B. Sigmon,, and W. L. Nicholson. 2007. Isolation of Bartonella quintana from a woman and a cat following putative bite transmission. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45: 270 272.
17. Brouqui, P.,, B. Lascola,, V. Roux,, and D. Raoult. 1999. Chronic Bartonella quintana bacteremia in homeless patients. N. Engl. J. Med. 340: 184 189.
18. Cadenas, M. B.,, J. Bradley,, R. G. Maggi,, M. Takara,, B. C. Hegarty,, and E. B. Breitschwerdt. 2008. Molecular characterization of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotype III. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46: 1858 1860.
19. Chamberlin, J.,, L. W. Laughlin,, S. Romero,, N. Solorzano,, S. Gordon,, R. G. Andre,, P. Pachas,, H. Friedman,, C. Ponce,, and D. Watts. 2002. Epidemiology of endemic Bartonella bacilliformis: a prospective cohort study in a Peruvian mountain valley community. J. Infect. Dis. 186: 983 990.
20. Chang, C. C.,, B. B. Chomel,, R. W. Kasten,, V. Romano,, and N. Tietze. 2001. Molecular evidence of Bartonella spp. in questing adult Ixodes pacificus ticks in California. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39: 1221 1226.
21. Chang, C. C.,, R. W. Kasten,, B. B. Chomel,, D. C. Simpson,, C. M. Hew,, D. L. Kordick,, R. Heller,, Y. Piemont,, and E. B. Breitschwerdt. 2000. Coyotes (Canis latrans) as the reservoir for a human pathogenic Bartonella sp.: molecular epidemiology of Bartonella vinsonii subsp . berkhoffii infection in coyotes from central coastal California. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 4193 4200.
22. Chenoweth, M. R.,, G. A. Somerville,, D. C. Krause,, K. L. O’Reilly,, and F. C. Gherardini. 2004. Growth characteristics of Bartonella henselae in a novel liquid medium: primary isolation, growth-phase-dependent phage induction, and metabolic studies. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70: 656 663.
23. Cherry, N. A.,, P. P. Diniz,, R. G. Maggi,, J. B. Hummel,, E. M. Hardie,, E. N. Behrend,, E. Rozanski,, T. C. Defrancesco,, M. B. Cadenas,, and E. B. Breitschwerdt. 2009. Isolation or molecular detection of Bartonella henselae and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii from dogs with idiopathic cavitary effusions. J. Vet. Intern. Med. 23: 186 189.
24. Cherry, N. A.,, R. G. Maggi,, A. L. Cannedy,, and E. B. Breitschwerdt. 2009. PCR detection of Bartonella bovis and Bartonella henselae in the blood of beef cattle. Vet. Microbiol. 135: 308 312.
25. Chomel, B. B. 1996. Cat-scratch disease and bacillary angiomatosis. Rev. Sci. Tech. 15: 1061 1073.
26. Chomel, B. B.,, and H. J. Boulouis. 2005. Zoonotic diseases caused by bacteria of the genus Bartonella genus: new reservoirs? New vectors? Bull. Acad. Natl. Med. 189: 465 477; discussion, 477-480. (In French.).
27. Chomel, B. B.,, H. J. Boulouis,, and E. B. Breitschwerdt. 2004. Cat scratch disease and other zoonotic Bartonella infections. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 224: 1270 1279.
28. Chomel, B. B.,, H. J. Boulouis,, S. Maruyama,, and E. B. Breitschwerdt. 2006. Bartonella spp. in pets and effect on human health. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 12: 389 394.
29. Chomel, B. B.,, R. W. Kasten,, J. B. Henn,, and S. Molia. 2006. Bartonella infection in domestic cats and wild felids. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1078: 410 415.
29a.. Chomel, B. B.,, R. W. Kasten,, J. E. Sykes,, H. J. Boulouis,, and E. B. Breitschwerdt. 2003. Clinical impact of persistent Bartonella bacteremia in humans and animals. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 990: 267 278.
30. Chomel, B. B.,, R. W. Kasten,, C. Williams,, A. C. Wey,, J. B. Henn,, R. Maggi,, S. Carrasco,, J. Mazet,, H. J. Boulouis,, R. Maillard,, and E. B. Breitschwerdt. 2009. Bartonella endocarditis: a pathology shared by animal reservoirs and patients. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1166: 120 126.
31. Cockwill, K. R.,, S. M. Taylor,, H. M. Philibert,, E. B. Breitschwerdt,, and R. G. Maggi. 2007. Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii endocarditis in a dog from Saskatchewan. Can. Vet. J. 48: 839 844.
32. Cross, J. R.,, J. H. Rossmeisl,, R. G. Maggi,, E. B. Breitschwerdt,, and R. B. Duncan. 2008. Bartonella-associated meningoradiculoneuritis and dermatitis or panniculitis in 3 dogs. J. Vet. Intern. Med. 22: 674 678.
33. Dalton, M. J.,, L. E. Robinson,, J. Cooper,, R. L. Regnery,, J. G. Olson,, and J. E. Childs. 1995. Use of Bartonella antigens for serologic diagnosis of cat-scratch disease at a national referral center. Arch. Intern. Med. 155: 1670 1676.
34. Dauga, C.,, I. Miras,, and P. A. Grimont. 1996. Identification of Bartonella henselae and B. quintana 16s rDNA sequences by branchgenus- and species-specific amplification. J. Med. Microbiol. 45: 192 199.
35. De Paiva Diniz, P. P.,, D. S. Schwartz,, H. S. De Morais,, and E. B. Breitschwerdt. 2007. Surveillance for zoonotic vector-borne infections using sick dogs from southeastern Brazil. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 7: 689 697.
35a.. Dietrich, F.,, T. Schmidgen,, R. G. Maggi,, D. Ritcher,, F.-R. Matuschka,, R. Vonthein,, E. B. Breitschwerdt,, and V. A. Kempf. 2010. Prevalence of Bartonella henselae and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato DNA in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Europe. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76: 1395 1398.
36. Dillon, B.,, J. Iredell,, E. B. Breitschwerdt,, and R. G. Maggi. 2005. Potential limitations of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic region for molecular detection of Bartonella species. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43: 4921 4922.
37. Diniz, P. P.,, R. G. Maggi,, D. S. Schwartz,, M. B. Cadenas,, J. M. Bradley,, B. Hegarty,, and E. B. Breitschwerdt. 2007. Canine bartonellosis: serological and molecular prevalence in Brazil and evidence of co-infection with Bartonella henselae and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. Vet. Res. 38: 697 710.
38. Drancourt, M.,, R. Birtles,, G. Chaumentin,, F. Vandenesch,, J. Etienne,, and D. Raoult. 1996. New serotype of Bartonella henselae in endocarditis and cat-scratch disease. Lancet 347: 441 443.
39. Drancourt, M.,, J. L. Mainardi,, P. Brouqui,, F. Vandenesch,, A. Carta,, F. Lehnert,, J. Etienne,, F. Goldstein,, J. Acar,, and D. Raoult. 1995. Bartonella (Rochalimaea) quintana endocarditis in three homeless men. N. Engl. J. Med. 332: 419 423.
40. Drancourt, M.,, V. Moal,, P. Brunet,, B. Dussol,, Y. Berland,, and D. Raoult. 1996. Bartonella (Rochalimaea) quintana infection in a seronegative hemodialyzed patient. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34: 1158 1160.
41. Droz, S.,, B. Chi,, E. Horn,, A. G. Steigerwalt,, A. M. Whitney,, and D. J. Brenner. 1999. Bartonella koehlerae sp. nov., isolated from cats. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 1117 1122.
42. Duncan, A. W.,, R. G. Maggi,, and E. B. Breitschwerdt. 2007. Bartonella DNA in dog saliva. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 13: 1948 1950.
43. Duncan, A. W.,, R. G. Maggi,, and E. B. Breitschwerdt. 2007. A combined approach for the enhanced detection and isolation of Bartonella species in dog blood samples: pre-enrichment liquid culture followed by PCR and subculture onto agar plates. J. Microbiol. Methods 69: 273 281.
44. Duncan, A. W.,, H. S. Marr,, A. J. Birkenheuer,, R. G. Maggi,, L. E. Williams,, M. T. Correa,, and E. B. Breitschwerdt. 2008. Bartonella DNA in the blood and lymph nodes of golden retrievers with lymphoma and in healthy controls. J. Vet. Intern. Med. 22: 89 95.
45. Dupon, M.,, A. M. Savin De Larclause,, P. Brouqui,, M. Drancourt,, D. Raoult,, A. De Mascarel,, and J. Y. Lacut. 1996. Evaluation of serological response to Bartonella henselae, Bartonella quintana and Afipia felis antigens in 64 patients with suspected cat-scratch disease. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 28: 361 366.
46. Eberhardt, C.,, S. Engelmann,, H. Kusch,, D. Albrecht,, M. Hecker,, I. B. Autenrieth,, and V. A. Kempf. 2009. Proteomic analysis of the bacterial pathogen Bartonella henselae and identification of immunogenic proteins for serodiagnosis. Proteomics 9: 1967 1981.
47. Fenollar, F.,, and D. Raoult. 2004. Molecular genetic methods for the diagnosis of fastidious microorganisms. APMIS 112: 785 807.
48. Fenollar, F.,, S. Sire,, and D. Raoult. 2005. Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis as an agent of blood culture-negative endocarditis in a human. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43: 945 947.
49. Foucault, C.,, B. La Scola,, H. Lindroos,, S. G. Andersson,, and D. Raoult. 2005. Multispacer typing technique for sequence-based typing of Bartonella quintana. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43: 41 48.
49a.. Fournier, P. E.,, C. Couderc,, S. Buffet,, C. Flaudrops,, and D. Raoult. 2009. Rapid and cost-effective identification of Bartonella species using mass spectrometry. J. Med. Microbiol. 58: 1154 1159.
50. Fournier, P. E.,, J. L. Mainardi,, and D. Raoult. 2002. Value of microimmunofluorescence for diagnosis and follow-up of Bartonella endocarditis. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 9: 795 801.
51. Fournier, P. E.,, J. Robson,, Z. Zeaiter,, R. McDougall,, S. Byrne,, and D. Raoult. 2002. Improved culture from lymph nodes of patients with cat scratch disease and genotypic characterization of Bartonella henselae isolates in Australia. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40: 3620 3624.
52. Goodman, R. A.,, and E. B. Breitschwerdt. 2005. Clinicopathologic findings in dogs seroreactive to Bartonella henselae antigens. Am. J. Vet. Res. 66: 2060 2064.
53. Gurfield, A. N.,, H. J. Boulouis,, B. B. Chomel,, R. Heller,, R. W. Kasten,, K. Yamamoto,, and Y. Piemont. 1997. Coinfection with Bartonella clarridgeiae and Bartonella henselae and with different Bartonella henselae strains in domestic cats. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35: 2120 2123.
54. Guyot, A.,, A. Bakhai,, N. Fry,, J. Merritt,, H. Malnick,, and T. Harrison. 1999. Culture-positive Bartonella quintana endocarditis. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 18: 145 147.
55. Handley, S. A.,, and R. L. Regnery. 2000. Differentiation of pathogenic Bartonella species by infrequent restriction site PCR. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 3010 3015.
56. Harms, C.,, R. G. Maggi,, E. B. Breitschwerdt,, C. L. Clemons-Chevis,, M. Solangi,, D. S. Rotstein,, P. A. Fair,, L. J. Hansen,, A. A. Hohn,, G. N. Lovewell,, W. A. McLellan,, D. A. Pabst,, T. K. Rowles,, L. H. Schwacke,, F. I. Townsend,, and R. S. Wells. 2008. Bartonella species detection in captive, stranded and free-ranging cetaceans. Vet. Res. 39: 59.
57. Heller, R.,, M. Artois,, V. Xemar,, D. De Briel,, H. Gehin,, B. Jaulhac,, H. Monteil,, and Y. Piemont. 1997. Prevalence of Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae in stray cats. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35: 1327 1331.
58. Henn, J. B.,, M. W. Gabriel,, R. W. Kasten,, R. N. Brown,, J. E. Koehler,, K. A. MacDonald,, M. D. Kittleson,, W. P. Thomas,, and B. B. Chomel. 2008. Infective endocarditis in a dog and the phylogenic relationship of the associated “Bartonella rochalimae” strain with isolates from dogs, gray foxes, and a human. J. Clin. Microbiol. 47: 787 790.
59. Houpikian, P.,, and D. Raoult. 2001. 16S/23S rRNA intergenic spacer regions for phylogenetic analysis, identification, and subtyping of Bartonella species. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39: 2768 2778.
60. Houpikian, P.,, and D. Raoult. 2005. Blood culture-negative endocarditis in a reference center: etiologic diagnosis of 348 cases. Medicine (Baltimore) 84: 162 173.
61. Houpikian, P.,, and D. Raoult. 2003. Diagnostic methods. Current best practices and guidelines for identification of difficult-to-culture pathogens in infective endocarditis. Cardiol. Clin. 21: 207 217.
62. Ives, T. J.,, P. Manzewitsch,, R. L. Regnery,, J. D. Butts,, and M. Kebede. 1997. In vitro susceptibilities of Bartonella henselae, B. quintana, B. elizabethae, Rickettsia rickettsii, R. conorii, R. akari, and R. prowazekii to macrolide antibiotics as determined by immunofluorescent-antibody analysis of infected Vero cell monolayers. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41: 578 582.
63. Ives, T. J.,, E. L. Marston,, R. L. Regnery,, and J. D. Butts. 2001. In vitro susceptibilities of Bartonella and Rickettsia spp. to fluoroquinolone antibiotics as determined by immunofluorescent antibody analysis of infected Vero cell monolayers. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 18: 217 222.
64. Ives, T. J.,, E. L. Marston,, R. L. Regnery,, J. D. Butts,, and T. C. Majerus. 2000. In vitro susceptibilities of Rickettsia and Bartonella spp. to 14-hydroxy-clarithromycin as determined by immunofluorescent antibody analysis of infected Vero cell monolayers. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 45: 305 310.
65. Jackson, L. A.,, and D. H. Spach. 1996. Emergence of Bartonella quintana infection among homeless persons. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 2: 141 144.
66. Jacomo, V.,, P. J. Kelly,, and D. Raoult. 2002. Natural history of Bartonella infections (an exception to Koch’s postulate). Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 9: 8 18.
67. Jensen, W. A.,, M. Z. Fall,, J. Rooney,, D. L. Kordick,, and E. B. Breitschwerdt. 2000. Rapid identification and differentiation of Bartonella species using a single-step PCR assay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 1717 1722.
68. Joblet, C.,, V. Roux,, M. Drancourt,, J. Gouvernet,, and D. Raoult. 1995. Identification of Bartonella (Rochalimaea) species among fastidious gram-negative bacteria on the basis of the partial sequence of the citrate-synthase gene. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 1879 1883.
69. Jones, S. L.,, R. Maggi,, J. Shuler,, A. Alward,, and E. B. Breitschwerdt. 2008. Detection of Bartonella henselae in the blood of 2 adult horses. J. Vet. Intern. Med. 22: 495 498.
70. Kelly, P.,, J. M. Rolain,, R. Maggi,, S. Sontakke,, B. Keene,, S. Hunter,, H. Lepidi,, K. T. Breitschwerdt,, and E. B. Breitschwerdt. 2006. Bartonella quintana endocarditis in dogs. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 12: 1869 1872.
71. Keret, D.,, M. Giladi,, Y. Kletter,, and S. Wientroub. 1998. Cat-scratch disease osteomyelitis from a dog scratch. J. Bone Joint Surg. 80: 766 767.
72. Kerkhoff, F. T.,, A. M. Bergmans,, A. van Der Zee,, and A. Rothova. 1999. Demonstration of Bartonella grahamii DNA in ocular fluids of a patient with neuroretinitis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 4034 4038.
73. Kerkhoff, F. T.,, and A. Rothova. 2000. Bartonella henselae associated uveitis and HLA-B27. Br. J. Ophthalmol. 84: 1125 1129.
74. Koehler, J. E.,, F. D. Quinn,, T. G. Berger,, P. E. LeBoit,, and J. W. Tappero. 1992. Isolation of Rochalimaea species from cutaneous and osseous lesions of bacillary angiomatosis. N. Engl. J. Med. 327: 1625 1631.
75. Koehler, J. E.,, M. A. Sanchez,, C. S. Garrido,, M. J. Whitfeld,, F. M. Chen,, T. G. Berger,, M. C. Rodriguez-Barradas,, P. E. LeBoit,, and J. W. Tappero. 1997. Molecular epidemiology of bartonella infections in patients with bacillary angiomatosispeliosis. N. Engl. J. Med. 337: 1876 1883.
76. Koehler, J. E.,, and J. W. Tappero. 1993. Bacillary angiomatosis and bacillary peliosis in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Clin. Infect. Dis. 17: 612 624.
77. Kordick, D. L.,, E. J. Hilyard,, T. L. Hadfield,, K. H. Wilson,, A. G. Steigerwalt,, D. J. Brenner,, and E. B. Breitschwerdt. 1997. Bartonella clarridgeiae, a newly recognized zoonotic pathogen causing inoculation papules, fever, and lymphadenopathy (cat scratch disease). J. Clin. Microbiol. 35: 1813 1818.
78. Kordick, D. L.,, B. Swaminathan,, C. E. Greene,, K. H. Wilson,, A. M. Whitney,, S. O’Connor,, D. G. Hollis,, G. M. Matar,, A. G. Steigerwalt,, G. B. Malcolm,, P. S. Hayes,, T. L. Hadfield,, E. B. Breitschwerdt,, and D. J. Brenner. 1996. Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii subsp. nov., isolated from dogs; Bartonella vinsonii subsp. vinsonii; and emended description of Bartonella vinsonii. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 46: 704 709.
79. Kordick, S. K.,, E. B. Breitschwerdt,, B. C. Hegarty,, K. L. Southwick,, C. M. Colitz,, S. I. Hancock,, J. M. Bradley,, R. Rumbough,, J. T. McPherson,, and J. N. MacCormack. 1999. Coinfection with multiple tick-borne pathogens in a Walker Hound kennel in North Carolina. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 2631 2638.
80. Kosek, M.,, R. Lavarello,, R. H. Gilman,, J. Delgado,, C. Maguina,, M. Verastegui,, A. G. Lescano,, V. Mallqui,, J. C. Kosek,, S. Recavarren,, and L. Cabrera. 2000. Natural history of infection with Bartonella bacilliformis in a nonendemic population. J. Infect. Dis. 182: 865 872.
81. Kosoy, M.,, C. Morway,, K. W. Sheff,, Y. Bai,, J. Colborn,, L. Chalcraft,, S. F. Dowell,, L. F. Peruski,, S. A. Maloney,, H. Baggett,, S. Sutthirattana,, A. Sidhirat,, S. Maruyama,, H. Kabeya,, B. B. Chomel,, R. Kasten,, V. Popov,, J. Robinson,, A. Kruglov,, and L. R. Petersen. 2008. Bartonella tamiae sp. nov., a newly recognized pathogen isolated from three human patients from Thailand. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46: 772 775.
82. Lappin, M. R.,, E. Breitschwerdt,, M. Brewer,, J. Hawley,, B. Hegarty,, and S. Radecki. 2009. Prevalence of Bartonella species antibodies and Bartonella species DNA in the blood of cats with and without fever. J. Feline Med. Surg. 11: 141 148.
83. Lappin, M. R.,, D. L. Kordick,, and E. B. Breitschwerdt. 2000. Bartonella spp. antibodies and DNA in aqueous humour of cats. J. Feline Med. Surg. 2: 61 68.
84. La Scola, B.,, and D. Raoult. 1999. Culture of Bartonella quintana and Bartonella henselae from human samples: a 5-year experience (1993 to 1998). J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 1899 1905.
85. La Scola, B.,, and D. Raoult. 1996. Serological cross-reactions between Bartonella quintana, Bartonella henselae, and Coxiella burnetii. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34: 2270 2274.
86. La Scola, B.,, Z. Zeaiter,, A. Khamis,, and D. Raoult. 2003. Gene-sequence-based criteria for species definition in bacteriology: the Bartonella paradigm. Trends Microbiol. 11: 318 321.
87. Liang, Z.,, and D. Raoult. 2000. Species-specific monoclonal antibodies for rapid identification of Bartonella quintana. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 7: 21 24.
88. Luria, B. J.,, J. K. Levy,, M. R. Lappin,, E. B. Breitschwerdt,, A. M. Legendre,, J. A. Hernandez,, S. P. Gorman,, and I. T. Lee. 2004. Prevalence of infectious diseases in feral cats in Northern Florida. J. Feline Med. Surg. 6: 287 296.
89. Maggi, R. G.,, and E. B. Breitschwerdt. 2005. Potential limitations of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic region for molecular detection of Bartonella species. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43: 1171 1176.
90. Maggi, R. G.,, B. Chomel,, B. C. Hegarty,, J. Henn,, and E. B. Breitschwerdt. 2006. A Bartonella vinsonii berkhoffii typing scheme based upon 16S-23S ITS and Pap31 sequences from dog, coyote, gray fox, and human isolates. Mol. Cell. Probes 20: 128 134.
91. Maggi, R. G.,, A. W. Duncan,, and E. B. Breitschwerdt. 2005. Novel chemically modified liquid medium that will support the growth of seven bartonella species. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43: 2651 2655.
92. Maggi, R. G.,, C. A. Harms,, A. A. Hohn,, D. A. Pabst,, W. A. McLellan,, W. J. Walton,, D. S. Rotstein,, and E. B. Breitschwerdt. 2005. Bartonella henselae in porpoise blood. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 11: 1894 1898.
93. Maggi, R. G.,, M. Kosoy,, M. Mintzer,, and E. B. Breitschwerdt. 2009. Isolation of Candidatus Bartonella melophagi from human blood. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 15: 66 68.
94. Maggi, R. G.,, S. A. Raverty,, S. J. Lester,, D. G. Huff,, M. Haulena,, S. L. Ford,, O. Nielsen,, J. H. Robinson,, and E. B. Breitschwerdt. 2008. Bartonella henselae in captive and hunter-harvested beluga (Delphinapterus leucas). J. Wildl. Dis. 44: 871 877.
95. Mainardi, J. L.,, C. Figliolini,, F. W. Goldstein,, P. Blanche,, M. Baret-Rigoulet,, N. Galezowski,, P. E. Fournier,, and D. Raoult. 1998. Cat scratch disease due to Bartonella henselae serotype Marseille (Swiss cat) in a seronegative patient. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 2800.
96. Mandle, T.,, H. Einsele,, M. Schaller,, D. Neumann,, W. Vogel,, I. B. Autenrieth,, and V. A. Kempf. 2005. Infection of human CD34+ progenitor cells with Bartonella henselae results in intraerythrocytic presence of B. henselae. Blood 106: 1215 1222.
97. Margileth, A. M.,, and D. F. Baehren. 1998. Chest-wall abscess due to cat-scratch disease (CSD) in an adult with antibodies to Bartonella clarridgeiae: case report and review of the thoracopulmonary manifestations of CSD. Clin. Infect. Dis. 27: 353 357.
98. Maruyama, S.,, S. Hiraga,, E. Yokoyama,, M. Naoi,, Y. Tsuruoka,, Y. Ogura,, K. Tamura,, S. Namba,, Y. Kameyama,, S. Nakamura,, and Y. Katsube. 1998. Seroprevalence of Bartonella henselae and Toxoplasma gondii infections among pet cats in Kanagawa and Saitama Prefectures. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 60: 997 1000.
99. Mateen, F. J.,, J. C. Newstead,, and K. L. McClean. 2005. Bacillary angiomatosis in an HIV-positive man with multiple risk factors: a clinical and epidemiological puzzle. Can. J. Infect. Dis. Med. Microbiol. 16: 249 252.
100. Maurin, M.,, F. Eb,, J. Etienne,, and D. Raoult. 1997. Serological cross-reactions between Bartonella and Chlamydia species: implications for diagnosis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35: 2283 2287.
101. Maurin, M.,, S. Gasquet,, C. Ducco,, and D. Raoult. 1995. MICs of 28 antibiotic compounds for 14 Bartonella (formerly Rochalimaea) isolates. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 39: 2387 2391.
102. Maurin, M.,, and D. Raoult. 1993. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Rochalimaea quintana, Rochalimaea vinsonii, and the newly recognized Rochalimaea henselae. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 32: 587 594.
103. Maurin, M.,, J. M. Rolain,, and D. Raoult. 2002. Comparison of in-house and commercial slides for detection by immunofluorescence of immunoglobulins G and M against Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 9: 1004 1009. 104.
104. Monteil, M.,, B. Durand,, R. Bouchouicha,, E. Petit,, B. Chomel,, M. Arvand,, H. J. Boulouis,, and N. Haddad. 2007. Development of discriminatory multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis for Bartonella henselae. Microbiology 153: 1141 1148.
105. Morales, S. C.,, E. B. Breitschwerdt,, R. J. Washabau,, I. Matise,, R. G. Maggi,, and A. W. Duncan. 2007. Detection of Bartonella henselae DNA in two dogs with pyogranulomatous lymphadenitis. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 230: 681 685.
106. Murakami, K.,, M. Tsukahara,, H. Tsuneoka,, H. Iino,, C. Ishida,, K. Tsujino,, A. Umeda,, T. Furuya,, S. Kawauchi,, and K. Sasaki. 2002. Cat scratch disease: analysis of 130 seropositive cases. J. Infect. Chemother. 8: 349 352.
107. Musso, D.,, M. Drancourt,, and D. Raoult. 1995. Lack of bactericidal effect of antibiotics except aminoglycosides on Bartonella (Rochalimaea) henselae. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 36: 101 108.
108. Myers, W. F.,, D. M. Grossman,, and C. L. Wisseman, Jr. 1984. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns in Rochalimaea quintana, the agent of trench fever. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 25: 690 693.
109. Norman, A. F.,, R. Regnery,, P. Jameson,, C. Greene,, and D. C. Krause. 1995. Differentiation of Bartonella-like isolates at the species level by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism in the citrate synthase gene. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 1797 1803.
110. Pappalardo, B. L.,, M. T. Correa,, C. C. York,, C. Y. Peat,, and E. B. Breitschwerdt. 1997. Epidemiologic evaluation of the risk factors associated with exposure and seroreactivity to Bartonella vinsonii in dogs. Am. J. Vet. Res. 58: 467 471.
111. Patel, R.,, J. O. Newell,, G. W. Procop,, and D. H. Persing. 1999. Use of polymerase chain reaction for citrate synthase gene to diagnose Bartonella quintana endocarditis. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 112: 36 40.
112. Raoult, D.,, C. Foucault,, and P. Brouqui. 2001. Infections in the homeless. Lancet Infect. Dis. 1: 77 84.
113. Raoult, D.,, F. Roblot,, J. M. Rolain,, J. M. Besnier,, J. Loulergue,, F. Bastides,, and P. Choutet. 2006. First isolation of Bartonella alsatica from a valve of a patient with endocarditis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44: 278 279.
114. Raoult, D.,, and V. Roux. 1999. The body louse as a vector of reemerging human diseases. Clin. Infect. Dis. 29: 888 911.
115. Regnery, R. L.,, J. G. Olson,, B. A. Perkins,, and W. Bibb. 1992. Serological response to “Rochalimaea henselae” antigen in suspected cat-scratch disease. Lancet 339: 1443 1445.
116. Relman, D. A.,, J. S. Loutit,, T. M. Schmidt,, S. Falkow,, and L. S. Tompkins. 1990. The agent of bacillary angiomatosis. An approach to the identification of uncultured pathogens. N. Engl. J. Med. 323: 1573 1580.
117. Renesto, P.,, J. Gouvernet,, M. Drancourt,, V. Roux,, and D. Raoult. 2001. Use of rpoB gene analysis for detection and identification of Bartonella species. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39: 430 437.
118. Ricketts, W. E. 1949. Clinical manifestations of Carrion’s disease. Arch. Intern. Med. (Chicago) 84: 751 781.
119. Ricketts, W. E. 1949. A study of 22 cases of Carrion’s disease with intercurrent malaria. Am. J. Med. Sci. 218: 525 530.
120. Riess, T.,, S. G. Andersson,, A. Lupas,, M. Schaller,, A. Schafer,, P. Kyme,, J. Martin,, J. H. Walzlein,, U. Ehehalt,, H. Lindroos,, M. Schirle,, A. Nordheim,, I. B. Autenrieth,, and V. A. Kempf. 2004. Bartonella adhesin A mediates a proangiogenic host cell response. J. Exp. Med. 200: 1267 1278.
121. Riess, T.,, F. Dietrich,, K. V. Schmidt,, P. O. Kaiser,, H. Schwarz,, A. Schafer,, and V. A. Kempf. 2008. Analysis of a novel insect cell culture medium-based growth medium for Bartonella species. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74: 5224 5227.
122. Rolain, J. M.,, P. Brouqui,, J. E. Koehler,, C. Maguina,, M. J. Dolan,, and D. Raoult. 2004. Recommendations for treatment of human infections caused by Bartonella species. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48: 1921 1933.
123. Rolain, J. M.,, M. Franc,, B. Davoust,, and D. Raoult. 2003. Molecular detection of Bartonella quintana, B. koehlerae, B. henselae, B. clarridgeiae, Rickettsia felis, and Wolbachia pipientis in cat fleas, France. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9: 338 342.
124. Rolain, J. M.,, C. Lecam,, and D. Raoult. 2003. Simplified serological diagnosis of endocarditis due to Coxiella burnetii and Bartonella. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 10: 1147 1148.
125. Rolain, J. M.,, M. Maurin,, M. N. Mallet,, D. Parzy,, and D. Raoult. 2003. Culture and antibiotic susceptibility of Bartonella quintana in human erythrocytes. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47: 614 619.
126. Rolain, J. M.,, M. Maurin,, and D. Raoult. 2000. Bactericidal effect of antibiotics on Bartonella and Brucella spp.: clinical implications. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 46: 811 814.
127. Rothova, A.,, F. Kerkhoff,, H. J. Hooft,, and J. M. Ossewaarde. 1998. Bartonella serology for patients with in-traocular inflammatory disease. Retina 18: 348 355.
128. Samson, L.,, M. Drancourt,, J. P. Casalta,, and D. Raoult. 2006. Corpuscular antigenic microarray for the serodiagnosis of blood culture negative endocarditis. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1078: 595 596.
129. Sander, A.,, R. Berner,, and M. Ruess. 2001. Serodiagnosis of cat scratch disease: response to Bartonella henselae in children and a review of diagnostic methods. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 20: 392 401.
130. Sander, A.,, M. Posselt,, K. Oberle,, and W. Bredt. 1998. Seroprevalence of antibodies to Bartonella henselae in patients with cat scratch disease and in healthy controls: evaluation and comparison of two commercial serological tests. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 5: 486 490.
131. Sanogo, Y. O.,, Z. Zeaiter,, G. Caruso,, F. Merola,, S. Shpynov,, P. Brouqui,, and D. Raoult. 2003. Bartonella henselae in Ixodes ricinus ticks (Acari: Ixodida) removed from humans, Belluno province, Italy. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9: 329 332.
132. Schwartzman, W. A.,, M. Patnaik,, F. J. Angulo,, B. R. Visscher,, E. N. Miller,, and J. B. Peter. 1995. Bartonella (Rochalimaea) antibodies, dementia, and cat ownership among men infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Clin. Infect. Dis. 21: 954 959.
133. Sobraques, M.,, M. Maurin,, R. J. Birtles,, and D. Raoult. 1999. In vitro susceptibilities of four Bartonella bacilliformis strains to 30 antibiotic compounds. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43: 2090 2092.
134. Solano-Gallego, L.,, B. Hegarty,, Y. Espada,, J. Llull,, and E. Breitschwerdt. 2006. Serological and molecular evidence of exposure to arthropod-borne organisms in cats from northeastern Spain. Vet. Microbiol. 118: 274 277.
135. Spach, D. H.,, and J. E. Koehler. 1998. Bartonella-associated infections. Infect. Dis. Clin. N. Am. 12: 137 155.
136. Spach, D. H.,, L. A. Panther,, D. R. Thorning,, J. E. Dunn,, J. J. Plorde,, and R. A. Miller. 1992. Intracerebral bacillary angiomatosis in a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Ann. Intern. Med. 116: 740 742.
137. Tsukahara, M.,, H. Iino,, C. Ishida,, K. Murakami,, H. Tsuneoka,, and M. Uchida. 2001. Bartonella henselae bacteraemia in patients with cat scratch disease. Eur. J. Pediatr. 160: 316.
138. Tsukahara, M.,, H. Tsuneoka,, H. Iino,, K. Ohno,, and I. Murano. 1998. Bartonella henselae infection from a dog. Lancet 352: 1682.
139. Tsuneoka, H.,, R. Fujii,, K. Fujisawa,, H. Iino,, C. Isida,, K. Murakami,, and M. Tsukahara. 2000. Clinical evaluation of commercial serological test for Bartonella infection. Kansenshogaku Zasshi 74: 387 391. (In Japanese.)
140. Tsuneoka, H.,, R. Fujii,, K. Yamamoto,, K. Fujisawa,, H. Iino,, M. Matsuda,, and M. Tsukahara. 1998. Determination of anti- Bartonella henselae antibody by indirect fluorescence antibody test—comparison of two types of antigen: noncocultivated B. henselae and cocultivated B. henselae with Vero cells. Kansenshogaku Zasshi 72: 801 807. (In Japanese.)
141. Tsuneoka, H.,, R. Fujii,, K. Yamamoto,, K. Fujisawa,, H. Iino,, and M. Tsukahara. 1999. Prevalence of serum IgG antibody against Bartonella henselae in an asymptomatic Japanese population. Kansenshogaku Zasshi 73: 90 91. (In Japanese.)
142. Tsuneoka, H.,, C. Ishida,, and M. Tsukahara. 2005. Determination of antibody titer to Bartonella henselae by indirect fluorescence antibody assay using B. henselae from domestic cats as antigen. Kansenshogaku Zasshi 79: 826 828. (In Japanese.)
143. Tsuneoka, H.,, C. Ishida,, A. Umeda,, H. Inokuma,, and M. Tsukahara. 2004. Evaluation of isolation media for the detection of Bartonella henselae—isolation of Bartonella henselae from domestic cats. Kansenshogaku Zasshi 78: 574 579. (In Japanese.)
144. Tsuneoka, H.,, K. Ouchi,, H. Nagaoka,, C. Ishida,, H. Iino,, K. Murakami,, K. Tsujino,, A. Umeda,, and M. Tsukahara. 2001. Serological cross-reaction among Bartonella henselae, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Coxiella burnetii by indirect fluorescence antibody method. Kansenshogaku Zasshi 75: 406 410. (In Japanese.)
145. Tsuneoka, H.,, A. Umeda,, M. Tsukahara,, and K. Sasaki. 2004. Evaluation of indirect fluorescence antibody assay for detection of Bartonella clarridgeiae and seroprevalence of B. clarridgeiae among patients with suspected cat scratch disease. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42: 3346 3349.
146. Wagner, C. L.,, T. Riess,, D. Linke,, C. Eberhardt,, A. Schafer,, S. Reutter,, R. G. Maggi,, and V. A. Kempf. 2008. Use of Bartonella adhesin A (BadA) immunoblotting in the serodiagnosis of Bartonella henselae infections. Int. J. Med. Microbiol. 298: 579 590.
147. Welch, D. F.,, K. C. Carroll,, E. K. Hofmeister,, D. H. Persing,, D. A. Robison,, A. G. Steigerwalt,, and D. J. Brenner. 1999. Isolation of a new subspecies, Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis, from a cattle rancher: identity with isolates found in conjunction with Borrelia burgdorferi and Babesia microti among naturally infected mice. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 2598 2601.
148. Welch, D. F.,, and L. N. Slater,. 2003. Bartonella and Afipia, 824 834. In P. R. Murray,, E. J. Baron,, J. H. Jorgensen,, M. A. Pfaller,, and R. H. Yolken (ed.), Manual of Clinical Micro-biology, 8th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
149. Werner, M.,, P. E. Fournier,, R. Andersson,, H. Hogevik,, and D. Raoult. 2003. Bartonella and Coxiella antibodies in 334 prospectively studied episodes of infective endocarditis in Sweden. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 35: 724 727.
150. Wolfson, C.,, J. Branley,, and T. Gottlieb. 1996. The Etest for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Bartonella henselae. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 38: 963 968.
151. Wong, M. T.,, D. C. Thornton,, R. C. Kennedy,, and M. J. Dolan. 1995. A chemically defined liquid medium that supports primary isolation of Rochalimaea (Bartonella) henselae from blood and tissue specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 742 744.
152. Wood, M.,, R. Maggi,, and E. Breitschwerdt. 2005. The use of pre-enrichment media to enhance detection and isolation of Bartonella spp. from dogs. J. Vet. Intern. Med. 19: 468.
153. Zangwill, K. M.,, D. H. Hamilton,, B. A. Perkins,, R. L. Regnery,, B. D. Plikaytis,, J. L. Hadler,, M. L. Cartter,, and J. D. Wenger. 1993. Cat scratch disease in Connecticut. Epidemiology, risk factors, and evaluation of a new diagnostic test. N. Engl. J. Med. 329: 8 13.
154. Zeaiter, Z.,, P. E. Fournier,, H. Ogata,, and D. Raoult. 2002. Phylogenetic classification of Bartonella species by comparing groEL sequences. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 52: 165 171.
155. Zeaiter, Z.,, P. E. Fournier,, and D. Raoult. 2002. Genomic variation of Bartonella henselae strains detected in lymph nodes of patients with cat scratch disease. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40: 1023 1030.
156. Zeaiter, Z.,, Z. Liang,, and D. Raoult. 2002. Genetic classification and differentiation of Bartonella species based on comparison of partial ftsZ gene sequences. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40: 3641 3647.


Generic image for table

species or subspecies presently described, their main reservoirs, their confirmed or possible vectors, and the potential accidental hosts

Citation: Maggi R, Kempf V, Chomel B, Breitschwerdt E. 2011. , p 786-798. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch46
Generic image for table

MICs for spp.

Determined by the agar dilution technique with Columbia agar supplemented with 5% horse blood. Table adapted from reference . Abbreviations: TMPSMX, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole; ND, not done.

Citation: Maggi R, Kempf V, Chomel B, Breitschwerdt E. 2011. , p 786-798. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch46

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error