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Chapter 51 : , and Other Anaerobic Gram-Negative Rods

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Abstract:

Within the family , the genus consists of saccharolytic, bile-resistant, and nonpigmented species, mainly isolated from the gut. In a study using sequencing of the 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer regions of species, three phylogenetic clusters were formed. Many anaerobic gram-negative rods, e.g., different species within the genus , have unique cell morphology. Molecular methods are increasingly used for direct detection of bacteria from clinical specimens. The pigmented and species vary greatly in the degree and rapidity of pigment production (2 to 21 days), which ranges from buff to tan to black, depending primarily on the type of blood and the composition of the base medium used in the agar. Fluorescence under long-wavelength UV light can be helpful in presumptive identification; pigmented Prevotella and Porphyromonas colonies typically fluoresce red, and fluoresce yellow-green, and Desulfovibrio and Bilophila species, when tested with a drop of NaOH on a swab of cell paste, fluoresce red due to the presence of desulfoviridin pigment. In a survey, conducted at the National Taiwan University Hospital, the proportion of susceptible isolates of , , and/or species to many antimicrobials, especially cefmetazole, clindamycin, and the combination ampicillin-sulbactam, decreased during the period from 2000 to 2007.

Citation: Könönen E, Wade W, Citron D. 2011. , and Other Anaerobic Gram-Negative Rods, p 858-880. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch51
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Tables

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TABLE 1

Recently classified or reclassified genera and species (from 2006 onwards) within non-spore-forming anaerobic gram-negative rods isolated from humans

Citation: Könönen E, Wade W, Citron D. 2011. , and Other Anaerobic Gram-Negative Rods, p 858-880. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch51
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TABLE 2a

Characteristics of genera representing gram-negative anaerobic rods isolated from clinical specimens

Symbols: +, positive; –, negative; v, variable reaction.

sensu stricto.

is asaccharolytic.

Susceptibility pattern of not reported.

is nonpigmented, is resistant to vancomycin, and does not produce butyric acid. produces succinic acid but neither butyric nor propionic acids.

Some strains can grow in a microaerobic atmosphere in subsequent cultures.

is nonmotile.

Pigmentation on blood agar varies from tan to black. In some cases, it may take up to 2 weeks. Rabbit laked blood agar enhances pigment production.

Special-potency antimicrobial identification disks. Symbols: R, resistant; S, susceptible; v, variable reaction. A zone size of ≥10 mm in diameter is considered susceptible.

Symbols: A, acetic acid; B, butyric acid; IV, isovaleric acid; P, propionic acid; PA, phenylacetic acid; S, succinic acid.

Citation: Könönen E, Wade W, Citron D. 2011. , and Other Anaerobic Gram-Negative Rods, p 858-880. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch51
Generic image for table
TABLE 2b

Characteristics of genera representing gram-negative anaerobic rods isolated from clinical specimens

Symbols: +, positive; –, negative; v, variable reaction.

sensu stricto.

is asaccharolytic.

Susceptibility pattern of not reported.

is nonpigmented, is resistant to vancomycin, and does not produce butyric acid. produces succinic acid but neither butyric nor propionic acids.

Some strains can grow in a microaerobic atmosphere in subsequent cultures.

is nonmotile.

Pigmentation on blood agar varies from tan to black. In some cases, it may take up to 2 weeks. Rabbit laked blood agar enhances pigment production.

Special-potency antimicrobial identification disks. Symbols: R, resistant; S, susceptible; v, variable reaction. A zone size of ≥10 mm in diameter is considered susceptible.

Symbols: A, acetic acid; B, butyric acid; IV, isovaleric acid; P, propionic acid; PA, phenylacetic acid; S, succinic acid.

Citation: Könönen E, Wade W, Citron D. 2011. , and Other Anaerobic Gram-Negative Rods, p 858-880. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch51
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Common genera of anaerobic gram-negative rods detected in human infections

Citation: Könönen E, Wade W, Citron D. 2011. , and Other Anaerobic Gram-Negative Rods, p 858-880. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch51
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TABLE 4

Identification scheme for the group, , and organisms isolated from humans

Data were compiled from references 8 to 10, 28, 76, 89, 96, 136, 161, 168, 171, 188 to 190, and 210. Symbols: +, positive; –, negative; v, variable; w, weak reaction; ND, no data.

α-Fuc, α-fucosidase.

Results are based on testing of a single strain.

Citation: Könönen E, Wade W, Citron D. 2011. , and Other Anaerobic Gram-Negative Rods, p 858-880. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch51
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TABLE 5

Some phenotypic characteristics of species of human or animal origin

Data were compiled from references 56, 89, 195, and 196. Symbols: +, positive; –, negative; v, variable; w, weak reaction.

α-Fuc, α-fucosidase; β-NAG, -acetyl-β-glucosaminidase.

Citation: Könönen E, Wade W, Citron D. 2011. , and Other Anaerobic Gram-Negative Rods, p 858-880. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch51
Generic image for table
TABLE 6

Biochemical identification scheme for species

Data were compiled from references to , and . Symbols: +, positive; –, negative; v, variable; w, weak reaction; ND, no data.

Ind, indole; Lip, lipase; α-Fuc, α-fucosidase; β-NAG, -acetyl-β-glucosaminidase.

Gel, gelatin; Esc, esculin.

Results shown are based on testing of a single strain.

Citation: Könönen E, Wade W, Citron D. 2011. , and Other Anaerobic Gram-Negative Rods, p 858-880. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch51
Generic image for table
TABLE 7

Some phenotypic characteristics of species

Data were compiled from references 31, 87, and 89. Symbols: +, positive; –, negative; v, variable reaction.

Citation: Könönen E, Wade W, Citron D. 2011. , and Other Anaerobic Gram-Negative Rods, p 858-880. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch51
Generic image for table
TABLE 8

Some phenotypic characteristics of species and

Data were compiled from references , and . Symbols: +, positive reaction; –, negative reaction; ND, no data.

α-Gal, α-galactosidase; β-Gal, b-galactosidase; α-Glu, α-glucosidase; β-Glu, β-glucosidase; β-NAG, -acetyl-β-glucosaminidase; PAL, alkaline phosphatase.

Citation: Könönen E, Wade W, Citron D. 2011. , and Other Anaerobic Gram-Negative Rods, p 858-880. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch51
Generic image for table
TABLE 9

Biochemical identification of motile gram-negative anaerobic rods

Data were compiled from references , and . Symbols: +, positive; –, negative; v, variable; w, weak reaction; ND, no data.

Cat, catalase; Ind, indole; α-Glu, α-glucosidase; α-Gal, α-galactosidase; β-Gal, β-galactosidase; α-Fuc, α-fucosidase; β-NAG, -acetyl-β-glucosaminidase.

Glu, glucose; Man, mannose; Sor, sorbitol; Tre, trehalose; Raf, raffinose; Suc, sucrose. “-” for and species indicates that the species is asaccharolytic.

Nonmotile.

Citation: Könönen E, Wade W, Citron D. 2011. , and Other Anaerobic Gram-Negative Rods, p 858-880. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch51
Generic image for table
TABLE 10

Antimicrobial activities of antimicrobial agents against common gram-negative anaerobes

Data were compiled from references , and . ND, no data.

Citation: Könönen E, Wade W, Citron D. 2011. , and Other Anaerobic Gram-Negative Rods, p 858-880. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch51