Chapter 8 : Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Malignancies

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Immunodeficiency associated with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been associated with an increased risk of malignancy since the dawn of the AIDS epidemic. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and invasive cervical cancer were subsequently identified to be increased among HIV-infected individuals and were classified along with Kaposi sarcoma (KS) as AIDS-defining illnesses, though numerous additional malignancies have since been found to be enriched among patients living with HIV/AIDS but are not considered AIDS-defining illnesses. The association of NHL with HIV infection was evident early in the AIDS epidemic, when an unusually high number of lymphomas appeared among young men in cancer registries in California. The majority of patients with AIDS-related lymphoma (ARL) will present with a majority of these risk factors present, placing most in the high-risk category. Multicentric Castleman disease (MCD) is uniformly associated with HHV-8, and though pathologically benign, may occur concurrently with or progress to lymphoma or independently demonstrate rapid progression and result in death. Anogenital squamous cell neoplasms are the third most common subtype of HIV-associated malignancies and are uniformly associated with oncogenic serotypes of HPV, most commonly HPV-16, -18, and -19. A number of other malignancies, including cancers of the lung, liver, prostate, testes, and skin, among others, occur with increased frequency in HIV-positive patients, and this trend continues since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).

Citation: Connell N, Abramson J. 2010. Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Malignancies, p 169-183. In Scheld W, Grayson M, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 9. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816803.ch8
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