Chapter 16 : Emerging Infectious Diseases in Mobile Populations

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A wide variety of social, economic, political, and biological determinants are responsible for the sudden appearance and rapid spread of infectious diseases. There are two potential ways for this event to take place: mobile populations may spread infectious pathogens during their geographic relocation; conversely, during migration or at the time of resettlement, immunologically susceptible individuals are exposed to new pathogens, leading to severe clinical manifestations and death. There is evidence that some microbes have shifted their epidemiologic niches via mobile populations, leading to the globalization of previously geographically restricted infectious diseases and fueling the spread of antimicrobial drug-resistant microbial populations. Health care practitioners, and particularly infectious disease clinicians, should advocate for culturally sensitive approaches to clarify to the public the role of migration in the spread of infectious diseases. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a quintessential emerging infectious disease affecting travelers. Like SARS, the mosquito-borne alphavirus chikungunya virus (CHIKV) spreads rapidly via travelers who disseminated this disabling disease across the globe. Infection with and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) highlight some of the issues around such diseases: the epidemiology of imported diseases, lack of access to care among foreign-born persons, and the potential for direct and transfusion-related transmission years after migration. Travelers classified as visiting friends and relatives (VFRs) include those who have migrated to areas where geographically restricted diseases are not endemic and return to a country of endemicity to visit their families and friends.

Citation: Hochberg N, Franco-Paredes C. 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases in Mobile Populations, p 305-325. In Scheld W, Grayson M, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 9. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816803.ch16
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Table 1.

Historical milestones and epidemiologic transitions leading to the transmission of particular

Citation: Hochberg N, Franco-Paredes C. 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases in Mobile Populations, p 305-325. In Scheld W, Grayson M, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 9. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816803.ch16
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Table 2.

Prototypical diseases and selected factors affecting disease spread in particular mobile populations

Citation: Hochberg N, Franco-Paredes C. 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases in Mobile Populations, p 305-325. In Scheld W, Grayson M, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 9. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816803.ch16

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