Chapter 1 : Systematics of the Genus and Its Type Species

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Systematics of the Genus and Its Type Species , Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816858/9781555815011_Chap01-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816858/9781555815011_Chap01-2.gif


This chapter focuses on the genetic diversity of species as assessed by sequence analysis of DNA. In 1935, a comprehensive study was conducted with numerous yeasts, which included 22 strains of pathogenic and nonpathogenic isolated from humans. Prior to the discovery of the genus , the teleomorph of and , yeast taxonomists had speculated that belonged to the Basidiomycota for the following reasons. First, it is the only basidiomycetous genus that contains human pathogens that produce life-threatening infection of the central nervous system in immunocompromised as well as immunocompetent patients. Second, is the only genus in the phylum Basidiomycota that produces long chains of basidiospores on the apex of the holobasidia by repetitive basipetal budding. Third, the genus contains two groups of species, one with and one without ontogenetic yeast stages. Due to taxonomic confusion about the status of the type species of the genus , as well as the widely recognized importance of and as human pathogens, the genus was neotypified by . This revision implies that if one uses a modern phylogenetic genus concept, only those anamorphic species that belong to the clade should be classified as species, e.g., , , and . Among the Tremellales, species classified as occur intermingled with species of diverse genera such as , , , , , , , and .

Citation: Kwon-Chung K, Boekhout T, Wickes B, Fell J. 2011. Systematics of the Genus and Its Type Species , p 3-15. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch1
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of FIGURE 1

Otto Busse (1867–1922).

Citation: Kwon-Chung K, Boekhout T, Wickes B, Fell J. 2011. Systematics of the Genus and Its Type Species , p 3-15. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2

Francesco Sanfelice (1861–1945).

Citation: Kwon-Chung K, Boekhout T, Wickes B, Fell J. 2011. Systematics of the Genus and Its Type Species , p 3-15. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 3

Ferdinand Curtis (1858–1937).

Citation: Kwon-Chung K, Boekhout T, Wickes B, Fell J. 2011. Systematics of the Genus and Its Type Species , p 3-15. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 4

Basidial morphology of (A) , (B) , and (C) . (A and B courtesy of R. A. Samson and Antonie van Leeuwenhoek.) Bar = 5 μm.

Citation: Kwon-Chung K, Boekhout T, Wickes B, Fell J. 2011. Systematics of the Genus and Its Type Species , p 3-15. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 5

Phylogenetic tree of representative members of the Tremellomycetes to demonstrate the diversity of the genus within the four orders of the class. Neighbor joining analysis of the D1/D2 region of the LSU rDNA. Numbers at the branch nodes represent bootstrap percentages (>50%) from 1,000 full heuristic replicates (PAUP 4.0b10). Diamond symbol indicates species that have been isolated from clinical sources. The genus is shaded for emphasis.

Citation: Kwon-Chung K, Boekhout T, Wickes B, Fell J. 2011. Systematics of the Genus and Its Type Species , p 3-15. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 6

Yeast morphology of diverse non species of that may occur in clinical samples. Cells were grown in yeast nitrogen base with 2% glucose for 48 h at 25°C. (A) CBS 139; (B) CBS 140; (C) CBS 142; (D) CBS 155; (E) CBS 570; (F) CBS 571; (G) CBS 943; (H) CBS 2206; (I) CBS 2288; (J) CBS 6955. Bar = 5 μm.

Citation: Kwon-Chung K, Boekhout T, Wickes B, Fell J. 2011. Systematics of the Genus and Its Type Species , p 3-15. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. [Reference deleted.]
2. Aulakh, H. S.,, S. E. Straus, and K., Kwon-Chung. J. 1981. Genetic relatedness of Filobasidiella neoformans ( Cryptococcus neoformans) and Filobasidiella bacillispora ( Cryptococcus bacillisporus). Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 31: 97103.
3. Balajee, S. A.,, A.M. Borman,, M. E. Brandt,, J. Cano,, M. Cuenca-Estrella,, E. Dannaoui,, J. Guarro,, G. Haase,, C. C. Kibbler,, W. Meyer,, K. O’Donnell,, C. A. Petti,, J. L. Rodriguez-Tudela,, D. Sutton,, A. Velegraki,, and B. L. Wickes. 2008. Sequence based identification of Aspergillus, Fusarium and Mucorales in the clinical mycology laboratory: where are we and where should we go from here? J. Clin. Microbiol. doi:10.1128/JCM. 0168508.
4. Bandoni, R. J. 1995. Dimorphic heterobasidiomycetes: taxonomy and parasitism. Stud. Mycol. 38: 1327.
5. Barreto de Oliviera, M. T.,, T. Boekhout, B. Theelen,, F. Hagen,, F. A. Baroni,, M. S. Lazera,, K. B. Lengler,, J. Heitman,, I. N. Revera,, and C. R. Paula. 2004. Cryptococcus neoformans shows a remarkable genotypic diversity in Brazil. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42: 13561359.
6. Bartlett, K. H., S. E. Kidd, and, J. W. Kronstad. 2008. The emergence of Cryptococcus gattii in British Columbia and the Pacific Northwest. Curr. Infect. Dis. Rep. 10: 5865.
7. Benham, R. W. 1935. Cryptococci: their identification by morphology and serology. J. Infect. Dis. 57: 255274.
8. Benham, R. W. 1950. Cryptococcosis and blastomycosis. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 50: 12991314.
9. Biswas, S. K.,, L. Wang,, K. Yokoyama,, and K. Nishimura. 2003. Molecular analysis of Cryptococcus neoformans mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41: 55725576.
10. Boekhout, T. 2005. Biodiversity: gut feeling for yeasts. Nature 434: 449451.
11. Boekhout, T.,, R. J Bandoni,, J. W. Fell, and, K. J. Kwon-Chung. 1998. Discussion of teleomorphic and anamorphic genera of heterobasidiomycetous yeasts, p. 609625. In C. P. Kurtzman, and J. W. Fell (ed.), The Yeasts: a Taxonomic Study, 4th ed. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
12. Boekhout, T.,, A. Fonseca,, J. P. Sampaio,, R. J. Bandoni,, J. W. Fell,, and K. J. Kwon-Chung. 2010. Discussion of teleomorphic and anamorphic basidiomycetous yeasts, p. 13391372. In C. P. Kurtzman,, J. W. Fell,, and T. Boekhout (ed.), The Yeasts: a Taxonomic Study, 5th ed. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
13. Boekhout, T.,, B. Theelen,, M. R. Diaz,, J. W. Fell,, W. C. Hop,, E. C. Abeln,, F. Dromer,, and W. Meyer. 2001. Hybrid genotypes in the pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans. Microbiology 147: 891907.
14. Bovers, M., F. Hagen, and, T. Boekhout. 2008. Diversity of the Cryptococcus neoformans–Cryptococcus gattii species complex. Rev. Iberoam. Micol. 25:S 412.
15. Bovers, M.,, F. Hagen,, E.E. Kuramae,, and T. Boekhout. 2008. Six monophyletic lineages identified within Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii by multilocus sequence typing. Fungal Genet. Biol. 45: 400421.
16. Bovers, M.,, F. Hagen,, E. E. Kuramae,, M. R. Diaz,, L. Spanjaard,, F. Dromer,, H. L. Hoogveld,, and T. Boekhout. 2006. Unique hybrids between the fungal pathogens Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. FEMS Yeast Res. 6: 599607.
17. Bovers, M.,, F. Hagen,, E. E. Kuramae,, H. L. Hoogveld,, F. Dromer,, G. St-Germain,, and T. Boekhout. 2008. AIDS patient death caused by novel Cryptococcus neoformans x C. gattii hybrid. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 14: 11051108.
18. Burnik, C.,, N.D. Altintas,, G. Ozkaya,, T. Serter,, Z. T. Selcuk,, P. Firat,, S. Arikan,, M. Cuenca-Estrella,, and A. Topeli. 2007. Acute respiratory distress syndrome due to Cryptococcus albidus pneumonia: case report and review of the literature. Med. Mycol. 45: 469473.
19. Buschke, A. 1895. Über eine durch coccidien hervorgerufene Krankheit des Menschen. Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr. 21: 14.
20. Busse, O. 1894. Über parasitäre Zelleinschlüsse und ihre Züchtung. Zentralbl. Bakteriol. 16: 175180.
21. Busse, O. 1895. Über Saccharomycosis hominis. Virchows Arch. A. 140: 2346.
22. Butinar, L., I. Spencer-Martins, and, N. Gunde-Cimerman. 2007. Yeasts in high Arctic glaciers: the discovery of a new habitat for eukaryotic microorganisms. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 91: 277289.
23. Butler, M. I., and, R. T. Poulter. 2005. The PRP8 inteins are a source of phylogenetic and epidemiological information. Fungal Genet. Biol. 42: 452463.
24. Byrnes, E. J.,, III, R. J. Bildfell,, P. L. Dearing,, B. A. Valentine,, and J. Heitman. 2009. Cryptococcus gattii with bimorphic colony types in a dog in western Oregon: additional evidence for expansion of the Vancouver Island outbreak. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 21: 133136.
25. Cassidy, J. R.,, D. Moor,, B. C. Lu, and, P. J. Pukkila. 1984. Unusual organization and lack of recombination in the ribosomal RNA genes of Coprinus cinereus. Curr. Genet. 8: 607613.
26. Chaturvedi, V.,, J. Fan,, B. Stein,, M. J. Behr,, W. A. Samsonoff,, B. L. Wickes,, and S. Chaturvedi. 2002. Molecular genetic analyses of mating pheromones reveal intervariety mating or hybridization in Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect. Immun. 70: 52255235.
27. Curtis, F. 1896. Contribution a l’etude de la saccharomycose humaine. Ann. Inst. Pasteur 10: 449468.
28. de Castro, L. E.,, O.A. Sarraf,, J. M. Lally,, H. P. Sandoval,, K. D. Solomon,, and D. T. Vroman. 2005. Cryptococcus albidus keratitis after corneal transplantation. Cornea 24: 882883.
29. de Garcia, V.,, S. Brizzio,, D. Libkind, P. Buzzini,, and M. van Broock. 2007. Biodiversity of coldadapted yeasts from glacial meltwater rivers in Patagonia, Argentina. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 59: 331341.
30. Diaz, M. R.,, T. Boekhout,, T. Kiesling, and, J. W. Fell. 2005. Comparative analysis of the intergenic spacer regions and population structure of the species complex of the pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans. FEMS Yeast Res. 12: 11291140.
31. Drancourt, M.,, P. Berger,, C. Terrada,, B. Bodaghi,, J. Conrath,, D. Raoult,, and P. LeHoang. 2008. High prevalence of fastidious bacteria in 1520 cases of uveitis of unknown etiology. Medicine (Baltimore) 87: 167176.
32. Dufait, R., R. Velho, and, C. De Vroey. 1987. Rapid identification of the two varieties of Cryptococcus neoformans by D proline assimilation. Mykosen 30:483.
33. Dutilh, B. E.,, V. van Noort,, R. T. van der Heijden,, T. Boekhout, B. Snel,, and M. A. Huynen. 2007. Assessment of phylogenomic and orthology approaches for phylogenetic inference. Bioinformatics 23: 815824.
34. Ellis, M., M. Richardson, and, B. de Pauw. 2000. Epidemiology. Hosp. Med. 61: 605609.
35. Emmons, C. W. 1951. Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans from soil. J. Bacteriol. 62: 685690.
36. Evans, E. E. 1949. An immunologic comparison of twelve strains of Cryptococcus neoformans ( Torula histolitica). Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 71: 644646.
37. Fell, J. W.,, T. Boekhout,, A. Fonseca,, G. Scorzetti,, and A. Statzell-Tallman. 2000. Biodiversity and systematics of basidiopmycetous yeasts as determined by large subunit rDNA D1/D2/domain sequence analysis. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 50: 13521371.
38. Fell, J. W., C. P. Kurtzman, and, K. J. Kwon-Chung. 1989. Proposal to conserve Cryptococcus. Taxon 38: 151152.
39. Findley, K.,, M. Rodriguez-Carres,, B. Metin,, J. Kroiss,, A. Fonseca,, R. Vilgalys,, and J. Heitman. 2009. Phylogeny and phenotypic characterization of pathogenic Cryptococcus species and closely related saprobic taxa in the Tremellales. Eukaryot Cell. 8: 353361.
40. Fitzpatrick, D. A.,, M. E. Logue,, J.E. Stajich,, and G. Butler. 2006. A fungal phylogeny based on 42 complete genomes derived from supertree and combined gene analysis. BMC Evol. Biol. 6: 99.
41. Fonseca, A.,, J. W. Fell,, and T. Boekhout. 2010. Cryptococcus Vuillemin, p. 16651740. In C. P. Kurtzman,, J. W. Fell,, and T. Boekhout (ed.), The Yeasts: a Taxonomic Study, 5th ed. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
42. Fonseca, A., G. Scorzetti, and, J. W. Fell. 2000. Diversity in the yeast Cryptococcus albidus and related species as revealed by ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. Can. J. Microbiol. 46: 727.
43. Franzot, S. P.,, I.F. Salkin, and, A. Casadevall. 1999. Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii: separate varietal status for Cryptococcus neoformans serotype A isolates. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 838840.
44. Fraser, J. A.,, S. S. Giles,, E. C. Wenink,, S. G. Geunes-Boyer,, J. R. Wright,, S. Diezmann,, A. Allen,, J. E. Stajich,, F. S. Dietrich,, J. R. Perfect,, and J. Heitman. 2005. Samesex mating and the origin of the Vancouver Island Cryptococcus gattii outbreak. Nature 437: 13601364.
45. Freeman, W. J. 1931. Torula infection of the central nervous system. J. Psychol. Neurol. 43:236.
46. Frothingham, L. A. 1902. A tumorlike lesion in the lung of a horse caused by a blastomyces (torula). J. Med Res. 3: 3143.
47. Gatti, E., and, R. Eeckels. 1970. An atypical strain of Cryptococcus neoformans (San Felice) Vuillemin 1984. Part 1. Description of the disease and of the strain. Ann. Soc. Belg. Med. Trop. 50: 689694.
48. Ginns, J., and, D. W. Malloch. 2003. Filobasidiella depauperata (Tremellales): Haustorial branches and parasitism of Verticillium lecanii. Mycol. Progr. 2: 137140.
49. Greuter, W.,, F. R. Barrie,, H. M. Burdet,, W. G. Chaloner,, V. Demoulin,, D. L. Hawksworth,, P. M. Jorgensen,, D. H. Nicolson,, P. C. Silva,, P. Trehane,, and J. McNeil (ed). 1994. International Code of Botanical Nomenclature. Koeltz Scientific Books, Konigstein, Germany.
50. Gueho, E.,, L. Improvisi,, R. Christen, and, G. S. de Hoog. 1993. Phylogenetic relationships of Cryptococcus neoformans and some related basidiomycetous yeasts determined from partial large subunit rRNA sequences. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 63: 175189.
51. Hibbett, D. S.,, M. Binder,, J. F. Bischoff,, M. Blackwell,, P. F. Cannon,, O. E. Eriksson,, S. Huhndorf,, T. James,, P. M. Kirk,, R. Lucking,, H. T. Lumbsch,, F. Lutzoni,, P. B. Matheny,, D. J. McLaughlin,, M. J. Powell,, S. Redhead,, C. L. Schoch,, J. W. Spatafora,, J. A. Stalpers,, R. Vilgalys,, M. C. Aime,, A. Aptroot,, R. Bauer,, D. Begerow,, G. L. Benny,, L. A. Castlebury,, P. W. Crous,, Y. C. Dai,, W. Gams,, D. M. Geiser,, G. W. Griffith,, C. Gueidan,, D. L. Hawksworth,, G. Hestmark,, K. Hosaka,, R. A. Humber,, K. D. Hyde,, J. E. Ironside,, U. Koljalg,, C. P. Kurtzman,, K. H. Larsson,, R. Lichtwardt,, J. Longcore,, J. Miadlikowska,, A. Miller,, J. M. Moncalvo,, S. Mozley-Standridge,, F. Oberwinkler,, E. Parmasto,, V. Reeb,, J. D. Rogers,, C. Roux,, L. Ryvarden,, J. P. Sampaio,, A. Schussler,, J. Sugiyama,, R. G. Thorn,, L. Tibell,, W. A. Untereiner,, C. Walker,, Z. Wang,, A. Weir,, M. Weiss,, M. M. White,, K. Winka,, Y. J. Yao,, and N. Zhang. 2007. A higher-level phylogenetic classification of the Fungi. Mycol. Res. 111: 509547.
52. Hoang, J. K., and, J. Burruss. 2007. Localized cutaneous Cryptococcus albidus infection in a 14-year-old boy on etanercept therapy. Pediatr. Dermatol. 24: 285288.
53. Hu, G.,, I. Liu,, A. Sham,, J. E. Stajich,, F.S. Dietrich,, and J. W. Kronstad. 2008. Comparative hybridization reveals extensive genome variation in the AIDS-associated pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. Genome Biol. 9: R41.
54. Ikeda, R.,, T. Sugita,, E.S. Jacobson,, and T. Shinoda. 2002. Laccase and melanization in clinically important Cryptococcus species other than Cryptococcus neoformans. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40: 12141218.
55. Ikeda, R., T. Sugita, and, T. Shinoda. 2002. Serologic relationships of Cryptococcus spp.: distribution of antigenic factors in Cryptococcus and intraspecies diversity. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 40214025.
56. James, T. Y.,, F. Kauff,, C. L. Schoch,, P. B. Matheny,, V. Hofstetter,, C. J. Cox,, G. Celio,, C. Gueidan,, E. Fraker,, J. Miadlikowska,, H. T. Lumbsch,, A. Rauhut,, V. Reeb,, A. E. Arnold,, A. Amtoft,, J. E. Stajich,, K. Hosalka,, G. H. Sung,, D. Johnson,, B. O’Rourke,, M. Crockett,, M. Binder,, J. M. Curtis,, J. C. Slot,, Z. Wang,, A. W. Wilson,, A. Schüßler,, J. E. Longcore,, K. O’Donnell,, S. Mozley-Standridge,, D. Porter,, P. M. Letcher,, M. J. Powell,, J. W. Taylor,, M. M. White,, G. W. Griffith,, D. R. Davies,, R. A. Humber,, J. B. Morton,, J. Sugiyama,, A. Y. Rossman,, J. D. Rogers,, D. H. Pfister,, D. Hewitt,, K. Hansen,, S. Hambleton,, R. A. Shoemaker,, J. Kohlmeyer,, B. Volkmann-Kohlmeyer,, R. A. Spotts,, M. Serdani,, P. W. Crous,, K. W. Hughes,, K. Matsuura,, E. Langer,, G. Langer,, W. A. Untereiner,, R. Lücking,, B. Büdel,, D. M. Geiser,, A. Aptroot,, P. Diederich,, I. Schmitt,, M. Schultz,, R. Yahr,, D. S. Hibbett,, F. Lutzoni,, D. J. McLaughlin,, J. W. Spatafora,, and R. Vilgalys. 2006. Reconstructing the early evolution of fungi using a sixgene phylogeny. Nature 443: 758761.
57. Julich, W. 1983. Parasitic heterobasidiomycetes on other fungi. Int. J. Mycol. Lichen 1: 189203.
58. Katsu, M.,, S. Kidd,, A. Ando,, M. L. Moretti-Branchini,, Y. Mikami,, K. Nishimura,, and W. Meyer. 2004. The internal transcribed spacers and 5.8S rRNA gene show extensive diversity among isolates of the Cryptococcus neoformans species complex. FEMS Yeast Res. 4: 377388.
59. Kavanaugh, L. A., J. A. Fraser, and, F. S. Dietrich. 2006. Recent evolution of the human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans by intervarietal transfer of a 14-gene fragment. Mol. Biol. Evol. 23: 18791890.
60. Khawcharoenporn, T., A. Apisarnthanarak, and, L. M. Mundy. 2007. Non- neoformans cryptococcal infections: a systematic review. Infection 35: 5158.
61. Kidd, S. E.,, H. Guo, K. H. Bartlett,, J. Xu,, and J. W. Kronstad. 2005. Comparative gene genealogies indicate that two clonal lineages of Cryptococcus gattii in British Columbia resemble strains from other geographical areas. Eukaryot Cell 4: 16291638.
62. Kidd, S. E.,, F. Hagen,, R. L. Tscharke,, M. Huynh,, K. H. Bartlett,, M. Fyfe,, L. Macdougall,, T. Boekhout,, K. J. Kwon-Chung,, and W. Meyer. 2004. A rare genotype of Cryptococcus gattii caused the cryptococcosis outbreak on Vancouver Island (British Columbia, Canada). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101: 1725817263.
63. Kuramae, E. E.,, V. Robert,, B. Snel,, M. Weiss,, and T. Boekhout. 2006. Phylogenomics reveal a robust fungal tree of life. FEMS Yeast Res. 6: 12131220.
64. Kützing, F. 1833. Systematische Zusammenstellung der neiden Algengattungen und Arten. Linneae 8: 365.
65. Kwon-Chung, K. J. 2010. Filobasidiella Kwon-Chung, p. 14431455. In C. P. Kurtzman,, J. W. Fell,, and T. Boekhout (ed.), The Yeasts: a Taxonomic Study, 5th ed. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
66. Kwon-Chung, K. J. 2010. Filobasidium Olive, p. 14571465. In C. P. Kurtzman,, J. W. Fell,, and T. Boekhout (ed.), The Yeasts: a Taxonomic Study, 5th ed. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
67. Kwon-Chung, K. J. 1976. Morphogenesis of Filobasidiella neoformans, the sexual state of Cryptococcus neoformans. Mycologia 68: 821833.
68. Kwon-Chung, K. J. 1975. A new genus, Filobasidiella, the perfect state of Cryptococcus neoformans. Mycologia 67: 11971200.
69. Kwon-Chung, K. J. 1976. A new species of Filobasidiella, the sexual state of Cryptococcus neoformans B and C serotypes. Mycologia 68: 943946.
70. Kwon-Chung, K. J. 1977. Perfect state of Cryptococcus uniguttulatus. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 27: 293299.
71. Kwon-Chung, K. J., and, J. E. Bennett. 1984. Epidemiologic differences between the two varieties of Cryptococcus neoformans. Am. J. Epidemiol. 120: 123130.
72. Kwon-Chung, K. J., J. E. Bennett, and, T. S. Theodore. 1978. Cryptococcus bacillisporus sp. nov.: serotype B-C of Cryptococcus neoformans. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 28: 616620.
73. Kwon-Chung, K. J.,, T. Boekhout,, J.W. Fell,, and M. Diaz. 2002. Proposal to conserve the name Cryptococcus gattii against C. hondurianus and C. bacillisporus ( Basidiomycota, Hymenomycetes, Tremellomycetidae). Taxon 51: 804806.
74. Kwon-Chung, K. J., and, Y. C. Chang. 1994. Gene arrangement and sequence of the 5S rRNA in Filobasidiella neoformans ( Cryptococcus neoformans) as a phylogenetic indicator. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 44: 209213.
75. Kwon-Chung, K. J.,, Y. C. Chang,, R. Bauer,, E. C. Swann,, J. W. Taylor,, and R. Goel. 1995. The characteristics that differentiate Filobasidiella depauperata from Filobasidiella neoformans. Stud. Mycol. 38: 6779.
76. Kwon-Chung, K. J., I. Polacheck, and, J. E. Bennett. 1982. Improved diagnostic medium for separation of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans (serotypes A and D) and Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii (serotypes B and C). J. Clin. Microbiol. 15: 535537.
77. Kwon-Chung, K. J., and, A. Varma. 2006. Do major species concepts support one, two or more species within Cryptococcus neoformans? FEMS Yeast Res. 6: 574587.
78. Kwon-Chung, K. J.,, B.L. Wickes,, J. L. Booth,, H. S. Vishniac,, and J. E. Bennett. 1987. Urease inhibition by EDTA in the two varieties of Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect. Immun. 55: 17511754.
79. Kwon-Chung, K. J., and, J. E. Bennett. 1992. Medical Mycology, p. 397446. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, PA.
80. Latouche, G. N.,, M. Huynh,, T.C. Sorrell,, and W. Meyer. 2003. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the phospholipase B (PLB1) gene for subtyping of Cryptococcus neoformans isolates. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69: 20802086.
81. Litvintseva, A. P.,, R. Thakur,, L. B. Reller, and, T. G. Mitchell. 2005. Prevalence of clinical isolates of Cryptococcus gattii serotype C among patients with AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. J. Infect. Dis. 192: 888892.
82. Litvintseva, A. P.,, R. Thakur,, R. Vilgalys, and, T. G. Mitchell. 2006. Multilocus sequence typing reveals three genetic subpopulations of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii (serotype A), including a unique population in Botswana. Genetics 172: 22232238.
83. Lodder, J., and, N. J. W. Kreger-Van Rij. 1952. The Yeasts: a Taxonomic Study. North Holland, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
84. London, R.,, B.S. Orozco, and, E. Mylonakis. 2006. The pursuit of cryptococcal pathogenesis: heterologous hosts and the study of cryptococcal hostpathogen interactions. FEMS Yeast Res. 6: 567573.
85. Manzano-Gayosso, P.,, F. Hernandez-Hernandez,, L. J. Mendez-Tovar,, Y. Palacios-Morales,, E. Cordova-Martinez,, E. Bazan-Mora,, and R. Lopez-Martinez. 2008. Onychomycosis incidence in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Mycopathologia 166: 4145.
86. Marcet-Houben, M., and, T. Gabaldon. 2009. The tree versus the forest: the fungal tree of life and the topological diversity within the yeast phylome. PLoS ONE 4:e4357.
87. Meyer, W.,, A. Castaneda,, S. Jackson, M. Huynh,, and E. Castaneda. 2003. Molecular typing of IberoAmerican Cryptococcus neoformans isolates. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9: 189195.
88. Miller, W. G.,, A.A. Padhye,, W. van Bonn,, E. Jensen,, M. E. Brandt,, and S. H. Ridgway. 2002. Cryptococcosis in a bottlenose dolphin ( Tursiops truncatus) caused by Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40: 721724.
89. Min, K. H., and, K. J. Kwon-Chung. 1986. The biochemical basis for the distinction between the two Cryptococcus neoformans varieties with CGB medium. Z entralbl. Bakteriol. Mikrobiol. Hyg. A 261: 471480.
90. Narayan, S.,, K. Batta,, P. Colloby, and, C. Y. Tan. 2000. Cutaneous cryptococcus infection due to C. albidus associated with Sezary syndrome. Br. J. Dermatol. 143: 632634.
91. Okoli, I.,, C. A. Oyeka,, K. J. Kwon-Chung,, B. Theelen,, V. Robert,, J. Z. Groenewald,, D. C. McFadden,, A. Casadevall,, and T. Boekhout. 2007. Cryptotrichosporon anacardii gen. nov., sp. nov., a new trichosporonoid capsulate basidiomycetous yeast from Nigeria that is able to form melanin on niger seed agar. FEMS Yeast Res. 7: 339350.
92. Olive, L. S. 1968. An unusual heterobasidiomycete with Tilletia-like basidia. J. Elisha Mitchell Sc. Soc. 84: 261266.
93. Perfect, J. R., and, A. Casadevall. 2002. Cryptococcosis. Infect. Dis. Clin. North Am. 16: 837874.
94. Petter, R.,, B. S Kang,, T. Boekhout,, B. J. Davis, and, K. J. Kwon-Chung. 2001. A survey of heterobasidiomycetous yeasts for the presence of the genes homologous to virulence factors of Filobasidiella neoformans, CNLAC1 and CAP59. Microbiology 147: 20292036.
95. Pfaller, M. A.,, D. J. Diekema,, D. L. Gibbs,, V. A. Newell,, H. Bijie,, D. Dzierzanowska,, N. N. Klimko,, V. Letscher-Bru,, M. Lisalova,, K. Muehlethaler,, C. Rennison,, and M. Zaidi. 2009. Results from the ARTEMIS DISK Global Antifungal Surveillance Study, 1997 to 2007: 10.5-year analysis of susceptibilities of noncandidal yeast species to fluconazole and voriconazole determined by CLSI standardized disk diffusion testing. J. Clin. Microbiol. 47: 117123.
96. Phaff, H. J., and, J. W. Fell. 1971. Cryptococcus Kützing emend. Phaff et Spencer, p. 10891145. In L. Lodder (ed.), The Yeasts: a Taxonomic Study, 2nd ed. Elsevier-North Holland, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
97. Phaff, H. J., and, J. F. T. Spencer. 1969. Improved parameters in the separation of species in the genera Rhodotorula and Cryptococcus, p. 5967. In Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Yeasts, Bratislava, 1966.
98. Ramchandren, R., and, D. E. Gladstone. 2004. Cryptococcus albidus infection in a patient undergoing autologous progenitor cell transplant. Transplantation 77:956.
99. Rimek, D.,, G. Haase,, A. Luck, J. Casper,, and A. Podbielski. 2004. First report of a case of meningitis caused by Cryptococcus adeliensis in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42: 481483.
100. Roberts, P. 1997. New Heterobasidiomycetes from Great Britain. Mycotaxon 63: 195216.
101. Rodrigues de Miranda, L. 1984. Cryptococcus Kützing emend. Phaff et Spencer, p. 845872. In N. J. W. Kregervan Rij (ed.), The Yeasts: a Taxonomic Study, 3rd ed. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
102. Rodrigues de Miranda, L., and W. H. Batenburnvan der Vegte. 1981. Cryptococcus mollis Kützing, type species of the genus Cryptococcus: investigation of the type material. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 47: 6572.
103. Ruma, P.,, S. C Chen,, T. C. Sorrell, and, A. G. Brownlee. 1996. Characterization of Cryptococcus neoformans by random DNA amplification. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 23: 312316.
104. Sanfelice, F. 1894. Contributo alla morfologia e biologia dei blastomiceti che si sviluppano nei succhidi alcuni frutti. Ann. Igien 4: 463495.
105. Sanfelice, F. 1895 Über einen neuen Pathogen Blastomyceten welcher innerhalb der Gewebe unter Bildung, Kalkartig aussehender massendegeneriert. Zentralbl. Bakteriol. Parasit. Infekt. Hyg. 18: 521526.
106. Scorzetti, G.,, J. W. Fell,, A. Fonseca,, and A. Statzell-Tallman. 2002. Systematics of basidiomycetous yeasts: a comparison of large subunit D1/D2 and internal transcribed spacer rDNA regions. FEMS Yeast Res. 2: 495517.
107. Shadomy, H. J. 1970. Clamp connections in two strains of Cryptococcus neoformans. Spectrum Monogr. Ser. 1: 6772.
108. Sivakumaran, S., P. Bridge, and, P. Roberts. 2002. Genetic relatedness among Filobasidiella species. Mycopathologia 156: 157162.
109. Statzell-Tallman, A., C. Belloch, and, J. W. Fell. 2008. Kwoniella mangroviensis gen. nov., sp.nov. (Tremellales, Basidiomycota), a teleomorphic yeast from mangrove habitats in the Florida Everglades and Bahamas. FEMS Yeast Res. 8: 103113.
110. Steenbergen, J. N.,, J. D. Nosanchuk,, S. D. Malliaris,, and A. Casadevall. 2003. Cryptococcus neoformans virulence is enhanced after growth in the genetically malleable host Dictyostelium discoideum. Infect. Immun. 71: 48624872.
111. Steenbergen, J. N.,, H.A. Shuman, and, A. Casadevall. 2001. Cryptococcus neoformans interactions with amoebae suggest an explanation for its virulence and intracellular pathogenic strategy in macrophages. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98: 1524515250.
112. Stoddard, J. L., and, E. C. Cutler. 1916. Torula infection in man. Rockefeller Inst. Med. Res. Monogr. 6: 198.
113. Storck, R., C. J. Alexopoulos, and, H. J. Phaff. 1969. Nucleotide composition of deoxyribonucleic acid of some species of Cryptococcus, Rhodotorula and Sporobolomyces. J. Bacteriol. 98: 10691072.
114. Sugita, T.,, M. Takashima,, R. Ikeda,, T. Nakase,, and T. Shinoda. 2001. Intraspecies diversity of Cryptococcus albidus isolated from humans as revealed by sequences of the internal transcribed spacer regions. Microbiol. Immunol. 45: 291297.
115. Takashima, M.,, T. Sugita,, T. Shinoda,, and T. Nakase. 2003. Three new combinations from the Cryptococcus laurentii complex: Cryptococcus aureus, Cryptococcus carnescens and Cryptococcus peneaus. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 53: 11871194.
116. Tintelnot, K., and, H. Losert. 2005. Isolation of Cryptococcus adeliensis from clinical samples and the environment in Germany. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:1007.
117. Todd, R. L., and, W. W. Herrmann. 1936. The life cycle of the organism causing yeast meningitis. J. Bacteriol. 32: 8997.
118. Vanbreuseghem, R., and, M. Takashio. 1970. An atypical strain of Cryptococcus neoformans (Sanfelice) Vuillemin, 1894, II. Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii var.nov. Ann. Soc. Belg. Med. Trop. 50: 695702.
119. Van der Walt, J. P., D. B. Scott, and, W. C. van der Klift. 1972. Six new Candida species from South African insect sources. Mycopathol. Mycol. Appl. 47: 221236.
120. Velazquez, E.,, M. del Villar,, I. Grondona, E. Monte,, and T. Gonzalez-Villa. 2006. Ultrastructural and chemotaxonomic analysis of a xylanolytic strain of Cryptococcus adeliensis isolated from sheep droppings in Spain. Arch. Microbiol. 186: 195202.
121. Verse, M. 1914. Über einen Full von general isofierter Blastomycose beim Menschen. Dtsch. Pathol. Ges. 17: 275278.
122. Vilgalys, R., and, D. Gonzales. 1990. Organization of ribosomal DNA in the basidiomycete Thanatephorus praticola. Curr. Genet. 18: 277280.
123. Viviani, M. A.,, M. Cogliati,, M. C. Esposto,, K. Lemmer,, K. Tintelnot,, M. F. Colom Valiente,, D. Swinne,, A. Velegraki,, and R. Velho. 2006. Molecular analysis of 311 Cryptococcus neoformans isolates from a 30-month ECMM survey of cryptococcosis in Europe. FEMS Yeast Res. 6: 614619.
124. Vogel, R. A. 1966. The indirect fluorescent antibody test for the detection of antibody in human cryptococcal disease. J. Infect. Dis. 116: 573580.
125. von Arx, J. A., and, A. C. M. Weijman. 1979. Conidiation and carbohydrate composition in some Candida and Torulopsis species. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 45: 547555.
126. Vuillemin, J. P. 1901. Les blastomycetes pathogenes. Rev. Gen. Sci. 12: 732751.
127. Wang, Q. M., and, F. Y. Bai. 2008. Molecular phylogeny of basidiomycetous yeasts in the Cryptococcus luteolus lineage (Tremellales) based on nuclear rRNA and mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequence analyses: proposal of Derxomyces gen. nov. and Hannaella gen. nov., and description of eight novel Derxomyces species. FEMS Yeast Res. 8: 799814.
128. Weis, J. D. 1902. Four pathogenic torulae (Blastomycetes). J. Med. Res. 7: 280311.
129. Wickes, B. L., T. D. Moore, and, K. J. Kwon-Chung. 1994. Comparison of the electrophoretic karyotypes and chromosomal location of ten genes in the two varieties of Cryptococcus neoformans. Microbiology 140 (Pt. 3): 543550.
130. Wilson, D. E., J. E. Bennett, and, J. W. Bailey. 1968. Serologic grouping of Cryptococcus neoformans. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 127: 820823.
131. Xu, J., R. Vilgalys, and, T. G. Mitchell. 2000. Multiple gene genealogies reveal recent dispersion and hybridization in the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. Mol. Ecol. 9: 14711481.
132. Zang, M. 1999. A new taxon, Filobasidiella xianghuijun. Edible Fung. China 18: 4344.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error