Chapter 2 : The History of and Cryptococcosis

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

The History of and Cryptococcosis, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816858/9781555815011_Chap02-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816858/9781555815011_Chap02-2.gif


This chapter considers over a century of clinical experience to examine the encapsulated yeast , to identify the highlights of its maturation in identifying, understanding, diagnosing, and managing this major emerging fungal pathogen. In the areas of pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of cryptococcosis, there are myriad events to report. A study conducted in 1998 demonstrated that cryptococcus could demonstrate morphological flexibility in that under certain environmental conditions the yeasts produce hyphae and spores without a mating reaction; in other words, some cryptococcal strains were found to have the ability to haploid fruit, and thus a new part of the life cycle of cryptococcus was identified. Another study introduced the rigorous methodology of comparative, randomized trials into antifungal therapy and particularly cryptococcosis. This study validated the efficacy of combination antifungal therapy for cryptococcosis, and represented a major starting point not just for cryptococcosis but also for other invasive fungal infections. This study initially provided much of the infrastructure for understanding the management of cryptococcal meningitis. The first large outbreak of cryptococcosis was associated with cows and mastitis in the 1950s, probably related to direct inoculation with contaminated fomites. The history of cryptococcosis has been dynamic and continues to evolve. From its humble beginnings as single case reports to its model system status in molecular studies for fungal pathogenesis, it has become a sophisticated complex organism for study and management.

Citation: Perfect J, Casadevall A. 2011. The History of and Cryptococcosis, p 17-26. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch2
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


1. Al-Doory, Y. 1971. A bibliography of cryptococcosis. My-copathol. Mycol. Appl. 45: 260.
2. Alvarez, M., and, A. Casadevall. 2006. Phagosome extrusion and host-cell survival after Cryptococcus neoformans phagocytosis by macrophages. Curr. Biol. 16: 21612165.
3. Appelbaum, E., and, S. Shitokalko. 1956. Cryptococcus meningitis arrested with amphotericin B. Ann. Intern. Med. 47: 346351.
4. Baker, R. D., and, R. K. Haugen. 1955. Tissue changes and tissue diagnosis of cryptococcosis: a study of 26 cases. Am. J. Pathol. 25: 14.
5. Beeson, P. B. 1952. Cryptococcic meningitis of nearly sixteen years’ duration. AMA Arch. Intern. Med. 89: 797801.
6. Benham, R. W. 1935. Cryptococci, their identification by morphology and serology. J. Infect. Dis. 57: 255274.
7. Bennett, J. E.,, W. Dismukes,, R. J. Duma,, G. Medoff,, M. A. Sande,, H. Gallis,, J. Leonard,, B. T. Fields,, M. Bradshaw,, H. Haywood,, Z. A. McGee,, T. R. Cate,, C. G. Cobbs,, J. F. Warner,, and D. W. Alling. 1979. A comparison of amphotericin B alone and combined with flucytosine in the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis. N. Engl. J. Med. 301: 126131.
8. Buschke, A. 1895. Ueber eine durch coccidien hemorgerufene krankheit des menschen. Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr. 21: 14.
9. Busse, O. 1895. Ueber Saccharomycosis hominis. Virchows. Arch. F. Path. Anat. 140: 2346.
10. Busse, O. 1894. Ueber parasitare zelleinschulusse and ihre zuchtung. Int. J. Med. Microbiol. 16: 175180.
11. Casadevall, A., and, J. Perfect. 1998. Cryptococcus neoformans. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
12. Chang, Y. C., and, K. J. Kwon-Chung. 1994. Complementation of a capsule-deficiency mutation of Cryptococcus neoformans restores its virulence. Mol. Cell. Biol. 14: 49124919.
13. Cherniak, R., and, J. B. Sundstrom. 1994. Polysaccharide antigens of the capsule of Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect. Immun. 62: 15071512.
14. Curtis, F. 1896. Contribution a l’etude de la saccharomycose humaine. Ann Inst. Pasteur 10: 449468.
15. Devi, S. J.,, R. Scheerson, W. Egan,, T. J. Ulrich,, D. Bryla,, J. B. Robbins,, and J. E. Bennett. 1991. Cryptococcus neoformans serotype A glucuronoxylomannan protein conjugate vaccines: synthesis, characterization, and immunogenicity. Infect. Immun. 59: 37003707.
16. Dromer, F.,, J. Charreire,, A. Contrepois,, C. Carbon,, and P. Yeni. 1987. Protection of mice against experimental cryptococcosis by anti- Cryptococcus neoformans monoclonal antibody. Infect. Immun. 55: 749752.
17. Drouhet, E. 1997. Milestones in the history of cryptococcus and cryptococcosis. J. Mycol. Med. 7: 1017.
18. Edman, J. C., and, K. J. Kwon-Chung. 1990. Isolation of the URA5 gene from Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans and its use as a selective marker for transformation. Mol. Cell. Biol. 10: 45384544.
19. Edwards, J. E., Jr.,, J. Morrison,, D. K. Henderson, and, J. Z. Montgomerie. 1980. Combined effect of amphotericin B and rifampin on Candida species. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 17: 484487.
20. Ellis, D. H., and, T. J. Pfeiffer. 1990. Natural habitat of Cryptococcus neoformans var gattii. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28: 16421644.
21. Emmons, C. W. 1955. Saprophytic sources of Cryptococcus neoformans associated with the pigeon. Am. J. Hyg. 62: 227232.
22. Emmons, C. W. 1951. Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans from soil. J. Bacteriol. 62: 685690.
23. Feldmesser, M.,, Y. Kress,, P. Novikoff,, and A. Casadevall. 2000. Cryptococcus neoformans is a facultative intracellular pathogen in murine pulmonary infection. Infect. Immun. 68: 42254237.
24. Fleuridor, R., Z. Zhong, and, L.-A. Pirofski. 1998. A human IgM monoclonal antibody prolongs survival of mice with lethal cryptococcosis. J. Infect. Dis. 178: 12131216.
25. Franzot, S. P.,, I.F. Salkin, and, A. Casadevall. 1999. Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii: separate variety status for Cryptococcus neoformans serotype A isolates. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 838840.
26. Fraser, J. A.,, S. S. Giles,, E. C. Wenink,, S. G. Geunes-Boyer,, J. R. Wright,, S. Diezmann,, A. Allen,, J. E. Stajich,, F. S. Dietrich,, J. R. Perfect,, and J. Heitman. 2005. Same-sex mating and the origin of the Vancouver Island Cryptococcus gattii outbreak. Nature 437: 13601364.
27. Fries, B. C.,, D.L. Goldman, and, A. Casadevall. 2002. Phenotypic switching in Cryptococcus neoformans. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 4: 13451352.
28. Frothingham, L. A. 1902. A tumor-like lesion in the lung of a horse caused by a blastomyces (torula). J. Med. Res. 3: 3143.
29. Goldman, D. L.,, B. C. Fries,, S. P. Franzot,, L. Montella,, and A. Casadevall. 1998. Phenotypic switching in the human pathogenic fungus, Cryptococcus neoformans, is associated with changes in virulence and pulmonary inflammatory response in rodents. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95: 1496714972.
30. Goldman, D. L., and, G. B. Huffnagle. 2009. Potential contribution of fungal infection and colonization to the development of allergy. Med. Mycol. 47 (5): 445456.
31. Hansemann, D. V. 1905. Uber eine bisher nicht beobachtete Gehirner Krankung durch Hefen. Verh. Dtsch. Ges. Pathol. 9: 2124.
32. Heitman, J.,, B. Allen,, J. A. Alspaugh, and, K. J. Kwon-Chung. 1999. On the origins of congesic MAT alpha and MAT a strains of the pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans. Fungal Genet. Biol. 28: 15.
33. Hidore, M. R.,, N. Nabavi,, F. Sonnleitner, and, J. W. Murphy. 2010. Murine natural killer cells are fungicidal to Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect. Immun. 59 (5): 17471754.
34. Hill, J. O. 1992. CD4+ T cells cause multinucleated giant cells to form around Cryptococcus neoformans and confine the yeast within the primary site of infection in the respiratory tract. J. Exp. Med. 175: 16851695.
35. Huffnagle, G. B., J. L. Yates, and, M. F. Lipscomb. 1991. Immunity to a pulmonary Cryptococcus neoformans infection requires both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. J. Exp. Med. 173: 793800.
36. Hull, C. M., and, J. Heitman. 2002. Genetics of Cryptococcus neoformans. Annu. Rev. Genet. 36: 557615.
37. Kauffman, L., and, S. Blumer. 1968. Value and interpretation of serological tests for the diagnosis of cryptococcosis. Appl. Microbiol. 16: 19071912.
38. Kauffman, L., and, S. Blumer. 2009. Cryptococcosis: the awakening giant. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on the mycoses. PAHO Scientific publication no. 356, p. 176182.
39. Kawakami, K.,, M. H. Qureshi,, T. Zhang,, H. Okamura,, M. Kurimoto,, and A. Saito. 1997. IL-18 protects mice against pulmonary and disseminated infection with Cryp-tococcus neoformans by inducing IFN-gamma production. J. Immunol. 159: 55285534.
40. Klein, E. 1901. Pathogenic microbes in milk. J. Hygiene 1: 7895.
41. Kozel, T. R., and, G. S. T. Pfrommer. 1986. Activation of the complement system by Cryptococcus neoformans leads to binding of iC3b to the yeast. Infect. Immun. 52: 15.
42. Kraus, P. R.,, M. J. Boily,, S. S. Giles,, J. E. Stajich,, A. Allen,, G. M. Cox,, F. S. Dietrich,, J. R. Perfect,, and J. Heitman. 2004. Identification of Cryptococcus neoformans temperature-regulated genes with a genomic-DNA microarray. Eukaryot. Cell 3: 12491260.
43. Kuhn, L. R. 1939. Growth and viability of Cryptococcus hominis at mouse and rabbit body temperatures. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 4: 573574.
44. Kutzing, F. 1833. Algarum Aquae dulcis germaniae decas III. New York Botanical Garden, New York, NY.
45. Kwon-Chung, K. J. 1975. A new genus, Filobasidiella, the perfect state of Cryptococcus neoformans. Mycologia 67: 11971200.
46. Kwon-Chung, K. J.,, T. Boekhout,, J.W. Fell,, and M. Diaz. 2002. Proposal to conserve the name Cryptococcus gattii against C. hondurianus and C. bacillisporus ( Basidiomycota, Hymenomycetes, Tremellomycetidae). Taxon 51: 804806.
47. Larsen, R. A.,, P.G. Pappas,, J. Perfect,, J. A Aberg,, A. Casadevall,, G. A Cloud,, R. James,, S. Filler,, and W. E. Dismukes. 2005. Phase I evaluation of the safety and pharmacokinetics of murine-derived anticryptococcal antibody 18B7 in subjects with treated cryptococcal meningitis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 49: 952958.
48. Levitz, S. M. 1992. Overview of host defenses in fungal infections. Clin. Infect. Dis. 14: S37S42.
49. Levitz, S. M., and, M. P. Dupont. 1993. Phenotypic and functional characterization of human lymphocytes activated by interleukin-2 to directly inhibit growth of Cryptococcus neoformans in vitro. J. Clin. Invest. 91: 14901498.
50. Lin, X.,, C.M. Hull, and, J. Heitman. 2005. Sexual reproduction between partners of the same mating type in Cryp-tococcus neoformans. Nature 434: 10171021.
51. Littman, M. L., and, R. Borok. 1968. Relation of the pigeon to cryptococcosis: natural carrier state, heat resistance and survival of Cryptococcus neoformans. Mycopathologia 35: 329345.
52. Littman, M. L., R. Borok, and, T. J. Dalton. 1965. Experimental avian cryptococcosis. Am. J. Epidemiol. 82: 197207.
53. Littman, M. L., and, L. E. Zimmerman. 1956. Cryptococcosis, p. 121146. Grune & Stratton, New York, NY.
54. Liu, O. W.,, C.D. Chun,, E. D. Chow, C. Chen,, and H. D. Madhani. 2008. Systematic genetic analysis of virulence in the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. Cell 135: 174188.
55. Lodder, J., and, N. J. W. Kreger-van Rij. 2009. The Yeasts: a Taxonomic Study. Interscience, New York, NY.
56. Loftus, B. J.,, E. Fung,, P. Roncaglia,, D. Rowley,, P. Amedeo,, D. Bruno,, J. Vamathevan,, M. Miranda,, I. J Anderson,, J. A. Fraser,, J. E Allen,, I. E. Bosdet,, M. R Brent,, R. Chiu,, T. L Doering,, M. J. Donlin,, C. A. D’Souza,, D. S Fox,, V. Grinberg,, J. Fu,, M. Fukushima,, B. J Haas,, J. C. Huang,, G. Janbon,, S. J Jones,, H. L. Koo,, M. I Krzywinski,, J. K. Kwon-Chung,, K. B Lengeler,, R. Maiti,, M. A Marra,, R. E. Marra,, C. A Mathewson,, T. G. Mitchell,, M. Pertea,, F. R Riggs,, S. L. Salzberg,, J. E Schein,, A. Shvartsbeyn,, H. Shin,, M. Shumway,, C. A Specht,, B. B. Suh,, A. Tenney,, T. R Utterback,, B. L. Wickes,, J. R Wortman,, N. H. Wye,, J. W Kronstad,, J. K. Lodge,, J. Heitman,, R. W Davis,, C. M. Fraser,, and R. W. Hyman. 2005. The genome of the basidiomycetous yeast and human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. Science 307: 13211324.
57. Lortholary, O.,, A. Fontanet,, N. Memain,, A. Martin,, K. Sitbon,, and F. Dromer. 2005. Incidence and risk factors of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome complicating HIV-associated cryptococcosis in France. AIDS 19: 10431049.
58. Lurie, H., and, H. J. Shadomy. 1971. Morphological variations of a hypha-forming strain of Cryptococcus neoformans (Coward strain) in tissues of mice. Sabouraudia 9: 1014.
59. Ma, H.,, J. E Croudace,, D. A. Lammas, and, R. C. May. 2006. Expulsion of live pathogenic yeast by macrophages. Curr. Biol. 16: 21562160.
60. Mitchell, T. G., and, J. R. Perfect. 1995. Cryptococcosis in the era of AIDS 100 years after the discovery of Cryptococcus neoformans. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 8: 515548.
61. Mukherjee, J.,, M.D. Scharff, and, A. Casadevall. 1992. Protective murine monoclonal antibodies to Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect. Immun. 60: 45344541.
62. Mukherjee, S.,, S. Lee,, J. Mukherjee, M. D. Scharff,, and A. Casadevall. 1994. Monoclonal antibodies to Cryp-tococcus neoformans capsular polysaccharide modify the course of intravenous infection in mice. Infect. Immun. 62: 10791088.
63. Murphy, J. W. 1992. Cryptococcal immunity and immu-nostimulation. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 319: 225230.
64. Mylonakis,, E.,, F.M. Ausubel,, J.R. Perfect,, J. Heitman,, and S. B. Calderwood. 2002. Killing of Caenorhabditis elegans by Cryptococcus neoformans as a model of yeast pathogenesis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99: 1567515680.
65. Nath, D. S.,, R. Kandaswamy,, R. Gruessner,, D. E. Sutherland,, D. L. Dunn,, and A. Humar. 2005.1 Fungal infections in transplant recipients receiving alemtuzumab. Transplant. Proc. 37: 934936.
66. Neill, J. M. 1951. Serologically reactive material in spinal fluid, blood, and urine from a human case of cryptococcosis (torulosis). Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 77: 775778.
67. Ngamskulrungroj, P.,, U. Himmelreich,, J.A. Breger,, C. Wilson,, M. Chayakulkeeree,, M. B Krockenberger,, R. Malik,, H. M Daniel,, D. Toffaletti,, J. T Djordjevic,, E. Mylonakis,, W. Meyer,, and J. R. Perfect. 2009. The trehalose synthesis pathway is an integral part of the virulence composite for Cryptococcus gattii. Infect. Immun. 77: 45844596.
68. Nielsen, K.,, G. M. Cox,, P. Wang,, D. L. Toffaletti,, J. R. Perfect,, and J. Heitman. 2003. Sexual cycle of Cryp-tococcus neoformans var. grubii and virulence of congenic a and alpha isolates. Infect. Immun. 71: 48314841.
69. Odom, A.,, J. R. Perfect,, D. Toffaletti,, and J. Heitman. 1996. Calcineurin A is a temperature-regulated virulence gene for Cryptococcus neoformans. EMBO J. 16: 25762589.
70. Pappas, P. G.,, B. Bustamante,, E. Ticona,, R. J. Hamill,, P. C Johnson,, A. Reboli,, J. Aberg,, R. Hasbun,, and H. H. Hsu. 2004. Recombinant interferon-gamma 1b as adjunctive therapy for AIDS-related acute cryptococcal meningitis. J. Infect. Dis. 189: 21852191.
71. Park, B. J.,, K.A. Wannemuehler,, B. J. Marston, N. Gov-ender, P. G. Pappas,, and T. M. Chiller. 2009. Estimation of the current global burden of cryptococcal meningitis among persons living with HIV/AIDS. AIDS 23: 525530.
72. Perfect, J. R. 2009. Cryptococcus neoformans. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 45: 395404.
73. Perfect, J. R.,, W.E. Dismukes,, F. Dromer,, D. L Goldman,, J. R. Graybill,, R. J Hamill,, T. S. Harrison,, R. A Larsen,, O. Lortholary,, M. H Nguyen,, P. G. Pappas,, W. G Powderly,, N. Singh,, J. D. Sobel,, and T. C. Sorrell. 2010. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of cryptococcal disease: 2010 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin. Infect. Dis. 50: 291322.
74. Perfect, J. R., S. D. R. Lang, and, D. T. Durack. 1980. Chronic cryptococcal meningitis: a new experimental model in rabbits. Am. J. Pathol. 101: 177194.
75. Polacheck, I. 1991. The discovery of melanin production in Cryptococcus neoformans and its impact on diagnosis and the study of virulence. Zentralbl. Bakteriol. Hyg. A 276: 120123.
76. Pounden, W. D., J. M. Amberson, and, R. F. Jaeger. 1952. A severe mastitis problem associated with Cryptococcus neoformans in a large dairy herd. Am. J. Vet. Res. 13: 121128.
77. Salas, S. D.,, J.E. Bennett,, K. J. Kwon-Chung, J. R. Perfect,, and P. R. Williamson. 1996. Effect of the laccase gene, CNLAC1, on virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans. J. Exp. Med. 184: 377386.
78. Sanfelice, F. 1894. Contributo alla morfologia e biolgia dei blastomiceti che si sviluppano nei succhi di alcuni frutti. Ann. Igiene 4: 463495.
79. Sanford, J. E.,, D.M. Lupan,, A.M. Schlageter,, and T. R. Kozel. 1990. Passive immunization against Cryptococcus neoformans with an isotype-switch family of monoclonal antibodies reactive with cryptococcal polysaccharide. Infect. Immun. 58: 19191923.
80. Shelburne, S. A.,, III, J. Darcourt,, A. C. White,, Jr., S. B. Greenberg,, R. J. Hamill,, R. L. Atmar,, and F. Visnegarwala. 2005. The role of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in AIDS-related Cryptococcus neoformans disease in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Clin. Infect. Dis. 40: 10491052.
81. Snider, W. D.,, D.M. Simpson,, S. Nielsen, J., W. M Gold,, C. E. Metroka,, and J. B. Posner. 1983. Neurological complications of acquired immune deficiency syndrome: analysis of 50 patients. Ann. Neurol. 14: 403418.
82. Steenbergen, J. N.,, H.A. Shuman, and, A. Casadevall. 2001. Cryptococcus neoformans interactions with amoebae suggest an explanation for its virulence and intracellular pathogenic strategy in macrophages. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98: 1524515250.
83. Stephen, C.,, S. Lester,, W. Black,, M. Fyfe,, and S. Raverty. 2002. Multispecies outbreak cryptococcosis on Southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Can. J. Vet. Res. 43: 792794.
84. Stoddard, J. L., and, E. C. Cutler. 1916. Torula Infection in Man. Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, Monograph no. 6, p. 198.
85. Toffaletti, D. L.,, T.H. Rude,, S. A. Johnston, D. T. Du-rack,, and J. R. Perfect. 1993. Gene transfer in Cryptococcus neoformans by use of biolistic delivery of DNA. J. Bacteriol. 175: 14051411.
86. Vanbreuseghem, R., and, M. Takashio. 1970. An atypical strain of Cryptococcus neoformans (Sanfelice) Vuillemin. Part II. Cryptococcus neoformans var. gatti Nov. Ann. Soc. Belg. Med. Trop. 50: 695702.
87. van der Horst, C. M.,, M.S. Saag,, G.A. Cloud,, R. J Hamill,, J. R. Graybill,, J. D Sobel,, P. C. Johnson,, C. U Tuazon,, T. Kerkering,, B. L Moskovitz,, W. G. Powderly,, and W. E. Dismukes. 1997. Treatment of crypto-coccal meningitis associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group and AIDS Clinical Trials Group. N. Engl. J. Med. 337: 1521.
88. Vecchiarelli, A. 2010. Fungal capsular polysaccharide and T-cell suppression: the hidden nature of poor immunogenicity. Crit. Rev. Immunol. 27 (6): 547557.
89. Vecchiarelli, A.,, C. Monari,, F. Baldelli,, D. Pietrella,, C. Retini,, C. Tascini,, D. Francisci,, and F. Bistoni. 1995. Beneficial effect of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on fungicidal activity of polymorphonu-clear leukocytes from patients with AIDS. J. Infect. Dis. 171: 14481454.
90. Verse, M. 1914. Uber einen Fall von generalisierter Blastomykose beim menschen. Verh. Dtsch. Pathol. Ges. 17: 275278.
91. Vuillemin, P. 1901. Les blastomycetes pathogenes. Rev. Gen. Sci. Pures Appl. 12: 732751.
92. Wickes, B. L.,, M.E. Mayorga,, U. Edman,, and J. C. Edman. 1996. Dimorphism and haploid fruiting in Cryptococcus neoformans: association with the alpha-mating type. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93: 73277331.
93. Xu, J., R. Vilgalys, and, T. G. Mitchell. 2000. Multiple gene genealogies reveal recent dispersion and hybridization in the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. Mol. Ecol. 9: 14711481.
94. Xue, C.,, Y. Tada,, X. Dong,, and J. Heitman. 2007. The human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus can complete its sexual cycle during a pathogenic association with plants. Cell Host. Microbe 1: 263273.


Generic image for table

Landmarks in the clinical history of cryptococcosis

Citation: Perfect J, Casadevall A. 2011. The History of and Cryptococcosis, p 17-26. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch2
Generic image for table

Monographs, reviews, and books with critical descriptions of through history

Citation: Perfect J, Casadevall A. 2011. The History of and Cryptococcosis, p 17-26. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch2
Generic image for table

Outbreaks of cryptococcal disease

Citation: Perfect J, Casadevall A. 2011. The History of and Cryptococcosis, p 17-26. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch2

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error