Chapter 28 : Acquired Humoral Immunity to

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Acquired Humoral Immunity to , Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816858/9781555815011_Chap28-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816858/9781555815011_Chap28-2.gif


Research initiated in the late 1980s has been the driving force behind a major expansion of one's knowledge about Ab immunity (AI) to cryptococcal disease (cryptococcosis) and a sea change in the understanding of mechanisms of AI to and other microbes for which AI is not thought to be the predominant protective host defense mechanism. This chapter highlights this information, placing emphasis on how new knowledge about AI to has advanced one's understanding of pathogenesis, virulence, and mechanisms of Ab action. Levels of IgG to glucuronoxylomannan (GXM) were higher in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected than HIV-uninfected individuals in studies using a direct GXM capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), but lower in studies using different ELISA methods. The major effect of monoclonal Ab (MAb) to GXM on effector cell function is achieved by enhancing expression of costimulatory molecules, cytokine receptors, and cytokines that polarize the cellular response toward a Th1-like response. A long-recognized mechanism that is central to AI to cryptococcal disease is Ab-mediated clearance of GXM. The remarkable expansion of knowledge about AI to cryptococcal disease since the late 1980s has already translated into potential therapies to ameliorate human cryptococcal disease. The study of AI to has provided precedents that have informed and influenced one's views on Ab immunity in general and the efficacy of Abs against other microbes.

Citation: Pirofski L, Casadevall A. 2011. Acquired Humoral Immunity to , p 397-428. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch28
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of FIGURE 1

Damage-response curve depicting host damage ( axis) in the setting of HIV-associated cryptococcal disease as a function of the host inflammatory response ( axis). The open circles depict points on the curve at which host damage is maximal, and the black circles depict points on the curve at which host damage is below the disease threshold. The arrows depict the potential for the Ab-mediated processes noted under each disease heading to reduce host damage. Note that Ab functions associated with reduction of damage in the setting of a weak immune response involve micro-bial clearance, and functions associated with reduction of damage in the setting of a strong immune response involve a reduction in the inflammatory response. Abbreviations: HIV, human immunode-ficiency virus; CN, ; SOT, solid organ transplant; IRIS, immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome; Th-1, T helper cell type 1.

Citation: Pirofski L, Casadevall A. 2011. Acquired Humoral Immunity to , p 397-428. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch28
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Aalberse, R. C., and, J. Schuurman. 2002. IgG4 breaking the rules. Immunology 105: 919.
2. Aalberse, R. C.,, J. Schuurman, and, R. Van Ree. 1999. The apparent monovalency of human IgG4 is due to bispecificity. Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 118: 187189.
3. Abadi, J., and, L. Pirofski. 1999. Antibodies reactive with the cryptococcal capsular polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan are present in sera from children with and without HIV infection. J. Infect. Dis. 180: 915919.
4. Aguirre, K. M., and, L. L. Johnson. 1997. A role for B cells in resistance to Cryptococcus neoformans in mice. Infect. Immun. 65: 525530.
5. Alvarez, M., and, A. Casadevall. 2006. Phagosome extrusion and hostcell survival after Cryptococcus neoformans phagocytosis by macrophages. Curr. Biol. 16: 21612165.
6. Alvarez, M., and, A. Casadevall. 2007. Cell-to-cell spread and massive vacuole formation after Cryptococcus neoformans infection of murine macrophages. BMC Immunol. 8: 16.
7. Amu, S.,, A. Tarkowski,, T. Dorner,, M. Bokarewa, and, M. Brisslert. 2007. The human immunomodulatory CD25+ B cell population belongs to the memory B cell pool. Scand. J. Immunol. 66: 7786.
8. Beenhouwer,, D. O.,, R. J. May,, P. Valadon, and, M. D. Scharff. 2002. High affinity mimotope of the polysaccharide capsule of Cryptococcus neoformans identified from an evolutionary phage peptide library. J. Immunol. 169: 69926999.
9. Beenhouwer,, D. O.,, S. Shapiro,, M. Feldmesser,, A. Casadevall, and, M. D. Scharff. 2001. Both Th1 and Th2 cytokines affect the ability of monoclonal antibodies to protect mice against Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect. Immun. 69: 64456455.
10. Beenhouwer,, D. O.,, E. M. Yoo,, C. W. Lai,, M. A. Rocha, and, S. L. Morrison. 2007. Human immunoglobulin G2 (IgG2) and IgG4, but not IgG1 or IgG3, protect mice against Cryptococcus neoformans infection. Infect. Immun. 75: 14241435.
11. Berberian, L.,, J. Shukla,, R. Jefferis, and, J. Braun. 1994. Effects of HIV infection on V H3 (D12 idiotope) B cells in vivo. J. Acq. Immun. Def. Synd. 7: 641646.
12. Casadevall, A. 1995. Antibody immunity to invasive fungal infections. Infect. Immun. 63: 42114218.
13. Casadevall,, A.,, W. Cleare,, M. Feldmesser,, R. Glatman-Freedman,, T. R. Kozel,, N. Lendvai,, J. Mukherjee,, L. Pirofski,, J. Rivera,, A. L. Rosas,, M. D. Scharff,, P. Valadon,, K. Westin, and, Z. Zhong. 1998. Characterization of a murine monoclonal antibody to C. neoformans polysaccharide which is a candidate for human therapeutic studies. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 42: 14371446.
14. Casadevall, A.,, E. Dadachova, and, L. A. Pirofski. 2004. Passive antibody therapy for infectious diseases. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 2: 695703.
15. Casadevall,, A.,, M. DeShaw,, M. Fan,, F. Dromer,, T. R. Kozel, and, L. Pirofski. 1994. Molecular and idiotypic analysis of antibodies to Cryptococcus neoformans glucuronoxylomannan. Infect. Immun. 62: 38643872.
16. Casadevall,, A.,, J. Mukherjee,, S. J. Devi,, R. Schneerson, J. B. Robbins, and, M. D. Scharff. 1992. Antibodies elicited by a Cryptococcus neoformans-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine have the same specificity as those elicited in infection. J. Infect. Dis. 165: 10861093.
17. Casadevall, A., and, L. Pirofski. 2003. Antibody mediated regulation of cellular immunity and the inflammatory response. Trends Immunol. 24: 474478.
18. Casadevall, A., and, L. Pirofski. 2005. Insights into mechanisms of antibodymediated immunity from studies with Cryptococcus neoformans. Curr. Mol. Med. 5: 421433.
19. Casadevall, A., and, L. Pirofski. 2006. A reappraisal of humoral immunity based on mechanisms of antibodymediated protection against intracellular pathogens. Adv. Immunol. 91: 144.
20. Casadevall, A., and, L. A. Pirofski. 2004. New concepts in antibodymediated immunity. Infect. Immun. 72: 61916196.
21. Casadevall, A., and, L. A. Pirofski. 2006. Polysaccharidecontaining conjugate vaccines for fungal diseases. Trends Mol. Med. 12: 69.
22. Casadevall, A., and, L. A. Pirofski. 2007. Antibodymediated protection through crossreactivity introduces a fungal heresy into immunological dogma. Infect. Immun. 75: 50745078.
23. Casadevall, A., and, M. D. Scharff. 1994. Serum therapy revisited: animal models of infection and development of passive antibody therapy. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 38: 16951702.
24. Chen,, L. C.,, D. L. Goldman,, T. L. Doering,, L. Pirofski, and, A. Casadevall. 1999. Antibody response to Cryptococcus neoformans proteins in rodents and humans. Infect. Immun. 67: 22182224.
25. Cleare, W., and, A. Casadevall. 1998. The different binding patterns of two immunoglobulin M monoclonal antibodies to Cryptococcus neoformans serotype A and D strains correlate with serotype classification and differences in functional assays. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 5: 125129.
26. Clynes,, R.,, J. S. Maizes,, R. Guinamard,, M. Ono,, T. Takai, and, J. V. Ravetch. 1999. Modulation of immune complexinduced inflammation in vivo by the coordinate expression of activation and inhibitory Fc receptors. J. Exp. Med. 189: 179185.
27. Cooper, L. J.,, D. Robertson,, R. Granzow, and, N. S. Greenspan. 1994. Variable domainidentical antibodies exhibit IgG subclassrelated differences in affinity and kinetic constants as determined by surface plasmon resonance. Mol. Immunol. 31: 577584.
28. Cooper,, L. J.,, J. C. Schimenti,, D. D. Glass, and, N. S. Greenspan. 1991. H chain C domains influence the strength of binding of IgG for streptococcal group A carbohydrate. J. Immunol. 146: 26592663.
29. Dadachova,, E.,, R. A. Bryan,, C. Apostolidis,, A. Morgenstern,, T. Zhang,, T. Moadel,, M. Torres,, X. Huang,, E. Revskaya, and, A. Casadevall. 2006. Interaction of radiolabeled antibodies with fungal cells and components of the immune system in vitro and during radioimmunotherapy for experimental fungal infection. J. Infect. Dis. 193: 14271436.
30. Dadachova,, E.,, T. Burns,, R. A. Bryan,, C. Apostolidis, M. W. Brechbiel,, J. D. Nosanchuk,, A. Casadevall, and, L. Pirofski. 2004. Feasibility of radioimmunotherapy of experimental pneumococcal infection. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48: 16241629.
31. Dadachova, E.,, A. Nakouzi,, R. A. Bryan, and, A. Casadevall. 2003. Ionizing radiation delivered by specific antibody is therapeutic against a fungal infection. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100: 1094210947.
32. [Reference deleted.]
33. DeShaw, M., and, L. Pirofski. 1995. Antibodies to Cryptococcus neoformans capsular polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan are ubiquitous in the serum of HIV+ and HIV-individuals. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 99: 425432.
34. Devi,, S. G. N.,, R. Schneerson,, W. Egan,, T. J. Ulrich,, D. Bryla,, J. B. Robbins, and, J. E. Bennett. 1991. Cryptococcus neoformans serotype A glucuronoxylomannan-protein conjugate vaccines: synthesis, characterization, and immunogenicity. Infect. Immun. 59: 37003707.
35. Dromer, F.,, P. Aucouturier,, J.-P. Clauvel,, G. Saimot, and, P. Yeni. 1988. Cryptococcus neoformans antibody levels in patients with AIDS. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 20: 283285.
36. Dromer, F., and, J. Charreire. 1991. Improved amphotericin B activity by a monoclonal anti- Cryptococcus neoformans antibody: study during murine cryptococcosis and mechanisms of action. J. Infect. Dis. 163: 11141120.
37. Dromer, F.,, J. Charreire,, A. Contrepois,, C. Carbon, and, P. Yeni. 1987. Protection of mice against experimental cryptococcosis by an anti- Cryptococcus neoformans monoclonal antibody. Infect. Immun. 55: 749752.
38. Dromer,, F.,, J. Salamero,, A. Contrepois,, C. Carbon,, and P. Yeni. 1987. Production, characterization, and antibody specificity of a mouse monoclonal antibody reactive with Cryptococcus neoformans capsular polysaccharide. Infect. Immun. 55: 742748.
39. Eckert, T. F., and, T. R. Kozel. 1987. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific for Cryptococcus neoformans capsular polysaccharide. Infect. Immun. 55: 18951899.
40. Feldmesser, M., and, A. Casadevall. 1997. Effect of serum IgG1 to Cryptococcus neoformans glucuronoxylomannan on murine pulmonary infection. J. Immunol. 158: 790799.
41. Feldmesser, M.,, Y. Kress,, P. Novikoff, and, A. Casadevall. 2000. Cryptococcus neoformans is a facultative intracellular pathogen in murine pulmonary infection. Infect. Immun. 68: 42254237.
42. Feldmesser, M.,, A. Mednick, and, A. Casadevall. 2002. Antibodymediated protection in murine Cryptococcus neoformans infection is associated with pleotrophic effects on cytokine and leukocyte responses. Infect. Immun. 70: 15711580.
43. Fleuridor, R.,, A. Lees, and, L. Pirofski. 2001. A cryptococcal capsular polysaccharide mimotope prolongs the survival of mice with Cryptococcus neoformans infection. J. Immunol. 166: 10871096.
44. Fleuridor, R.,, R. H. Lyles, and, L. Pirofski. 1999. Quantitative and qualitative differences in the serum antibody profiles of HIV-infected persons with and without Cryptococcus neoformans meningitis. J. Infect. Dis. 180: 15261536.
45. Fleuridor, R.,, Z. Zhong, and, L. Pirofski. 1998. A human IgM monoclonal antibody prolongs survival of mice with lethal cryptococcosis. J. Infect. Dis. 178: 12131216.
46. Garcia-Hermoso, D.,, G. Janbon, and, F. Dromer. 1999. Epidemiologic evidence for dormant Cryptococcus neoformans infection. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 32043209.
47. Gates, M. A., and, T. R. Kozel. 2006. Differential localization of complement component 3 within the capsular matrix of Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect. Immun. 74: 30963106.
48. Ghosn, E. E.,, M. Russo, and, S. R. Almeida. 2006. Nitric oxidedependent killing of Cryptococcus neoformans by B-1derived mononuclear phagocyte. J. Leukoc. Biol. 80: 3644.
49. Goldman,, D. L.,, H. Khine,, J. Abadi,, D. L. Lindenberg,, L. Pirofski,, R. Niang, and, A. Casadevall. 2001. Serologic evidence for Cryptococcus neoformans infection in early childhood. Pediatrics 107: e66.
50. Goldman, D. L.,, S. C. Lee, and, A. Casadevall. 1995. Tissue localization of Cryptococcus neoformans glucuronoxylomannan in the presence and absence of specific antibody. Infect. Immun. 63: 34483453.
51. Gordon, M. A., and, A. Casadevall. 1995. Serum therapy for cryptococcal meningitis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 21: 14771479.
52. Gordon, M. A., and, E. Lapa. 1964. Serum protein enhancement of antibiotic therapy in cryptococcosis. J. Infect. Dis. 114: 373377.
53. Grinsell,, M.,, L. C. Weinhold,, J. E. Cutler,, Y. Han, and, T. R. Kozel. 2001. In vivo clearance of glucuronoxylomannan, the major capsular polysaccharide of Cryptococcus neoformans: a critical role for tissue macrophages. J. Infect. Dis. 184: 479487.
54. Gupta, S.,, M. Ellis,, T. Cesario,, M. Ruhling, and, B. Vayuvegula. 1987. Disseminated cryptococcal infection in a patient with hypogammaglobulinemia and normal T cell functions. Am. J. Med. 82: 129131.
55. Hidore, M. R.,, N. Nabavi,, F. Sonleitner, and, J. W. Murphy. 1991. Murine natural killer cells are fungicidal to Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect. Immun. 59: 17471754.
56. Houpt,, D. C.,, G. S. Pfrommer,, B. J. Young,, T. A. Larson, and, T. R. Kozel. 1994. Occurrences, immunoglobulin classes, and biological activities of antibodies in normal human serum that are reactive with Cryptococcus neoformans glucuronoxylomannan. Infect. Immun. 62: 28572864.
57. Jalali, Z.,, L. Ng,, N. Singh, and, L. A. Pirofski. 2006. Antibody response to Cryptococcus neoformans capsular polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan in patients after solidorgan transplantation. Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 13: 740746.
58. Jenny-Avital, E. R., and, M. Abadi. 2002. Immune reconstitution cryptococcosis after initiation of successful highly active antiretroviral therapy. Clin. Infect. Dis. 35: e128e133.
59. Kirkham,, P. M.,, R. F. Mortari,, J. A. Newton, and, H. W. Schroeder. 1992. Immunoglobulin V H clan and family identity predicts variable domain structure and may influence antigen binding. EMBO J. 11: 603609.
60. Kozel,, T. R.,, B. C. deJong,, M. M. Grinsell,, R. S. Mac-Gill, and, K. K. Wall. 1998. Characterization of anticapsular monoclonal antibodies that regulate activation of the complement system by the Cryptococcus neoformans capsule. Infect. Immun. 66: 15381546.
61. Kozel, T. R., and, J. L. Follette. 1981. Opsonization of encapsulated Cryptococcus neoformans by specific anticapsular antibody. Infect. Immun. 31: 978984.
62. Kozel, T. R., and, T. G. McGaw. 1979. Opsonization of Cryptococcus neoformans by human immunoglobulin G:role of immunoglobulin G in phagocytosis by macrophages. Infect. Immun. 18: 701707.
63. Kruetzmann,, S.,, M. M. Rosado,, H. Weber,, U. Germing,, O. Tournilhac, H. H. Peter,, R. Berner,, A. Peters,, T. Boehm,, A. Plebani,, I. Quinti, and, R. Carsetti. 2003. Human immunoglobulin M memory B cells controlling Streptococcus pneumoniae infections are generated in the spleen. J. Exp. Med. 197: 939945.
64. Larsen,, R. A.,, P. G. Pappas,, J. Perfect, J. A. Aberg,, A. Casadevall,, G. A. Cloud,, R. James,, S. Filler, and, W. E. Dismukes. 2005. Phase I evaluation of the safety and pharmacokinetics of murinederived anticryptococcal antibody 18B7 in subjects with treated cryptococcal meningitis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 49: 952958.
65. Lendvai,, N.,, A. Casadevall,, Z. Liang, D. L. Goldman,, J. Mukherjee, and, L. Zuckier. 1998. Effect of immune mechanisms on the pharmacokinetics and organ distribution of cryptococcal polysaccharide. J. Infect. Dis. 177: 16471659.
66. Lendvai, N.,, X. W. Qu,, W. Hsueh, and, A. Casadevall. 2000. Mechanism for the isotype dependence of antibodymediated toxicity in Cryptococcusneoformans infected mice. J. Immunol. 164: 43674374.
67. MacGill,, T. C.,, R. S. MacGill,, A. Casadevall, and, T. R. Kozel. 2000. Biological correlates of capsular (quellung) reactions of Cryptococcus neoformans. J. Immunol. 164: 48354842.
68. Maitta,, R.,, K. Datta,, Q. Chang,, R. Luo,, K. Subramaniam,, B. Witover, and, L. Pirofski. 2004. Protective and non-protective human IgM monoclonal antibodies to Cryptococcus neoformans glucuronoxylomannan manifest different specificity and gene use. Infect. Immun. 72: 48104818.
69. Maitta,, R. W.,, K. Datta,, A. Lees,, S. S. Belouski, and, L. A. Pirofski. 2004. Immunogenicity and efficacy of Cryptococcus neoformans capsular polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan peptide mimotopeprotein conjugates in human immunoglobulin transgenic mice. Infect. Immun. 72: 196208.
70. Marquis, G.,, S. Montplaisir,, M. Pelletier,, S. Mousseau, and, P. Auger. 1985. Genetic resistance to murine cryptococcosis: increased susceptibility in the CBA/N XID mutant strain of mice. Infect. Immun. 47: 282287.
71. Martinez, L. R., and, A. Casadevall. 2005. Specific antibody can prevent fungal biofilm formation and this effect correlates with protective efficacy. Infect. Immun. 73: 63506362.
72. Martinez, L. R.,, E. Christaki, and, A. Casadevall. 2006. Specific antibody to Cryptococcus neoformans glucurunoxylomannan antagonizes antifungal drug action against cryptococcal biofilms in vitro. J. Infect. Dis. 194: 261266.
73. Martinez, L. R.,, D. Moussai, and, A. Casadevall. 2004. Antibody to Cryptococcus neoformans glucuronoxylomannan inhibits the release of capsular antigen. Infect. Immun. 72: 36743679.
74. May, R. J.,, D. O. Beenhouwer, and, M. D. Scharff. 2003. Antibodies to keyhole limpet hemocyanin crossreact with an epitope on the polysaccharide capsule of Cryptococcus neoformans and other carbohydrates: implications for vaccine development. J. Immunol. 171: 49054912.
75. McGaw, T. G., and, T. R. Kozel. 1979. Opsonization of Cryptococcus neoformans by human immunoglobulin G: masking of immunoglobulin G by cryptococcal polysaccharide. Infect. Immun. 25: 262267.
76. McLean,, G. R.,, M. Torres,, N. Elguezabal,, A. Nakouzi, and, A. Casadevall. 2002. Isotype can affect the fine specificity of an antibody for a polysaccharide antigen. J. Immunol. 169: 13791386.
77. Monari,, C.,, A. Casadevall,, C. Retini,, F. Baldelli,, F. Bistoni, and, A. Vecchiarelli. 1999. Antibody to capsular polysaccharide enhances the function of neutrophils from patients with AIDS against Cryptococcus neoformans. AIDS 13: 653660.
78. Monga, D. P.,, R. Kumar,, L. N. Mohapatra, and, A. N. Malaviya. 1979. Experimental cryptococcosis in normal and B cell deficient mice. Infect. Immun. 26: 13.
79. Mozaffarian, N.,, J. W. Berman, and, A. Casadevall. 1995. Immune complexes increase nitric oxide production by interferon-gamma-stimulated murine macrophagelike J774.16 cells. J. Leukoc. Biol. 57: 657662.
80. Mukherjee, J.,, A. Casadevall, and, M. D. Scharff. 1993. Molecular characterization of the antibody responses to Cryptococcus neoformans infection and glucuronoxylomannantetanus toxoid conjugate immunization. J. Exp. Med. 177: 11051116.
81. Mukherjee, J.,, T. R. Kozel, and, A. Casadevall. 1998. Monoclonal antibodies reveal additional epitopes of serotype D Cryptococcus neoformans capsular glucuronoxylomannan that elicit protective antibodies. J. Immunol. 161: 35573567.
82. Mukherjee, J.,, G. Nussbaum,, M. D. Scharff, and, A. Casadevall. 1995. Protective and non-protective monoclonal antibodies to Cryptococcus neoformans originating from one B cell. J. Exp. Med. 181: 405409.
83. Mukherjee, J.,, L. Pirofski,, M. D. Scharff, and, A. Casadevall. 1993. Antibodymediated protection in mice with lethal intracerebral Cryptococcus neoformans infection. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90: 36363640.
84. Mukherjee, J.,, M. D. Scharff, and, A. Casadevall. 1992. Protective murine monoclonal antibodies to Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect. Immun. 60: 45344541.
85. Mukherjee, J.,, L. S. Zuckier,, M. D. Scharff, and, A. Casadevall. 1994. Therapeutic efficacy of monoclonal antibodies to Cryptococcus neoformans glucuronoxylomannan alone and in combination with amphotericin B. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 38: 580587.
86. Mukherjee, S.,, M. Feldmesser, and, A. Casadevall. 1996. J774 murine macrophagelike cell interactions with Cryptococcus neoformans in the presence and absence of opsonins. J. Infect. Dis. 173: 12221231.
87. Mukherjee, S.,, S. C. Lee, and, A. Casadevall. 1995. Antibodies to Cryptococcus neoformans glucuronoxylomannan enhance antifungal activity of murine macrophages. Infect. Immun. 63: 573579.
88. Nabavi, N., and, J. W. Murphy. 1986. Antibodydependent natural killer cellmediated growth inhibition of Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect. Immun. 51: 556562.
89. Nakouzi, A., and, A. Casadevall. 2003. The function of conserved amino acids in or near the complementarity determining regions for related antibodies to Cryptococcus neoformans glucuronoxylomannan. Mol. Immunol. 40: 351361.
90. Nakouzi,, A.,, P. Valadon,, J. D. Nosanchuk,, N. Green, and, A. Casadevall. 2001. Molecular basis for immunoglobulin M specificity to epitopes in Cryptococcus neoformans polysaccharide that elicit protective and non-protective antibodies. Infect. Immun. 69: 33983409.
91. Netski, D., and, T. R. Kozel. 2002. Fc-dependent and Fc-independent opsonization of Cryptococcus neoformans by anticapsular monoclonal antibodies: importance of epitope specificity. Infect. Immun. 70: 28122819.
92. Nosanchuk, J. D., and, A. Casadevall. 1997. Cellular charge of Cryptococcus neoformans: contributions from the capsular polysaccharide, melanin, and monoclonal antibody binding. Infect. Immun. 65: 18361841.
93. Nosanchuk,, J. D.,, W. Cleare, S. P. Franzot,, and A. Casadevall. 1999. Amphotericin B and fluconazole affect cellular charge, macrophage phagocytosis, and cellular morphology of Cryptococcus neoformans at subinhibitory concentrations. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43: 233239.
94. Nosanchuk, J. D.,, A. L. Rosas, and, A. Casadevall. 1998. The antibody response to fungal melanin in mice. J. Immunol. 160: 60266031.
95. Nussbaum,, G.,, S. Anandasabapathy,, J. Mukherjee,, M. Fan,, A. Casadevall, and, M. D. Scharff. 1999. Molecular and idiotypic analyses of the antibody response to Cryptococcus neoformans glucuronoxylomannan-protein conjugate vaccine in autoimmune and nonautoimmune mice. Infect. Immun. 67: 44694476.
96. Nussbaum, G.,, W. Cleare,, A. Casadevall, M. D. Scharff, and, P. Valadon. 1997. Epitope location in the Cryptococcus neoformans capsule is a determinant of antibody efficacy. J. Exp. Med. 185: 685694.
97. Nussbaum, G.,, R. Yuan,, A. Casadevall, and, M. D. Scharff. 1996. Immunoglobulin G3 blocking antibodies to the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. J. Exp. Med. 183: 19051909.
98. Park-Min,, K. H.,, N. V. Serbina,, W. Yang,, X. Ma,, G. Krystal,, B. G. Neel,, S. L. Nutt,, X. Hu, and, L. B. Ivashkiv. 2007. FcgammaRIII-dependent inhibition of interferon-gamma responses mediates suppressive effects of intravenous immune globulin. Immunity 26: 6778.
99. Pires Neto,, R.,, Jr., M. C. Guimaraes,, M. J. Moya,, F. R. Oliveira,, P. Louzada, Jr., and, R. Martinez. 2000. Hypogammaglobulinemia as predisposing factor for Cryptococcus neoformans infection: regarding two cases. Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop. 33: 603608. (In Portuguese.)
100. Pirofski, L. 2001. Polysaccharides, mimotopes and vaccines for encapsulated pathogens. Trends Microbiol. 9: 445452.
101. Pirofski,, L.,, and A. Casadevall. 2006. Acquired antibody mediated immunity to fungi, p. 487–503. In: J. Heitman,, S. G. Filler, and, A. P. Mitchell (ed.), Molecular Principles of Fungal Pathogenesis. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
102. Pirofski, L.,, R. Lui,, M. DeShaw, A. B. Kressel, and, Z. Zhong. 1995. Analysis of human monoclonal antibodies elicited by vaccination with a Cryptococcus neoformans glucuronoxylomannan capsular polysaccharide vaccine. Infect. Immun. 63: 30053014.
103. Pirofski, L. A. 2006. Of mice and men, revisited: new insights into an ancient molecule from studies of complement activation by Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect. Immun. 74: 30793084.
104. Polonelli,, L.,, S. Conti,, M. Gerloni,, W. Magliani,, M. Castagnola,, G. Morace, and, C. Chezzi. 1991. ‘Antibiobodies’: antibioticlike antiidiotypic antibodies. J. Med. Vet. Mycol. 29: 235242.
105. Rachini,, A.,, D. Pietrella,, P. Lupo,, A. Torosantucci,, P. Chiani,, C. Bromuro,, C. Proietti,, F. Bistoni,, A. Cassone, and, A. Vecchiarelli. 2007. An anti-beta-glucan monoclonal antibody inhibits growth and capsule formation of Cryptococcus neoformans in vitro and exerts therapeutic, anticryptococcal activity in vivo. Infect. Immun. 75: 50855094.
106. Rivera, J., and, A. Casadevall. 2005. Mouse genetic background is a major determinant of isotype-related differences for antibody-mediated protective efficacy against Cryptococcus neoformans. J. Immunol. 174: 80178026.
107. Rivera, J.,, J. Mukherjee,, L. M. Weiss, and, A. Casadevall. 2002. Antibody efficacy in murine pulmonary Cryptococcus neoformans infection: a role for nitric oxide. J. Immunol. 168: 34193427.
108. Rivera, J.,, O. Zaragoza, and, A. Casadevall. 2005. Antibodymediated protection against Cryptococcus neoformans is dependent on B cells. Infect. Immun. 73: 11411150.
109. [Reference deleted.]
110. Robbins, J. B., and, R. Schneerson. 1990. Polysaccharideprotein conjugates: a new generation of vaccines. J. Infect. Dis. 161: 821832.
111. Robertson, E. J., and, A. Casadevall. 2009. Antibodymediated immobilization of Cryptococcus neoformans promotes biofilm formation. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 75: 25282533.
112. Rosas, A. L.,, J. D. Nosanchuk, and, A. Casadevall. 2001. Passive immunization with melanin-binding monoclonal antibodies prolongs survival of mice with lethal Cryptococcus neoformans infection. Infect. Immun. 69: 34103412.
113. Savoy,, A. L.,, D. M. Lupan,, P. B. Manalo,, J. C. Roberts,, A. M. Schlageter,, L. C. Weinhold, and, T. R. Kozel. 1997. Acute lethal toxicity following passive immunization for therapy of murine cryptococcosis. Infect. Immun. 65: 18001807.
114. Schlageter, A. M., and, T. R. Kozel. 1990. Opsonization of Cryptococcus neoformans by a family of isotypeswitch variant antibodies specific for the capsular polysaccharide. Infect. Immun. 58: 19141918.
115. Shapiro,, S.,, D. O. Beenhouwer,, M. Feldmesser,, C. Taborda,, M. C. Carroll,, A. Casadevall, and, M. D. Scharff. 2002. Immunoglobulin G monoclonal antibodies to Cryptococcus neoformans protect mice deficient in complement component C3. Infect. Immun. 70: 25982604.
116. Shi,, Y.,, T. Yamazaki,, Y. Okubo,, Y. Uehara,, K. Sugane, and, K. Agematsu. 2005. Regulation of aged humoral immune defense against pneumococcal bacteria by IgM memory B cell. J. Immunol. 175: 32623267.
117. Singh,, N.,, O. Lortholary,, B. D. Alexander,, K. L. Gupta,, G. T. John,, K. Pursell,, P. Munoz,, G. B. Klintmalm,, V. Stosor,, R. del Busto,, A. P. Limaye,, J. Somani,, M. Lyon,, S. Houston,, A. A. House,, T. L. Pruett,, S. Orloff,, A. Humar,, L. Dowdy,, J. GarciaDiaz,, A. C. Kalil,, R. A. Fisher, and, S. Husain. 2005. An immune reconstitution syndrome-like illness associated with Cryptococcus neoformans infection in organ transplant recipients. Clin. Infect. Dis. 40: 17561761.
118. Song,, X.,, S. Shapiro,, D. L. Goldman,, A. Casadevall,, M. Scharff, and, S. C. Lee. 2002. Fcgamma receptor I-and III-mediated macrophage inflammatory protein 1alpha induction in primary human and murine microglia. Infect. Immun. 70: 51775184.
119. Spitzer,, E. D.,, S. G. Spitzer,, L. F. Freundlich, and, A. Casadevall. 1993. Persistence of initial infection in recurrent Cryptococcus neoformans meningitis. Lancet 341: 595596.
120. Subramaniam, K.,, N. French, and, L. A. Pirofski. 2005. Cryptococcus neoformans reactive and total immunoglobulin profiles of human immunodeficiency virusinfected and uninfected Ugandans. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 12: 11681176.
121. Subramaniam,, K.,, B. Metzger,, L. Hanau,, A. Guh,, S. Badri, and, L. Pirofski. 2009. Memory IgM B cell expression predicts HIV-associated Cryptococcus neoformans disease status. J. Infect. Dis. 200: 24451.
122. Sundstrom, J. B., and, R. Cherniak. 1992. The glucuronoxylomannan of Cryptococcus neoformans serotype A is a type 2 T-cell-independent antigen. Infect. Immun. 60: 40804087.
123. Taborda, C., and, A. Casadevall. 2001. Immunoglobulin M efficacy against Cryptococcus neoformans: mechanism, dose dependence, and prozonelike effects in passive protection experiments. J. Immunol. 166: 21002107.
124. Taborda, C.,, J. Rivera,, O. Zaragoza, and, A. Casadevall. 2003. More is not necessarily better: prozonelike effects in passive immunization with IgG. J. Immunol. 170: 36213630.
125. Taborda, C. P., and, A. Casadevall. 2002. CR3 (CD11b/CD18) and CR4 (CD11c/CD18) are involved in complement-independent antibodymediated phagocytosis of Cryptococcus neoformans. Immunity 16: 791802.
126. Tangye, S. G., and, K. L. Good. 2007. Human IgM+ CD27+ B cells: memory B cells or “memory” B cells? J. Immunol. 179: 1319.
127. Tian, H.,, S. Weber,, P. Thorkildson, T. R. Kozel, and, L. Pirofski. 2009. Efficacy of opsonic and nonopsonic serotype 3 pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide-specific antibodies against intransasal challenge with Streptococcus pneumoniae in mice. Infect. Immun. 77: 15021513.
128. Torosantucci,, A.,, C. Bromuro,, P. Chiani, F. De Bernardis,, F. Berti,, C. Galli,, F. Norelli,, C. Bellucci,, L. Polonelli,, P. Costantino,, R. Rappuoli, and, A. Cassone. 2005. A novel glycoconjugate vaccine against fungal pathogens. J. Exp. Med. 202: 597606.
129. Torres, M., and, A. Casadevall. 2008. The immunoglobulin constant region contributes to affinity and specificity. Trends Immunol. 29: 9197.
130. Torres, M.,, N. Fernandez-Fuentes,, A. Fiser, and, A. Casadevall. 2007. The immunoglobulin heavy chain constant region affects kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of antibody variable region interactions with antigen. J. Biol. Chem. 282: 1391713927.
131. Torres, M.,, R. May,, M. D. Scharff, and, A. Casadevall. 2005. Variable-region identical antibodies differing in isotype demonstrate differences in fine specificity and idiotype. J. Immunol. 174: 21322142.
132. Tucker, S. C., and, A. Casadevall. 2002. Replication of Cryptococcus neoformans in macrophages is accompanied by phagosomal permeabilization and accumulation of vesicles containing polysaccharide in the cytoplasm. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99: 31653170.
133. Vecchiarelli, A. 2000. Immunoregulation by capsular components of Cryptococcus neoformans. Med. Mycol. 38: 407417.
134. Vecchiarelli, A. 2005. The cellular responses induced by the capsular polysaccharide of Cryptococcus neoformans differ depending on the presence or absence of specific protective antibodies. Curr. Mol. Med. 5: 413420.
135. Vecchiarelli,, A.,, C. Monari,, C. Retini,, D. Pietrella,, B. Palazzetti,, L. Pitzurra, and, A. Casadevall. 1998. Cryptococcus neoformans differently regulates B7–1 (CD80) and B7–2 (CD86) expression on human monocytes. Eur. J. Immunol. 28: 114121.
136. Vecchiarelli, A.,, D. Pietrella,, F. Bistoni, T. R. Kozel, and, A. Casadevall. 2002. Antibody to Cryptococcus neoformans capsular glucuronoxylomannan promotes expression of interleukin-12Rbeta2 subunit on human T cells in vitro through effects mediated by antigen-presenting cells. Immunology 106: 267272.
137. Vecchiarelli, A.,, C. Retini,, C. Monari, and, A. Casadevall. 1998. Specific antibody to Cryptococcus neoformans alters human leukocyte cytokine synthesis and promotes T-cell proliferation. Infect. Immun. 66: 12441247.
138. Wahab, J. A.,, M. J. Hanifah, and, K. E. Choo. 1995. Bruton’s agammaglobulinemia in a child with cryptococcal empyema thoracis and periauricular pyogenic abscess. Singapore Med. J. 36: 686689.
139. Wilson, M. A., and, T. R. Kozel. 1992. Contribution of antibody in normal human serum to early deposition of C3 onto encapsulated and nonencapsulated Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect. Immun. 60: 754761.
140. Yoo,, E. M.,, L. A. Wims,, L. A. Chan, and, S. L. Morrison. 2003. Human IgG2 can form covalent dimers. J. Immunol. 170: 31343138.
141. Yuan, R.,, A. Casadevall, and, M. D. Scharff. 1997. T cells cooperate with passive antibody to modify the course of Cryptococcus neoformans in mice. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94: 24832488.
142. Yuan, R.,, A. Casadevall,, G. Spira, and, M. D. Scharff. 1995. Isotype switching from IgG3 to IgG1 converts a non-protective murine antibody to Cryptococcus neoformans to a protective antibody. J. Immunol. 154: 18101816.
143. Yuan, R.,, R. Clynes,, J. Oh,, J. V. Ravetch, and, M. D. Scharff. 1998. Antibodymediated modulation of Cryptococcus neoformans infection is dependent on distinct Fc receptor functions and IgG subclasses. J. Exp. Med. 187: 641648.
144. Zaragoza, O.,, C. P. Taborda, and, A. Casadevall. 2003. The efficacy of complement-mediated phagocytosis of Cryptococcus neoformans is dependent on the location of C3 in the polysaccharide capsule and involves both direct and indirect C3-mediated interactions. Eur. J. Immunol. 33: 19571967.
145. Zebedee,, S. L.,, R. K. Koduri,, J. Mukherjee,, S. Mukherjee,, S. Lee,, D. F. Sauer,, M. D. Scharff, and, A. Casadevall. 1994. Mousehuman immunoglobulin G1 chimeric antibodies with activities against Cryptococcus neoformans. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 38: 15071514.
146. Zhong, Z., and, L. Pirofski. 1996. Opsonization of Cryptococcus neoformans by human anti-glucuronoxyloman-nan antibodies. Infect. Immun. 64: 34463450.
147. Zhong, Z., and, L. Pirofski. 1998. Antifungal activity of a human anti-glucuronoxyloman-nan antibody. Clin. Diag. Lab. Immunol. 5: 5864.


Generic image for table

Mechanisms of AI to cryptococcosis

Citation: Pirofski L, Casadevall A. 2011. Acquired Humoral Immunity to , p 397-428. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch28

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error