Chapter 7 : Impacts of Fecal Bacteria on Human and Animal Health—Pathogens and Virulence Genes

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Impacts of Fecal Bacteria on Human and Animal Health—Pathogens and Virulence Genes, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816865/9781555816087_Chap07-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816865/9781555816087_Chap07-2.gif


The presence of pathogens in our food and water supplies represents a significant risk to human and animal health. This chapter focuses on the most commonly occurring human pathogens of , such as , , , , , , , and spp. Of these, special attention is given to pathogenic , which is the most diverse and studied member of . The types of disease caused by are grossly classified as either intestinal or extraintestinal. Six pathotypes of intestinal pathogenic are recognized, each with virulence factors making them distinct. Extraintestinal pathogenic , or ExPEC, is a broad group of pathogens that colonize the extraintestinal compartment of animal and human hosts, resulting in such diverse conditions as urinary tract infection, meningitis, peritonitis, and septicemia. Enterohemorrhagic (EHEC; sometimes referred to as Shiga toxin-producing , or STEC, or members thereof ) are another diarrheal pathotype, well known for their ability to cause diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis (HC), and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). This chapter focuses on the pathogens and virulence genes of the serovars implicated in foodborne gastroenteritis. It also focuses on the virulence genes of these pathogens with regard to genomic content. Already underway, the postgenomic era will lead to a better understanding of the importance of these genomic traits as they pertain to infection within humans.

Citation: Johnson T. 2011. Impacts of Fecal Bacteria on Human and Animal Health—Pathogens and Virulence Genes, p 135-164. In Sadowsky M, Whitman R (ed), The Fecal Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816865.ch7
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of FIGURE 1

Virulence factors of

Citation: Johnson T. 2011. Impacts of Fecal Bacteria on Human and Animal Health—Pathogens and Virulence Genes, p 135-164. In Sadowsky M, Whitman R (ed), The Fecal Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816865.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2

Virulence factors of

Citation: Johnson T. 2011. Impacts of Fecal Bacteria on Human and Animal Health—Pathogens and Virulence Genes, p 135-164. In Sadowsky M, Whitman R (ed), The Fecal Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816865.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 3

Virulence factors of

Citation: Johnson T. 2011. Impacts of Fecal Bacteria on Human and Animal Health—Pathogens and Virulence Genes, p 135-164. In Sadowsky M, Whitman R (ed), The Fecal Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816865.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 4

Virulence factors of and

Citation: Johnson T. 2011. Impacts of Fecal Bacteria on Human and Animal Health—Pathogens and Virulence Genes, p 135-164. In Sadowsky M, Whitman R (ed), The Fecal Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816865.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 5

Virulence factors of

Citation: Johnson T. 2011. Impacts of Fecal Bacteria on Human and Animal Health—Pathogens and Virulence Genes, p 135-164. In Sadowsky M, Whitman R (ed), The Fecal Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816865.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Allison, H. E. 2007. Stx-phages: drivers and mediators of the evolution of STEC and STEC-like pathogens. Future Microbiol. 2: 165174.
2. Badger, J. L.,, M.F. Stins,, and K.S. Kim. 1999. Citrobacter freundii invades and replicates in human brain microvascular endothelial cells. Infect. Immun. 67: 42084215.
3. Bahrani, F. K.,, and H.L. Mobley. 1994. Proteus mirabilis MR/P fimbrial operon: genetic organization, nucleotide sequence, and conditions for expression. J. Bacteriol. 176: 34123419.
4. Baldini, M. M.,, J. B. Kaper, M. M. Levine,, and H.W. Moon. 1983a. Molecular nature of adhesion in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. Lancet 2:218.
5. Baldini, M. M.,, J. B. Kaper,, M.M. Levine,, D. C. Candy,, and H.W. Moon. 1983b. Plasmid-mediated adhesion in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 2: 534538.
6. Bearson, S. M.,, B.L. Bearson,, and M.A. Ras-mussen. 2006. Identification of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium genes important for survival in the swine gastric environment. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72: 28292836.
7. Bernier, C.,, P. Gounon,, and C. Le Bouguenec. 2002. Identification of an aggregative adhesion fimbria (AAF) type III-encoding operon in entero-aggregative Escherichia coli as a sensitive probe for detecting the AAF-encoding operon family. Infect. Immun. 70: 43024311.
8. Bijlsma, I. G.,, L. van Dijk, J. G. Kusters,, and W. Gaastra. 1995. Nucleotide sequences of two fimbrial major subunit genes, pmpA and ucaA, from canine-uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis strains. Microbiology 141: 13491357.
9. Bilge, S. S.,, C. R. Clausen, W. Lau,, and S.L. Moseley. 1989. Molecular characterization of a fimbrial adhesin, F1845, mediating diffuse adherence of diarrhea-associated escherichia coli to HEp-2 cells. J. Bacteriol. 171: 42814289.
10. Boisen, N.,, C. Struve,, F. Scheutz,, K. A. Krog-felt,, and J.P. Nataro. 2008. New adhesin of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli related to the Afa/Dr/AAF family. Infect. Immun. 76: 32813292.
11. Braun, V.,, S. Mahren,, and M. Ogierman. 2003. Regulation of the FecI-type ECF sigma factor by transmembrane signalling. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 6: 173180.
12. Brisse, S.,, C. Fevre,, V. Passet, S. Issenhuth-Jeanjean, R. Tournebize,, L. Diancourt,, and P. Grimont. 2009. Virulent clones of Klebsiella pneumoniae: identification and evolutionary scenario based on genomic and phenotypic characterization. PLoS ONE 4:e4982.
13. Brunder, W.,, A. S. Khan, J. Hacker,, and H. Karch. 2001. Novel type of fimbriae encoded by the large plasmid of sorbitol-fermenting enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H(-). Infect. Immun. 69: 44474457.
14. Brunder, W.,, H. Karch,, and H. Schmidt. 2006. Complete sequence of the large virulence plasmid pSFO157 of the sorbitol-fermenting enterohemor-rhagic Escherichia coli O157:H-strain 3072/96. Int. J. Med. Microbiol. 296: 467474.
15. Buchrieser, C.,, P. Glaser,, C. Rusniok,, H. Nedjari,, H. D’Hauteville,, F. Kunst,, P. Sansonetti,, and C. Parsot. 2000. The virulence plasmid pWR100 and the repertoire of proteins secreted by the type III secretion apparatus of Shigella flexneri. Mol. Microbiol. 38: 760771.
16. Burmolle, M.,, M.I. Bahl,, L.B. Jensen, S. J. Sorensen,, and L.H. Hansen. 2008. Type 3 fim-briae, encoded by the conjugative plasmid pOLA52, enhance biofilm formation and transfer frequencies in Enterobacteriaceae strains. Microbiol ogy 154: 187195.
17. Carniel, E. 1999. The Yersinia high-pathogenicity island. Int. Microbiol. 2: 161167.
18. Center for Disease Control. 2006. Salmonella surveillance: annual summary, 2005. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, CDC, Washington, DC.
19. Center for Disease Control. 2008. Salmonella surveillance: annual summary, 2006. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, CDC, Washington, DC.
20. Chen, H. D.,, and G. Frankel. 2005. Enteropatho-genic Escherichia coli: unravelling pathogenesis. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 29: 8398.
21. Chen, Y. T.,, H. Y. Chang,, Y. C. Lai,, C.C. Pan, S. F. Tsai,, and H.L. Peng. 2004. Sequencing and analysis of the large virulence plasmid pLVPK of Klebsiella pneumoniae CG43. Gene 337: 189198.
22. Cherla, R. P.,, S.Y. Lee,, and V.L. Tesh. 2003. Shiga toxins and apoptosis. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 228: 159166.
23. Chiu, C. H.,, P. Tang,, C. Chu,, S. Hu,, Q. Bao,, J. Yu,, Y.Y. Chou, H. S. Wang,, and Y.S. Lee. 2005. The genome sequence of Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis, a highly invasive and resistant zoonotic pathogen. Nucleic Acids Res. 33: 16901698.
24. Clarke, S. C.,, R. D. Haigh, P. P. Freestone,, and P.H. Williams. 2003. Virulence of entero-pathogenic Escherichia coli, a global pathogen. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 16: 365378.
25. Coker, C.,, C.A. Poore, X. Li,, and H.L. Mobley. 2000. Pathogenesis of Proteus mirabilis urinary tract infection. Microbes Infect. 2: 14971505.
26. Cornelis, G.,, A. Boland,, A. Boyd,, C. Gueijen,, M. Iriarte,, C. Neyt,, M. Sory,, and I. Stainier. 1998. The virulence plasmid of Yersinia, an antihost genome. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 62: 13151352.
27. Cristea, D.,, S. Ceciu,, D. T. Chitoiu, C. Bleotu,, V. Lazar,, and M.C. Chifiriuc. 2009. Comparative study of pathogenicity tests for Shigella spp. and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli strains. Roum. Arch. Microbiol. Immunol. 68: 4449.
28. Czeczulin, J. R.,, S. Balepur,, S. Hicks,, A. Phillips,, R. Hall,, M.H. Kothary, F. Navarro-Garcia,, and J.P. Nataro. 1997. Aggregative adherence fimbria II, a second fimbrial antigen mediating aggregative adherence in enteroaggregative Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 65: 41354145.
29. Czeczulin, J. R.,, T. S. Whittam, I. R. Henderson, F. Navarro-Garcia,, and J.P. Nataro. 1999. Phylogenetic analysis of enteroaggregative and diffusely adherent Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 67: 26922699.
30. Davis, T. J.,, and J.M. Matsen. 1974. Prevalence and characteristics of Klebsiella species: relation to association with a hospital environment. J. Infect. Dis. 130: 402405.
31. De Rycke, J.,, A. Milon,, and E. Oswald. 1999. Necrotoxic Escherichia coli (NTEC): two emerging categories of human and animal pathogens. Vet. Res. 30: 221233.
32. Deng, W.,, J. L. Puente,, S. Gruenheid,, Y. Li,, B. A. Vallance,, A. Vazquez,, J. Barba,, J.A. Ibarra, P. O’Donnell,, P. Metalnikov,, K. Ashman,, S. Lee,, D. Goode,, T. Pawson,, and B.B. Finlay. 2004. Dissecting virulence: systematic and functional analyses of a pathogenicity island. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101: 35973602.
33. Donnenberg, M. S.,, and J.B. Kaper. 1992. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 60: 39533961.
34. Drechsel, H.,, A. Thieken, R. Reissbrodt,, G. Jung,, and G. Winkelmann. 1993. Alphaketo acids are novel siderophores in the genera Proteus, Providencia, and Morganella and are produced by amino acid deaminases. J. Bacteriol. 175: 27272733.
35. Dudley, E. G.,, C. Abe, J., M. Ghigo,, P. Latour-Lambert, J., C. Hormazabal,, and J.P. Nataro. 2006. An IncI1 plasmid contributes to the adherence of the atypical enteroaggregative Escherichia coli strain C1096 to cultured cells and abiotic surfaces. Infect. Immun. 74: 21022114.
36. Dworkin, M.,, and S. Falkow. 2006. The Prokaryotes: A Handbook on the Biology of Bacteria. Springer, New York.
37. Elias, W. P.,, S. Suzart, L., R. Trabulsi,, J. P. Nataro,, and T.A. Gomes. 1999. Distribution of aggA and aafA gene sequences among Escherichia coli isolates with genotypic or phenotypic characteristics, or both, of enteroaggregative E. coli. J. Med. Microbiol. 48: 597599.
38. Elsinghorst, E. A.,, and J.A. Weitz. 1994. Epithelial cell invasion and adherence directed by the enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli tib locus is associated with a 104–kilodalton outer membrane protein. Infect. Immun. 62: 34633471.
39. Escobar-Paramo, P.,, C. Giudicelli, C. Parsot,, and E. Denamur. 2003. The evolutionary history of Shigella and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli revised. J. Mol. Evol. 57: 140148.
40. Escobar-Paramo, P.,, K. Grenet,, A. Le Menac’h,, L. Rode,, E. Salgado,, C. Amorin,, S. Gouriou,, B. Picard,, M.C. Rahimy, A. Andremont,, E. Denamur,, and R. Ruimy. 2004. Large-scale population structure of human commensal Escherichia coli isolates. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70: 56985700.
41. Eslava, C., F. Navarro-Garcia,, J. R. Czeczulin, I. R. Henderson,, A. Cravioto,, and J.P. Nataro. 1998. Pet, an autotransporter enterotoxin from enteroaggregative Escherichia coli. Infect. Im-mun. 66: 31553163.
42. Ewers, C.,, E.M. Antao, I. Diehl,, H. C. Philipp,, and L.H. Wieler. 2009. Intestine and environment of the chicken as reservoirs for extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli strains with zoonotic potential. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 75: 184192.
43. Ewers, C.,, G. Li,, H. Wilking,, S. Kiessling,, K. Alt,, E.M. Antao, C. Laturnus,, I. Diehl,, S. Glodde,, T. Homeier,, U. Bohnke,, H. Stein-ruck,, H. C. Philipp,, and L.H. Wieler. 2007. Avian pathogenic, uropathogenic, and newborn meningitis-causing Escherichia coli: how closely related are they? Int. J. Med. Microbiol. 297: 163176.
44. Fang, C. T.,, Y. P. Chuang, C. T. Shun, S., C. Chang,, and J.T. Wang. 2004. A novel virulence gene in Klebsiella pneumoniae strains causing primary liver abscess and septic metastatic complications. J. Exp. Med. 199: 697705.
45. Fleckenstein, J. M.,, D. J. Kopecko, R. L. Warren,, and E.A. Elsinghorst. 1996. Molecular characterization of the tia invasion locus from enterotoxi-genic Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 64: 22562265.
46. Foley, S. L.,, and A.M. Lynne. 2008. Food animal-associated Salmonella challenges: pathogenicity and antimicrobial resistance. J. Anim. Sci. 86:E 17387.
47. Fratamico, P. M.,, S. Bhaduri,, and R.L. Buchanan. 1993. Studies on Escherichia coli sero-type O157:H7 strains containing a 60–MDa plasmid and on 60–MDa plasmidcured derivatives. J. Med. Microbiol. 39: 371381.
48. Froehlich, B.,, J. Parkhill,, M. Sanders,, M. A. Quail,, and J.R. Scott. 2005. The pCoo plasmid of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli is a mosaic cointegrate. J. Bacteriol. 187: 65096516.
49. Gaastra, W.,, and A.M. Svennerholm. 1996. Colonization factors of human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). Trends Microbiol. 4: 444452.
50. Girardeau, J. P.,, Y. Bertin, and, C. Martin. 2009. Genomic analysis of the PAI ICL3 locus in pathogenic LEE-negative shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and Citrobacter rodentium. Microbiology 155: 10161027.
51. Gurtler, J. B.,, J.L. Kornacki,, and L.R. Beuchat. 2005. Enterobacter sakazakii: a coliform of increased concern to infant health. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 104: 134.
52. Hacker, J.,, G. Blum-Oehler, I. Muhldorfer,, and H. Tschape. 1997. Pathogenicity islands of virulent bacteria: structure, function and impact on microbial evolution. Mol. Microbiol. 23: 10891097.
53. Hacker, J.,, and J.B. Kaper. 2000. Pathogenicity islands and the evolution of microbes. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 54: 641679.
54. Hantke, K.,, G. Nicholson, W. Rabsch,, and G. Winkelmann. 2003. Salmochelins, siderophores of Salmonella enterica and uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains, are recognized by the outer membrane receptor IroN. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100: 36773682.
55. Henderson, I. R.,, J. Czeczulin,, C. Eslava,, F. Noriega,, and J.P. Nataro. 1999. Characterization of Pic, a secreted protease of Shigella flexneri and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 67: 55875596.
56. Hsieh, P. F.,, T. L. Lin, C. Z. Lee, S., F. Tsai,, and J.T. Wang. 2008. Serum-induced iron-acquisition systems and TonB contribute to virulence in Klebsiella pneumoniae causing primary pyogenic liver abscess. J. Infect. Dis. 197: 17171727.
57. Ishitoya, S.,, S. Yamamoto,, S. Kanamaru,, H. Kurazono,, T. Habuchi,, O. Ogawa,, and A. Terai. 2003. Distribution of afaE adhesins in Escherichia coli isolated from Japanese patients with urinary tract infection. J. Urol. 169: 17581761.
58. Islam, M. A.,, A. S. Mondol, E. de Boer,, R.R. Beumer, M.H. Zwietering, K. A. Talukder,, and A.E. Heuvelink. 2008. Prevalence and genetic characterization of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolates from slaughtered animals in Bangladesh. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74: 54145421.
59. Iversen, C.,, M. Lane,, and S.J. Forsythe. 2004. The growth profile, thermotolerance and biofilm formation of Enterobacter sakazakii grown in infant formula milk. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 38: 378382.
60. Iversen, C.,, A. Lehner,, N. Mullane,, J. Marugg,, S. Fanning,, R. Stephan,, and H. Joosten. 2007a. Identification of “Cronobacter“ spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii). J. Clin. Microbiol. 45: 38143816.
61. Iversen, C.,, A. Lehner,, N. Mullane,, E. Bidlas,, I. Cleenwerck,, J. Marugg,, S. Fanning,, R. Stephan,, and H. Joosten. 2007b. The taxonomy of Enterobacter sakazakii: proposal of a new genus Cronobacter gen. nov. and descriptions of Cronobacter sakazakii comb. nov. Cronobacter sakazakii subsp. sakazakii, comb. nov., Cronobacter sakazakii subsp. malonaticus subsp. nov., Cronobacter turicensis sp. nov., Cronobacter muytjensii sp. nov., Cronobacter dublinensis sp. nov. and Cronobacter genomospecies 1. BMC Evol. Biol. 7:64.
62. Izquierdo, L.,, N. Coderch,, N. Pique,, E. Bedini,, M. M. Corsaro,, S. Merino,, S. Fresno,, J. M. Tomas,, and M. Regue. 2003. The Klebsiella pneumoniae wabG gene: role in biosynthesis of the core lipopolysaccharide and virulence. J. Bacteriol. 185: 72137221.
63. Jenkins, C., C. van Ijperen,, E. G. Dudley, H. Chart,, G.A. Willshaw, T. Cheasty,, H. R. Smith,, and J.P. Nataro. 2005. Use of a microarray to assess the distribution of plasmid and chromosomal virulence genes in strains of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 253: 119124.
64. Johnson, J. R. 1991. Virulence factors in Escherichia coli urinary tract infection. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 4: 80128.
65. Johnson, J. R.,, and T.A. Russo. 2002. Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli: “the other bad E. coli”. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 139: 155162.
66. Johnson, J. R.,, and T.A. Russo. 2005. Molecular epidemiology of extraintestinal pathogenic (uro-pathogenic) Escherichia coli. Int. J. Med. Microbiol. 295: 383404.
67. Johnson, J. R.,, M. A. Kuskowski,, A. Gajewski,, S. Soto,, J.P. Horcajada, M. T. Jimenez de Anta,, and J. Vila. 2005. Extended virulence genotypes and phylogenetic background of Escherichia coli isolates from patients with cystitis, pyelonephritis, or prostatitis. J. Infect. Dis. 191: 4650.
68. Johnson, T. J.,, K. E. Siek, S. J. Johnson,, and L.K. Nolan. 2006b. DNA sequence of a ColV plasmid and prevalence of selected plasmid-encoded virulence genes among avian Escherichia coli strains. J. Bacteriol. 188: 745758.
69. Johnson, T. J.,, S.J. Johnson,, and L.K. Nolan. 2006a. Complete DNA sequence of a ColBM plasmid from avian pathogenic Escherichia coli suggests that it evolved from closely related ColV virulence plasmids. J. Bacteriol. 188: 59755983.
70. Johnson, T. J.,, S. Kariyawasam, Y. Wannem-uehler, P. Mangiamele,, S.J. Johnson, C. Doetkott,, J.A. Skyberg, A.M. Lynne, J. R. Johnson,, and L.K. Nolan. 2007. The genome sequence of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli strain O1:K1:H7 shares strong similarities with human extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli genomes. J. Bacteriol. 189: 32283236.
71. Johnson, T. J.,, Y. Wannemuehler, S., J. Johnson,, A. L. Stell,, C. Doetkott,, J.R. Johnson, K.S. Kim, L. Spanjaard,, and L.K. Nolan. 2008. Comparison of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli strains from human and avian sources reveals a mixed subset representing potential zoonotic pathogens. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74: 70437050.
72. Kabha, K.,, L. Nissimov,, A. Athamna,, Y. Keisari,, H. Parolis,, L.A. Parolis, R.M. Grue, J. Schlepper-Schafer,, A. R. Ezekowitz,, and D.E. Ohman. 1995. Relationships among capsular structure, phagocytosis, and mouse virulence in Klebsiella pneumoniae. Infect. Immun. 63: 847852.
73. Kahali, S.,, B. Sarkar,, K. Rajendran,, J. Khanam,, S. Yamasaki,, R.K. Nandy, S. K. Bhattacharya,, and T. Ramamurthy. 2004a. Virulence characteristics and molecular epidemiology of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli isolates from hospitalized diarrheal patients in Kolkata, India. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42: 41114120.
74. Kahali, S.,, B. Sarkar,, S. Chakraborty,, R. Macaden,, J. S. Deokule,, M. Ballal,, R.K. Nandy, S.K. Bhattacharya, Y. Takeda,, and T. Ramamurthy. 2004b. Molecular epidemiology of diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli associated with sporadic cases and outbreaks of diarrhoea between 2000 and 2001 in India. Eur. J. Epidemiol. 19: 473479.
75. Kaper, J. B. 2005. Pathogenic Escherichia coli. Int. J. Med. Microbiol. 295: 355356.
76. Kaper, J. B.,, J. P. Nataro,, and H.L. Mobley. 2004. Pathogenic Escherichia coli. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 2: 123140.
77. Karch, H.,, H. Bohm,, H. Schmidt,, F. Gunzer,, S. Aleksic,, and J. Heesemann. 1993. Clonal structure and pathogenicity of shiga-like toxin-producing, sorbitol-fermenting Escherichia coli O157:H-. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31: 12001205.
78. Karch, H.,, J. Heesemann,, R. Laufs, A. D. O’Brien, C. O. Tacket,, and M.M. Levine. 1987. A plasmid of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 is required for expression of a new fimbrial antigen and for adhesion to epithelial cells. Infect. Immun. 55: 455461.
79. Karch, H.,, P. I. Tarr, and, M. Bielaszewska. 2005. Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli in human medicine. Int. J. Med. Microbiol. 295: 405418.
80. Karch, H.,, R. Wiss,, H. Gloning,, P. Emmrich,, S. Aleksic,, and J. Bockemuhl. 1990. Hemolyticuremic syndrome in infants due to verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli. Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr. 115: 489495.
81. Karmali, M. A.,, B. T. Steele, M. Petric,, and C. Lim. 1983a. Sporadic cases of haemolytic-uraemic syndrome associated with faecal cytotoxin and cytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli in stools. Lancet 1: 619620.
82. Karmali, M. A.,, M. Petric,, C. Lim,, P. C. Fleming,, and B.T. Steele. 1983b. Escherichia coli cytotoxin, haemolytic-uraemic syndrome, and haemorrhagic colitis. Lancet 2: 12991300.
83. Keynan, Y.,, and E. Rubinstein. 2007. The changing face of Klebsiella pneumoniae infections in the community. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 30: 385389.
84. Kim, K. S. October, 2006. Chapter, Meningitis-associated Escherichia coli. In R. Curtiss III et al. (ed.), EcoSal—Escherichia coli and Salmonella: Cellular and Molecular Biology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. http://www.ecosal.org.
85. Knutton, S.,, M.M. Baldini, J. B. Kaper,, and A.S. McNeish. 1987. Role of plasmid-encoded adherence factors in adhesion of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli to HEp-2 cells. Infect. Immun. 55: 7885.
86. Kuhnert, P.,, B. M. Korczak, R. Stephan,, H. Joosten,, and C. Iversen. 2009. Phylogeny and prediction of genetic similarity of Cronobacter and related taxa by multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA). Int. J. Food Microbiol. 136: 152158.
87. Labigne-Roussel, A.,, M. A. Schmidt, W. Walz,, and S. Falkow. 1985. Genetic organization of the afimbrial adhesin operon and nucleotide sequence from a uropathogenic Escherichia coli gene encoding an afimbrial adhesin. J. Bacteriol. 162: 12851292.
88. Lacher, D. W.,, H. Steinsland, T., E. Blank,, M. S. Donnenberg,, and T.S. Whittam. 2007. Molecular evolution of typical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli: clonal analysis by multilocus sequence typing and virulence gene allelic profiling. J. Bacteriol. 189: 342350.
89. Lai, Y. C.,, H. L. Peng,, and H.Y. Chang. 2001. Identification of genes induced in vivo during Klebsiella pneumoniae CG43 infection. Infect. Immun. 69: 71407145.
90. Lai, Y. C.,, H. L. Peng,, and H.Y. Chang. 2003. RmpA2, an activator of capsule biosynthesis in Klebsiella pneumoniae CG43, regulates K2 cps gene expression at the transcriptional level. J. Bacteriol. 185: 788800.
91. Lan, R.,, B. Lumb,, D. Ryan,, and P.R. Reeves. 2001. Molecular evolution of large virulence plasmid in Shigella clones and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 69: 63036309.
92. Lan, R.,, M.C. Alles, K. Donohoe,, M. B. Martinez,, and P.R. Reeves. 2004. Molecular evolutionary relationships of enteroinvasive Escherichia coli and Shigella spp. Infect. Immun. 72: 50805088.
93. Lasaro, M. A.,, J.F. Rodrigues, C. Mathias-Santos,, B.E. Guth, A. Balan,, M. E. Sbrogio-Almeida,, and L.C. Ferreira. 2008. Genetic diversity of heat-labile toxin expressed by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from humans. J. Bacteriol. 190: 24002410.
94. Lawlor, M. S., C. O’Connor,, and V.L. Miller. 2007. Yersiniabactin is a virulence factor for Klebsiella pneumoniae during pulmonary infection. Infect. Immun. 75: 14631472.
95. Lawlor, M. S.,, J. Hsu,, P. D. Rick,, and V.L. Miller. 2005. Identification of Klebsiella pneumoniae virulence determinants using an intranasal infection model. Mol. Microbiol. 58: 10541073.
96. Le Bouguenec, C.,, and A.L. Servin. 2006. Diffusely adherent Escherichia coli strains expressing Afa/Dr adhesins (Afa/Dr DAEC): hitherto unrecognized pathogens. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 256: 185194.
97. Le Gall, T.,, M. Mavris,, M. C. Martino, M. L. Bernardini,, E. Denamur,, and C. Parsot. 2005. Analysis of virulence plasmid gene expression defines three classes of effectors in the type III secretion system of Shigella flexneri. Microbiology 151: 951962.
98. Lee, J. W.,, and J.D. Helmann. 2007. Functional specialization within the Fur family of metalloregulators. Biometals 20: 485499.
99. Lehner, A.,, K. Riedel,, L. Eberl,, P. Breeuwer,, B. Diep,, and R. Stephan. 2005. Biofilm formation, extracellular polysaccharide production, and cell-to-cell signaling in various Enterobacter sakazakii strains: aspects promoting environmental persistence. J. Food Prot. 68: 22872294.
100. Levine, M. M.,, J. P. Nataro, H. Karch,, M.M. Baldini, J.B. Kaper, R.E. Black, M. L. Clements,, and A.D. O’Brien. 1985. The diarrheal response of humans to some classic serotypes of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli is dependent on a plasmid encoding an enteroadhesiveness factor. J. Infect. Dis. 152: 550559.
101. Levine, M. M.,, J. G. Xu, J. B. Kaper,, H. Lior,, V. Prado,, B. Tall,, J. Nataro,, H. Karch,, and K. Wachsmuth. 1987. A DNA probe to identify enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli of O157:H7 and other serotypes that cause hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. J. Infect. Dis. 156: 175182.
102. Luperchio, S. A.,, J. V. Newman, C. A. Dangler,, M.D. Schrenzel, D.J. Brenner, A. G. Steigerwalt,, and D.B. Schauer. 2000. Citrobacter rodentium, the causative agent of transmissible murine colonic hyperplasia, exhibits clonality: synonymy of C. rodentium and mouse-pathogenic Escherichia coli. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 43434350.
103. Mammarappallil, J. G.,, and E.A. Elsinghorst. 2000. Epithelial cell adherence mediated by the enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Tia protein. Infect. Immun. 68: 65956601.
104. Manning, S. D.,, A. S. Motiwala, A. C. Springman,, W. Qi,, D.W. Lacher, L.M. Ouellette, J.M. Mladonicky, P. Somsel,, J.T. Rudrik, S.E. Dietrich, W. Zhang,, B. Swaminathan,, D. Alland,, and T.S. Whittam. 2008. Variation in virulence among clades of Escherichia coli O157:H7 associated with disease outbreaks. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105: 48684873.
105. Marcus, S. L.,, J. H. Brumell, C. G. Pfeifer,, and B.B. Finlay. 2000. Salmonella pathogenicity islands: big virulence in small packages. Microbes Infect. 2: 145156.
106. Maroncle, N.,, D. Balestrino, C. Rich,, and C. Forestier. 2002. Identification of Klebsiella pneu-moniae genes involved in intestinal colonization and adhesion using signature-tagged mutagenesis. Infect. Immun. 70: 47294734.
107. Massad, G.,, F. K. Bahrani,, and H.L. Mobley. 1994. Proteus mirabilis fimbriae: identification, isolation, and characterization of a new ambient-temperature fimbria. Infect. Immun. 62: 19891994.
108. Maurelli, A. T.,, R.E. Fernandez, C.A. Bloch,, C. K. Rode,, and A. Fasano. 1998. “Black holes” and bacterial pathogenicity: a large genomic deletion that enhances the virulence of Shigella spp. and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95: 39433948.
109. McConnell, M. M.,, H. Chart, S., M. Scotland,, H. R. Smith, G., A. Willshaw,, and B. Rowe. 1989. Properties of adherence factor plasmids of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and the effect of host strain on expression of adherence to HEp-2 cells. J. Gen. Microbiol. 135: 11231134.
110. Mellata, M.,, J. W. Touchman, and, R. Curtiss. 2009. Full sequence and comparative analysis of the plasmid pAPEC-1 of avian pathogenic E. coli chi7122 (O78:K80:H9). PLoS ONE 4:e4232.
111. Mellies, J. L.,, S. J. Elliott, V. Sperandio, M., S. Donnenberg,, and J.B. Kaper. 1999. The per regulon of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli: identification of a regulatory cascade and a novel transcriptional activator, the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE)-encoded regulator (ler). Mol. Microbiol. 33: 296306.
112. Mokracka, J.,, R. Koczura,, and A. Kaznowski. 2004. Yersiniabactin and other siderophores produced by clinical isolates of Enterobacter spp. and Citrobacter spp. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 40: 5155.
113. Moulin-Schouleur, M.,, M. Reperant,, S. Laurent,, A. Bree,, S. Mignon-Grasteau,, P. Germon,, D. Rasschaert,, and C. Schouler. 2007. Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli strains of avian and human origin: link between phylogenetic relationships and common virulence patterns. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45: 33663376.
114. Moulin-Schouleur, M.,, C. Schouler,, P. Tailliez, M., R. Kao,, A. Bree,, P. Germon,, E. Oswald,, J. Mainil,, M. Blanco,, and J. Blanco. 2006. Common virulence factors and genetic relationships between O18:K1:H7 Escherichia coli isolates of human and avian origin. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44: 34843492.
115. Murphy, C. A.,, and R. Belas. 1999. Genomic rearrangements in the flagellin genes of Proteus mirabilis. Mol. Microbiol. 31: 679690.
116. Nataro, J. P. 2005. Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli pathogenesis. Curr. Opin. Gastroenterol. 21: 48.
117. Nataro, J. P.,, D. Yikang, D. Yingkang,, and K. Walker. 1994. AggR, a transcriptional activator of aggregative adherence fimbria I expression in enteroaggregative Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 176: 46914699.
118. Nataro, J. P.,, I. C. Scaletsky, J. B. Kaper, M., M. Levine,, and L.R. Trabulsi. 1985. Plasmid-mediated factors conferring diffuse and localized adherence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 48: 378383.
119. Nataro, J. P.,, and J.B. Kaper. 1998. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 11: 142201.
120. Nataro, J. P.,, J. B. Kaper, R. Robins-Browne,, V. Prado,, P. Vial,, and M.M. Levine. 1987. Patterns of adherence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli to HEp-2 cells. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 6: 829831.
121. Nataro, J. P.,, Y. Deng, D., R. Maneval,, A. L. German, W., C. Martin,, and M.M. Levine. 1992. Aggregative adherence fimbriae I of en-teroaggregative Escherichia coli mediate adherence to HEp-2 cells and hemagglutination of human erythrocytes. Infect. Immun. 60: 22972304.
122. Navarro-Garcia, F.,, C. Eslava,, J. M. Villaseca, R. Lopez-Revilla,, J.R. Czeczulin, S. Srinivas,, J. P. Nataro,, and A. Cravioto. 1998. In vitro effects of a high-molecular-weight heat-labile enterotoxin from enteroaggregative Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 66: 31493154.
123. Navarro-Garcia, F.,, C. Sears,, C. Eslava,, A. Cravioto,, and J.P. Nataro. 1999. Cytoskeletal effects induced by pet, the serine protease enterotoxin of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 67: 21842192.
124. Naylor, S. W.,, D.L. Gally,, and J.C. Low. 2005. Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli in veterinary medicine. Int. J. Med. Microbiol. 295: 419441.
125. Nazarowec-White, M.,, and J.M. Farber. 1997. Enterobacter sakazakii: a review. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 34: 103113.
126. Newton, H. J.,, J. Sloan, D., M. Bulach,, T. Seemann,, C.C. Allison, M. Tauschek,, R. M. Robins-Browne,, J.C. Paton, T.S. Whittam, A. W. Paton,, and E.L. Hartland. 2009. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains negative for locus of enterocyte effacement. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 15: 372380.
127. Nishi, J.,, J. Sheikh,, K. Mizuguchi,, B. Luisi,, V. Burland,, A. Boutin,, D.J. Rose, F. R. Blattner,, and J.P. Nataro. 2003. The export of coat protein from enteroaggregative Escherichia coli by a specific ATP-binding cassette transporter system. J. Biol. Chem. 278: 4568045689.
128. Nowicki, B.,, J.P. Barrish, T. Korhonen,, R. A. Hull,, and S.I. Hull. 1987. Molecular cloning of the Escherichia coli O75X adhesin. Infect. Immun. 55: 31683173.
129. Nowicki, B.,, R. Selvarangan,, and S. Nowicki. 2001. Family of Escherichia coli Dr adhesins: decay-accelerating factor receptor recognition and inva-siveness. J. Infect. Dis. 183:S 2427.
130. Ochman, H.,, and L.M. Davalos. 2006. The nature and dynamics of bacterial genomes. Science 311: 17301733.
131. Ochman, H.,, and A.C. Wilson. 1987. Evolution in bacteria: evidence for a universal substitution rate in cellular genomes. J. Mol. Evol. 26: 7486.
132. Ochman, H.,, and R.K. Selander. 1984a. Evidence for clonal population structure in Escherichia coli. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81: 198201.
133. Ochman, H.,, and R.K. Selander. 1984b. Standard reference strains of Escherichia coli from natural populations. J. Bacteriol. 157: 690693.
134. Okeke, I. N.,, I. C. Scaletsky, E. H. Soars, L., R. Macfarlane,, and A.G. Torres. 2004. Molecular epidemiology of the iron utilization genes of enteroag-gregative Escherichia coli. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42: 3644.
135. Ong, C. L.,, G. C. Ulett, A.N. Mabbett,, S.A. Beatson, R.I. Webb, W. Monaghan,, G.R. Nimmo, D.F. Looke, A. G. McEwan,, and M.A. Schembri. 2008. Identification of type 3 fimbriae in uropathogenic Escherichia coli reveals a role in biofilm formation. J. Bacteriol. 190: 10541063.
136. Orden, J. A.,, G. Dominguez-Bernal,, S. Martinez-Pulgarin,, M. Blanco,, J.E. Blanco, A. Mora,, J. Blanco,, J. Blanco,, and R. de la Fuente. 2007. Necrotoxigenic Escherichia coli from sheep and goats produce a new type of cytotoxic necrotizing factor (CNF3) associated with the eae and ehxA genes. Int. Microbiol. 10: 4755.
137. Ostroff, S. M.,, P.I. Tarr,, M.A. Neill,, J.H. Lewis, N. Hargrett-Bean,, and J.M. Kobayashi. 1989. Toxin genotypes and plasmid profiles as determinants of systemic sequelae in Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections. J. Infect. Dis. 160: 994998.
138. Pagotto, F. J.,, M. Nazarowec-White,, S. Bidawid,, and J.M. Farber. 2003. Enterobacter sakazakii: infectivity and enterotoxin production in vitro and in vivo. J. Food Prot. 66: 370375.
139. Paiva de Sousa, C.,, and J.D. Dubreuil. 2001. Distribution and expression of the astA gene (EAST1 toxin) in Escherichia coli and Salmonella. Int. J. Med. Microbiol. 291: 1520.
140. Parkhill, J.,, G. Dougan,, K. D. James, N. R. Thomson,, D. Pickard,, J. Wain,, C. Churcher,, M. K.L., S.D. Bentley, M. T.G. Holden, M. Shebaihia,, S. Baker,, D. Basham,, K. Brooks,, T. Chillingworth,, P. Connerton,, A. Cronin,, P. Davis,, R.M. Davies, L. Dowd,, N. White,, J. Farrar,, T. Feltwell,, N. Hamlin,, A. Haque,, T.T. Hien, S. Holrody,, C. Parry,, M. Quail,, K. Rutherford,, M. Simmonds,, J. Skelton,, K. Stevens,, S. Whitehead,, and B.G. Barrell. 2001. Complete genome sequence of a multiple drug resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi CT18. Nature 413: 848852.
141. Parsot, C. 2005. Shigella spp. and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli pathogenicity factors. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 252: 1118.
142. Pearson, M. M.,, M. Sebaihia,, C. Churcher,, M. A. Quail,, A.S. Seshasayee, N.M. Luscombe, Z. Abdellah,, C. Arrosmith,, B. Atkin,, T. Chillingworth,, H. Hauser,, K. Jagels,, S. Moule,, K. Mungall,, H. Norbertczak,, E. Rabbinowitsch,, D. Walker,, S. Whithead,, N.R. Thomson, P.N. Rather, J. Parkhill,, and H.L. Mobley. 2008. Complete genome sequence of uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis, a master of both adherence and mo-tility. J. Bacteriol. 190: 40274037.
143. Perna, N. T.,, G. F. Mayhew, G. Posfai,, S. Elliott,, M.S. Donnenberg, J. B. Kaper,, and F.R. Blattner. 1998. Molecular evolution of a pathogenicity island from enterohem-orrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7. Infect. Immun. 66: 38103817.
144. Pham, T. Q.,, P. Goluszko,, V. Popov,, S. Nowicki,, and B.J. Nowicki. 1997. Molecular cloning and characterization of Dr-II, a nonfimbrial adhesin-I-like adhesin isolated from gestational pyelonephritis-associated Escherichia coli that binds to decay-accelerating factor. Infect. Immun. 65: 43094318.
145. Podschun, R.,, and U. Ullmann. 1998. Klebsiella spp. as nosocomial pathogens: epidemiology, taxonomy, typing methods, and pathogenicity factors. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 11: 589603.
146. Qadri, F.,, S. K. Das,, A. S. Faruque, G. J. Fuchs,, M.J. Albert, R. B. Sack,, and A.M. Svennerholm. 2000. Prevalence of toxin types and colonization factors in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli isolated during a 2-year period from diarrheal patients in Bangladesh. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 2731.
147. Ratnam, S.,, S. B. March, R. Ahmed, G., S. Bezanson,, and S. Kasatiya. 1988. Characterization of Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26: 20062012.
148. Regue, M.,, B. Hita,, N. Pique,, L. Izquierdo,, S. Merino,, S. Fresno,, V. J. Benedi,, and J.M. Tomas. 2004. A gene, uge, is essential for Klebsiella pneumoniae virulence. Infect. Immun. 72: 5461.
149. Rijavec, M.,, M. Muller-Premru, B. Zakotnik,, and D. Zgur-Bertok. 2008. Virulence factors and biofilm production among Escherichia coli strains causing bacteraemia of urinary tract origin. J. Med. Microbiol. 57: 13291334.
150. Riley, L. W.,, R. S. Remis, S. D. Helgerson,, H.B. McGee, J.G. Wells, B.R. Davis, R.J. Hebert, E.S. Olcott, L.M. Johnson, N.T. Hargrett, P. A. Blake,, and M.L. Cohen. 1983. Hemorrhagic colitis associated with a rare Escherichia coli serotype. N. Engl. J. Med. 308: 681685.
151. Ron, E. Z. 2006. Host specificity of septicemic Escherichia coli: human and avian pathogens. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 9: 2832.
152. Rose, H. D.,, and J. Schreier. 1968. The effect of hospitalization and antibiotic therapy on the gram-negative fecal flora. Am. J. Med. Sci. 255: 228236.
153. Rosenthal, S.,, and I.B. Tager. 1975. Prevalence of gram-negative rods in the normal pharyngeal flora. Ann. Intern. Med. 83: 355357.
154. Rosser, T.,, T. Dransfield,, L. Allison,, M. Hanson,, N. Holden,, J. Evans,, S. Naylor,, R. La Ragione,, J. C. Low,, and D.L. Gally. 2008. Pathogenic potential of emergent sorbitol-fermenting Escherichia coli O157:NM. Infect. Immun. 76: 55985607.
155. Rotger, R.,, and J. Casadesus. 1999. The virulence plasmids of Salmonella. Int. Microbiol. 2: 177184.
156. Rozalski, A.,, Z. Sidorczyk,, and K. Kotelko. 1997. Potential virulence factors of Proteus bacilli. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 61: 6589.
157. Russo, T. A.,, and J.R. Johnson. 2000. Proposal for a new inclusive designation for extraintestinal pathogenic isolates of Escherichia coli: ExPEC. J. Infect. Dis. 181: 17531754.
158. Saif, Y. M.,, and A.M. Fadly. 2008. Diseases of Poultry. Blackwell Publishing, Ames, IA.
159. Sanders, W. E., Jr., and C.C. Sanders. 1997. Enterobacter spp.: pathogens poised to flourish at the turn of the century. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 10: 220241.
160. Sarantuya, J.,, J. Nishi,, N. Wakimoto,, S. Erdene,, J. P. Nataro,, J. Sheikh,, M. Iwashita,, K. Manago,, K. Tokuda,, M. Yoshinaga,, K. Miyata,, and Y. Kawano. 2004. Typical enteroaggregative Escherichia coli is the most prevalent pathotype among E. coli strains causing diarrhea in Mongolian children. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42: 133139.
161. Savarino, S. J.,, A. Fasano,, J. Watson,, B.M. Martin,, M.M. Levine, S. Guandalini,, and P. Guerry. 1993. Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin 1 represents another subfamily of E. coli heat-stable toxin. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90: 30933097.
162. Savarino, S. J.,, P. Fox,, Y. Deng,, and J.P. Nataro. 1994. Identification and characterization of a gene cluster mediating enteroaggregative Escherichia coli aggregative adherence fimbria I biogenesis. J. Bacteriol. 176: 49494957.
163. Servin, A. L. 2005. Pathogenesis of Afa/Dr diffusely adhering Escherichia coli. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 18: 264292.
164. Shaheen, H. I.,, I.A. Abdel Messih,, J.D. Klena,, A. Mansour,, Z. El-Wakkeel,, T.F. Wierzba, J.W. Sanders, S.B. Khalil, D.M. Rockabrand, M.R. Monteville, P.J. Rozmajzl, A. M. Svenner-holm,, and R.W. Frenck. 2009. Phenotypic and genotypic analysis of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in samples obtained from Egyptian children presenting to referral hospitals. J. Clin. Microbiol. 47: 189197.
165. Shaheen, H. I.,, S. B. Khalil, M. R. Rao, R. Abu Elyazeed,, T.F. Wierzba, L. F. Peruski Jr,, S. Putnam,, A. Navarro,, B.Z. Morsy, A. Cravioto,, J.D. Clemens, A. M. Svennerholm,, and S.J. Savarino. 2004. Phenotypic profiles of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli associated with early childhood diarrhea in rural Egypt. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42: 55885595.
166. Sheikh, J.,, J. R. Czeczulin,, S. Harrington,, S. Hicks,, I.R. Henderson,, C. Le Bouguenec,, P. Gounon,, A. Phillips,, and J.P. Nataro. 2002. A novel dispersin protein in enteroaggrega-tive Escherichia coli. J. Clin. Invest. 110: 13291337.
167. Sherlock, O.,, R. M. Vejborg, and, P. Klemm. 2005. The TibA adhesin/invasin from enterotoxi-genic Escherichia coli is self recognizing and induces bacterial aggregation and biofilm formation. Infect. Immun. 73: 19541963.
168. Siitonen, A. 1994. What makes Escherichia coli pathogenic? Ann. Med. 26: 229231.
169. Smith, J. L.,, P.M. Fratamico,, and N.W. Gunther. 2007. Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli. Foodborne Pathog. Dis. 4: 134163.
170. Struve, C.,, C. Forestier,, and K.A. Krogfelt. 2003. Application of a novel multi-screening signature-tagged mutagenesis assay for identification of Klebsiella pneumoniae genes essential in colonization and infection. Microbiology 149: 167176.
171. Svanborg, C.,, and G. Godaly. 1997. Bacterial virulence in urinary tract infection. Infect. Dis. Clin. North Am. 11: 513529.
172. Tatsuno, I.,, M. Horie,, H. Abe,, T. Miki,, K. Makino,, H. Shinagawa,, H. Taguchi,, S. Kamiya,, T. Hayashi,, and C. Sasakawa. 2001. toxB gene on pO157 of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 is required for full epithelial cell adherence phenotype. Infect. Immun. 69: 66606669.
173. Teng, C. H.,, Y. Xie,, S. Shin,, F. Di Cello, M. Paul-Satyaseela,, M. Cai,, and K.S. Kim. 2006. Effects of ompA deletion on expression of type 1 fimbriae in Escherichia coli K1 strain RS218 and on the association of E. coli with human brain microvascular endothelial cells. Infect. Immun. 74: 56095616.
174. Thom, B. T. 1970. Klebsiella in faeces. Lancet 2:1033.
175. Tolson, D. L.,, D.L. Barrigar,, R. J. McLean,, and E. Altman. 1995. Expression of a nonagglu-tinating fimbria by Proteus mirabilis. Infect. Immun. 63: 11271129.
176. Townsend, S. M.,, H. A. Pollack, I. Gonzalez-Gomez,, H. Shimada,, and J.L. Badger. 2003. Citrobacter koseri brain abscess in the neonatal rat: survival and replication within human and rat macrophages. Infect. Immun. 71: 58715880.
177. Trabulsi, L. R.,, R. Keller,, and T.A. Tardelli Gomes. 2002. Typical and atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8: 508513.
178. Turner, S. M.,, A. Scott-Tucker,, L. M. Cooper,, and I.R. Henderson. 2006a. Weapons of mass destruction: virulence factors of the global killer enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 263: 1020.
179. Turner, S. M.,, R. R. Chaudhuri, Z. D. Jiang, H. DuPont,, C. Gyles,, C.W. Penn, M. J. Pallen,, and I.R. Henderson. 2006b. Phylogenetic comparisons reveal multiple acquisitions of the toxin genes by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains of different evolutionary lineages. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44: 45284536.
180. Tzipori, S.,, F. Gunzer,, M.S. Donnenberg,, L. de Montigny,, J. B. Kaper,, and A. Donohue-Rolfe. 1995. The role of the eaeA gene in diarrhea and neurological complications in a gnotobiotic piglet model of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection. Infect. Immun. 63: 36213627.
181. Van Asten, A. J.,, and J.E. van Dijk. 2005. Distribution of “classic” virulence factors among Salmonella spp. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 44: 251259.
182. Vila, J.,, M. Vargas,, I. R. Henderson, J. Gascon,, and J.P. Nataro. 2000. Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli virulence factors in traveler’s diarrhea strains. J. Infect. Dis. 182: 17801783.
183. Welinder-Olsson, C.,, and B. Kaijser. 2005. En-terohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 37: 405416.
184. Wolf, M. K. 1997. Occurrence, distribution, and associations of O and H serogroups, colonization factor antigens, and toxins of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 10: 569584.
185. Wray, S. K.,, S. I. Hull, R. G. Cook,, J. Barrish,, and R.A. Hull. 1986. Identification and characterization of a uroepithelial cell adhesin from a uropathogenic isolate of Proteus mirabilis. Infect. Im-mun. 54: 4349.
186. Wu, K. M.,, L. H. Li, J. J. Yan,, N. Tsao,, T.L. Liao, H.C. Tsai, C.P. Fung, H.J. Chen, Y.M. Liu, J.T. Wang, C.T. Fang, S.C. Chang, H.Y. Shu, T.T. Liu, Y.T. Chen, Y.R. Shiau, T.L. Lauderdale, I.J. Su, R. Kirby,, and S.F. Tsai. 2009. Genome sequencing and comparative analysis of Klebsiella pneumoniae NTUH-K2044, a strain causing liver abscess and meningitis. J. Bacteriol. 14: 44924501.
187. Xie, Y.,, G. Parthasarathy,, F. Di Cello, C., H. Teng,, M. Paul-Satyaseela,, and K.S. Kim. 2008. Transcriptome of Escherichia coli K1 bound to human brain microvascular endothelial cells. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 365: 201206.
188. Xie, Y.,, V. Kolisnychenko,, M. Paul-Satyaseela,, S. Elliott,, G. Parthasarathy,, Y. Yao,, G. Plunkett 3rd,, F. R. Blattner,, and K.S. Kim. 2006. Identification and characterization of Escherichia coli RS218–derived islands in the pathogenesis of E. coli meningitis. J. Infect. Dis. 194: 358364.
189. Yamamoto, T.,, N. Wakisaka,, T. Nakae,, T. Kamano,, O. Serichantalergs,, and P. Echeverria. 1996. Characterization of a novel hemagglutinin of diarrhea-associated Escherichia coli that has characteristics of diffusely adhering E. coli and enteroaggregative E. coli. Infect. Immun. 64: 36943702.
190. Yeh, K. M.,, A. Kurup, L., K. Siu,, Y. L. Koh,, C.P. Fung, J.C. Lin, T.L. Chen, F. Y. Chang,, and T.H. Koh. 2007. Capsular serotype K1 or K2, rather than magA and rmpA, is a major virulence determinant for Klebsiella pneumoniae liver abscess in Singapore and Taiwan. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45: 466471.
191. Yoon, J. W.,, and C.J. Hovde. 2008. All blood, no stool: enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection. J. Vet. Sci. 9: 219231.
192. Yu, V. L.,, D.S. Hansen,, W.C. Ko,, A. Sagnimeni,, K.P. Klugman, A. von Gottberg,, H. Goossens,, M.M. Wagener, V. J. Benedi, and International Klebseilla Study Group. 2007. Virulence characteristics of Klebsiella and clinical manifestations of K. pneumoniae bloodstream infections. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 13: 986993.
193. Zamboni, A.,, S.H. Fabbricotti, U. Fagundes-Neto,, and I.C. Scaletsky. 2004. Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli virulence factors are found to be associated with infantile diarrhea in Brazil. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42: 10581063.
194. Zhang, W. L.,, M. Bielaszewska,, A. Liesegang,, H. Tschape,, H. Schmidt,, M. Bitzan,, and H. Karch. 2000. Molecular characteristics and epidemiological significance of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O26 strains. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 21342140.
195. Zhao, H.,, X. Li,, D. E. Johnson,, and H.L. Mobley. 1999. Identification of protease and RpoN-associated genes of uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis by negative selection in a mouse model of ascending urinary tract infection. Microbiology 145: 185195.
196. Zhao, L.,, S. Gao,, H. Huan,, X. Xu,, X. Zhu,, W. Yang,, Q. Gao,, and X. Liu. 2009. Comparison of virulence factors and expression of specific genes between uropathogenic Escherichia coli and avian pathogenic E. coli in a murine urinary tract infection model and a chicken challenge model. Microbiology 155: 16341644.


Generic image for table
Table 1


Citation: Johnson T. 2011. Impacts of Fecal Bacteria on Human and Animal Health—Pathogens and Virulence Genes, p 135-164. In Sadowsky M, Whitman R (ed), The Fecal Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816865.ch7
Generic image for table
Table 2

ETEC CF types

Citation: Johnson T. 2011. Impacts of Fecal Bacteria on Human and Animal Health—Pathogens and Virulence Genes, p 135-164. In Sadowsky M, Whitman R (ed), The Fecal Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816865.ch7

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error