Chapter 9 :

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816902/9781555814571_Chap09-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816902/9781555814571_Chap09-2.gif


Although there is an obvious advantage to a pathogen that can disrupt the host immune system, there is a gap in knowledge as to the exact etiology of the disease. First, that harbors enterotoxin genes was determined to reside in the healthy gut of more than 50% of the nonenteritis-associated patients examined in a recent study, suggesting that the pathogenicity is dictated in part by "to be determined" host factors that lead to pathogen spread and heavy enterotoxin production. Second, there is a lack of evidence for the exact origin of symptoms. There are over 20 known staphylococcal proteins that share high similarity to the staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs). The SEs have classically been organized into families based on their percentage identity or similarity. Methicillin-resistant (MRSA) was first identified in food-producing animals in the 1970s, being identified as a cause of mastitis in dairy cattle. A logical extension of concerns regarding MRSA in food animals was investigation of MRSA contamination of food products. There are three main areas of concern relating to the potential routes of transmission: MRSA as a cause of classical enterotoxin-associated food poisoning, contaminated food as a source of nasal colonization, and contaminated food as a source of extraintestinal infection. Nasal passages are the most common site of MRSA colonization in humans, and the nose is a frequent hand-contact site. Good food handling and hygiene practices could minimize the risks for food handlers.

Citation: Weese S, Mao J, Donovan D. 2011. , p 113-123. In Fratamico P, Liu Y, Kathariou S (ed), Genomes of Foodborne and Waterborne Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816902.ch9
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Phylogram of SE proteins. Signal sequences were not included in the analysis. The phylogram was generated at the European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI), part of the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/Tools/clustalw2/).

Citation: Weese S, Mao J, Donovan D. 2011. , p 113-123. In Fratamico P, Liu Y, Kathariou S (ed), Genomes of Foodborne and Waterborne Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816902.ch9
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Alouf, J. E., and, M. R. Popoff (ed.). 2006. The Comprehensive Sourcebook of Bacterial Protein Toxins, 3rd ed. Academic Press, Boston, MA.
2. Baker, M. D., and, K. R. Acharya. 2006. Comparative three-dimensional structure of bacterial superantigenic toxins, p. 872-883. In J. E. Alouf and, M. R. Popoff (ed.), The Comprehensive Sourcebook of Bacterial Protein Toxins. Academic Press, Boston, MA.
3. Bayles, K. W., and, J. J. Iandolo. 1989. Genetic and molecular analyses of the gene encoding staphylococcal enterotoxin D. J. Bacterial. 171: 47994806.
4. Behari, P.,, J. Englund,, G. Alcasid,, S. Garcia-Houchins, and, S. G. Weber. 2004. Transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphy-lococcus aureus to preterm infants through breast milk. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 25: 778780.
5. Ben Zakour, N. L., C. M. Guinane, and, J. R. Fitzgerald. 2008. Pathogenomics of the staphylococci: insights into niche adaptation and the emergence of new virulent strains. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 289: 112.
6. Betley, M. J., and, J. J. Mekalanos. 1988. Nucleotide sequence of the type A staphylococcal enterotoxin gene. J. Bacterial. 170: 3441.
7. Bohach, G. A., and, P. M. Schlievert. 1989. Conservation of the biologically active portions of staphylococcal enterotoxins C1 and C2. Infect. Immun. 57: 22492252.
8. Bohach, G. A., and, P. M. Schlievert. 1987. Nucleotide sequence of the staphylococcal enterotoxin C1 gene and related-ness to other pyrogenic toxins. Mol. Gen. Genet. 209: 1520.
9. Bonventre, P. F.,, L. Weckbach,, J. Staneck,, P. M. Schlievert, and, M. Thompson. 1983. Production of staphylococcal enterotoxin F and pyrogenic exotoxin C by Staphylococcus aureus isolates from toxic shock syndrome-associated sources. Infect. Immun. 40: 10231029.
10. Chen, J., and, R. P. Novick. 2009. Phage-mediated intergeneric transfer of toxin genes. Science 323: 139141.
11. Chiang, Y. C.,, W. W. Liao,, C. M. Fan,, W. Y. Pai,, C. S. Chiou, and, H. Y. Tsen. 2008. PCR detection of Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) N, O, P, Q, R, U, and survey of SE types in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from food-poisoning cases in Taiwan. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 121: 6673.
12. Cohen, M. L.,, L. M. Graves,, P. S. Hayes,, R. J. Gibson,, J. K. Rasheed, and, J. C. Feeley. 1983. Toxic shock syndrome: modification and comparison of methods for detecting marker proteins in Staphylococcus aureus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 18: 372375.
13. Couch, J. L.,, M. T. Soltis, and, M. J. Betley. 1988. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the type E staphylococcal enterotoxin gene. J. Bacterial. 170: 29542960.
14. Cui, S.,, J. Li,, C. Hu,, S. Jin,, F. Li,, Y. Guo,, L. Ran, and, Y. Ma. 2009. Isolation and characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from swine and workers in China. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 64: 680683.
15. de Boer, E.,, J. T. Zwartkruis-Nahuis,, B. Wit,, X. Huijsdens,, A. de Neeling,, T. Bosch,, R. A. van Oosterom,, A. Vila, and, A. E. Heuvelink. 2008. Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in meat. Int. J. Food Microbiol. [Epub ahead of print.]
16. de Boer, E.,, J. T. Zwartkruis-Nahuis,, B. Wit,, X. Huijsdens,, A. de Neeling,, T. Bosch,, R. A. van Oosterom,, A. Vila, and, A. E. Heuvelink. 2009. Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in meat. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 134: 5256.
17. de Neeling, A.,, M. van den Broek,, E. Spalburg,, M. van Santen-Verheuvel,, W. Dam-Deisz, H. Boshuizen, A. van de Giessen, E. van Duijkeren, and, X. Huijsdens. 2007. High prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pigs. Vet. Microbiol. 122: 366372.
18. Deringer, J. R.,, R. J. Ely,, S. R. Monday,, C. V. Stauffacher, and, G. A. Bohach. 1997. Vbeta-dependent stimulation of bovine and human T cells by host-Specific staphylococcal enterotoxins. Infect. Immun. 65: 40484054.
19. Derzelle, S.,, F. Dilasser,, M. Duquenne, and, V. Deperrois. 2009. Differential temporal expression of the staphylococcal enterotoxins genes during cell growth. Food Microbiol. 26: 896904.
20. Devriese, L. A.,, L. R. Van Damme, and, L. Fameree. 1972. Methicillin (cloxacillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis cases. Zentralbl. Veterinarmed. B 19: 598605.
21. Dewaele, I.,, I. De Man,, A. Stael,, P. Delputte,, P. Butaye,, G. Vlaemynck,, L. Herman,, M. Heyndrickx, and, G. Rasschaert. 2008. Presented at the ASM Conference on Antimicrobial Resistance in Zoonotic Bacteria and Foodborne Pathogens, Copenhagen, Denmark.
22. Duquenne, M.,, I. Fleurot,, M. Aigle,, C. Darrigo,, E. Borezée-Durant, S. Derzelle, M. Bouix, V. Deperrois-Lafarge, and, A. Delacroix-Buchet. 2010. Tool for quantification of staphylococcal enterotoxin gene expression in cheese. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76: 13671374.
23. Ferens, W. A., and, G. A. Bohach. 2000. Persistence of Staphylococcus aureus on mucosal membranes: superantigens and internalization by host cells. J. Lab Clin. Med. 135: 225230.
24. Fitzgerald, J. R.,, S. R. Monday,, T. J. Foster,, G. A. Bohach,, P. J. Hartigan,, W. J. Meaney, and, C. J. Smyth. 2001. Characterization of a putative pathogenicity island from bovine Staphylococcus aureus encoding multiple superantigens. J. Bacterial. 183: 6370.
25. Fraser, J. D., and, T. Proft. 2008. The bacterial superantigen and superantigen-like proteins. Immunol. Rev. 225: 226243.
26. Frazee, B.,, J. Lynn,, E. Charlebois,, L. Lambert,, D. Lowery, and, F. Perdreau-Remington. 2005. High prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in emergency department skin and soft tissue infections. Ann. Emerg. Med. 45: 311320.
27. Frazee, B.,, T. Salz,, L. Lambert, and, F. Perdreau-Remington. 2005. Fatal community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia in an immunocompetent young adult. Ann. Emerg. Med. 46: 401404.
28. Futagawa-Saito, K.,, M. Suzuki,, M. Ohsawa,, S. Ohshima,, N. Sakurai,, W. Ba-Thein, and, T. Fukuyasu. 2004. Identification and prevalence of an enterotoxin-related gene, se-int, in Staphylococcus intermedius isolates from dogs and pigeons. J. Appl. Microbiol. 96: 13611366.
29. Gastelum, D. X,, D. Dassey,, L. Mascola, and, L. M. Yasuda. 2005. Transmission of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from breast milk in the neonatal intensive care unit. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 24: 11221124.
30. Gilbert, M.,, J. MacDonald,, D. Gregson,, J. Siushansian,, K. Zhang,, S. Elsayed,, K. Laupland,, T. Louie,, K. Hope,, M. Mulvey,, J. Gillespie,, D. Nielsen,, V. Wheeler,, M. Louie,, A. Honish,, G. Keays, and, J. Conly. 2006. Outbreak in Alberta of community-acquired (USA300) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in people with a history of drug use, homelessness or incarceration. CMAJ 175: 149154.
31. Gorwitz, R. J.,, D. Kruszon-Moran, S. K. McAllister,, G. McQuillan,, L. K. McDougal,, G. E. Fosheim,, B. J. Jensen,, G. Killgore,, F. C. Tenover, and, M. J. Kuehnert. 2008. Changes in the prevalence of nasal colonization with Staphylococcus aureus in the United States, 2001-2004. J. Infect. Dis. 197: 12261234.
32. Granum, P. E. 2006. Bacterial toxins as food poisons, p. 949-958. In J. E. Alouf and, M. R. Popoff (ed.), The Comprehensive Source-book of Bacterial Protein Toxins. Academic Press, Boston, MA.
33. Graveland, H.,, J. A. Wagenaar,, M. J. Broekhuizen-Stins,, I. Oosting-Schothorst,, A. H. Schoormans,, E. van Duijkeren,, X. Huijsdens,, D. Mevius, and, D. Heederik. 2008. Presented at the ASM Conference on Antimicrobial Resistance in Zoonotic Bacteria and Foodborne Pathogens, Copenhagen, Denmark.
34. Guardabassi, L.,, S. Schwarz, and, D. H. Lloyd. 2004. Pet animals as reservoirs of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 54: 321332.
35. Guardabassi, L.,, M. Stegger, and, R. Skov. 2007. Retrospective detection of methicillin resistant and susceptible Staphylococcus aureus ST398 in Danish slaughter pigs. Vet. Microbiol. 122: 384386.
36. Hasman, H.,, A. Moodley,, L. Guardabassi,, M. Stegger,, R. L. Skov, and, F. M. Aarestrup. 2010. spa type distribution in Staphylococcus aureus originating from pigs, cattle and poultry. Vet. Microbiol. 141: 326331.
37. Herron-Olson, L.,, J. R. Fitzgerald,, J. M. Musser, and, V. Kapur. 2007. Molecular correlates of host specialization in Staphylococcus aureus. PLoS ONE 2: e1120.
38. Hu, D. L.,, G. Zhu,, F. Mori,, K. Omoe,, M. Okada,, K. Waka-bayashi,, S. Kaneko,, K. Shinagawa, and, A. Nakane. 2007. Staphylococcal enterotoxin induces emesis through increasing serotonin release in intestine and it is downregulated by can-nabinoid receptor 1. Cell. Microbiol. 9: 22672277.
39. Huijsdens, X.,, B. van Dijke,, E. Spalburg,, M. van Santen-Verheuvel,, M. Heck,, G. Pluister,, A. Voss,, W. Wannet, and, A. de Neeling. 2006. Community-acquired MRSA and pig-farming. Ann. Clin. Microbiol. Antimicrob. 5: 26.
40. Jarraud, S.,, M. A. Peyrat,, A. Lim,, A. Tristan,, M. Bes,, C. Mougel,, J. Etienne,, F. Vandenesch,, M. Bonneville, and, G. Lina. 2001. egc, a highly prevalent operon of enterotoxin gene, forms a putative nursery of superantigens in Staphylococcus aureus. J. Immunol. 166: 669677.
41. Jones, X,, M. Kellum,, S. Porter,, M. Bell, and, W. Schaffner. 2002. An outbreak of community-acquired foodborne illness caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8: 8284.
42. Jørgensen, H. J.,, T. Mørk, D. A. Caugant,, A. Kearns, and, L. M. Rørvik. 2005. Genetic variation among Staphylococcus aureus strains from Norwegian bulk milk. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71: 83528361.
43. Juhász-Kaszanyitzky, E.,, S. Jánosi,, P. Somogyi,, A. Dán,, L. van der Graaf-van Bloois, E. van Duijkeren, and, J. Wagenaar. 2007. MRSA transmission between cows and humans. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 13: 630632.
44. Kadlec, K.,, R. Ehricht,, S. Monecke,, U. Steinacker,, H. Kaspar,, J. Mankertz, and, S. Schwarz. 2009. Diversity of antimicrobial resistance pheno- and genotypes of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 from diseased swine. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 64: 11561164
45. Kazakova, S.,, J. Hageman,, M. Matava,, A. Srinivasan,, L. Phelan,, B. Garfinkel,, T. Boo,, S. McAllister,, J. Anderson,, B. Jensen,, D. Dodson,, D. Lonsway,, L. McDougal,, M. Arduino,, V. Fraser,, G. Killgore,, F. Tenover,, S. Cody, and, D. Jernigan. 2005. A clone of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among professional football players. N. Engl. J. Med. 352: 468475.
46. Kelly, B. G.,, A. Vespermann, and, D. J. Bolton. 2009. The role of horizontal gene transfer in the evolution of selected foodborne bacterial pathogens. Food Chem. Toxicol. 47: 951968.
47. Khanna, T.,, R. Friendship,, C. Dewey, and, J. S. Weese. 2007. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization in pigs and pig farmers. Vet. Microbiol. 128: 298303.
48. Kluytmans, J.,, W. van Leeuwen,, W. Goessens,, R. Hollis,, S. Messer,, L. Herwaldt,, H. Bruining,, M. Heck,, J. Rost, and, N. van Leeuwen. 1995. Food-initiated outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus analyzed by pheno- and geno-typing. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 11211128.
49. Kluytmans, J. A. 2010. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in food products: cause for concern or case for complacency? Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 16: 1115.
50. Köck, R.,, J. Harlizius,, N. Bressan,, R. Laerberg,, L. H. Wieler,, W. Witte,, R. H. Deurenberg,, A. Voss,, K. Becker, and, A. W. Friedrich. 2009. Prevalence and molecular characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among pigs on German farms and import of livestock-related MRSA into hospitals. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 28: 13751382.
51. Kwon, N. H.,, K. T. Park,, J. S. Moon,, W. K. Jung,, S. H. Kim,, J. M. Kim,, S. K. Hong,, H. C. Koo,, Y. S. Joo, and, Y. H. Park. 2005. Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) characterization and molecular analysis for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and novel SCCmec subtype IVg isolated from bovine milk in Korea. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 56: 624632.
52. Larkin, E. A.,, R. J. Carman,, T. Krakauer, and, B. G. Stiles. 2009. Staphylococcus aureus: the toxic presence of a pathogen extraordinaire. Curr. Med. Chem. 16: 40034019.
53. Le Loir, Y.,, F. Baron, and, M. Gautier. 2003. Staphylococcus aureus and food poisoning. Genet. Mol. Res. 2: 6376.
54. Lee, J. 2003. Methicillin (oxacillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from major food animals and their potential transmission to humans. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69: 64896494.
55. Lee, J. 2006. Occurrence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains from cattle and chicken, and analyses of their mecA, mecR1 and mecI genes. Vet. Microbiol. 114: 155159.
56. Lee, Y.,, J. Lin,, N. Wang,, M. Peng, and, F. Chang. 2007. Necrotizing fasciitis in a medical center in northern Taiwan: emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the community. J. Microbiol. Immunol. Infect. 40: 335341.
57. Letertre, C.,, S. Perelle,, F. Dilasser, and, P. Fach. 2003. Identification of a new putative enterotoxin SEU encoded by the egc cluster of Staphylococcus aureus. J. Appl. Microbiol. 95: 3843.
58. Lin, C. M.,, Y. C. Chiang, and, H. Y. Tsen. 2009. Development and use of a chromogenic macroarray system for the detection of Staphylococcus aureus with enterotoxin A, B, C, D, E, and G genes in food and milk samples. Foodborne Pathog. Dis. 6: 445452.
59. Lin, J.,, K. S. Yeh,, H. T. Liu, and, J. H. Lin. 2009. Staphylococcus aureus isolated from pork and chicken carcasses in Taiwan: prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility. J. Food Prot. 72: 608611.
60. Lina, G.,, G. A. Bohach,, S. P. Nair,, K. Hiramatsu,, E. Jouvin-Marche,, R. Mariuzza, and, I. N. C. f. S. Superantigens. 2004. Standard nomenclature for the superantigens expressed by Staphylococcus. J. Infect Dis. 189: 23342336.
61. Lindsay, J. A. 2008. S. aureus evolution: lineages and mobile genetic elements, p. 45-70. In J. A. Lindsay (ed.), Staphylococcus Molecular Genetics. Caister Academic Press, Norwich, United Kingdom.
62. Lindsay, J. A. (ed.). 2008. Staphylococcus Molecular Genetics. Caister Academic Press, Norwich, United Kingdom.
63. Lindsay, J. A.,, C. E. Moore,, N. P. Day,, S. J. Peacock,, A. A. Witney,, R. A. Stabler,, S. E. Husain,, P. D. Butcher, and, J. Hinds. 2006. Mi-croarrays reveal that each of the ten dominant lineages of Staphylococcus aureus has a unique combination of surface-associated and regulatory genes. J. Bacterial. 188: 669676.
64. Lis, E.,, K. Korzekwa,, J. Bystroń, A. Zarczyńska,, A. Dab-rowska, J. Molenda, and, J. Bania. 2009. Enterotoxin gene content in Staphylococcus aureus from the human intestinal tract. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 296: 7277.
65. Lozano, C., M. López,, E. Gómez-Sanz,, F. Ruiz-Larrea,, C. Torres, and, M. Zarazaga. 2009. Detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 in food samples of animal origin in Spain. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 64: 13251326.
66. Maiques, E.,, C. Ubeda,, S. Campoy,, N. Salvador,, I. Lasa,, R. P. Novick,, J. Barbé, and, J. R. Penadés. 2006. beta-lactam antibiotics induce the SOS response and horizontal transfer of virulence factors in Staphylococcus aureus. J. Bacterial. 188: 27262729.
67. Marraffini, L. A., and, E. J. Sontheimer. 2008. CRISPR interference limits horizontal gene transfer in staphylococci by targeting DNA. Science 322: 18431845.
68. McLauchlin, J.,, G. L. Narayanan,, V. Mithani, and, G. O’Neill. 2000. The detection of enterotoxins and toxic shock syndrome toxin genes in Staphylococcus aureus by polymerase chain reaction. J. Food Prot. 63: 479488.
69. Miller, L.,, F. Perdreau-Remington,, G. Rieg,, S. Mehdi,, J. Perl-roth, A. Bayer, A. Tang, T. Phung, and, B. Spellberg. 2005. Ne-crotizing fasciitis caused by community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Los Angeles. N. Engl. J. Med. 352: 14451453.
70. Monecke, S.,, P. Kuhnert,, H. Hotzel,, P. Slickers, and, R. Ehricht. 2007. Microarray based study on virulence-associated genes and resistance determinants of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from cattle. Vet. Microbiol. 125: 128140.
71. Moon, J. S.,, A. R. Lee,, H. M. Kang,, E. S. Lee,, M. N. Kim,, Y. H. Paik,, Y. H. Park,, Y. S. Joo, and, H. C. Koo. 2007. Pheno-typic and genetic antibiogram of methicillin-resistant staphylococci isolated from bovine mastitis in Korea. J. Dairy Sci. 90: 11761185.
72. Munson, S. H.,, M. T. Tremaine,, M. J. Betley, and, R. A. Welch. 1998. Identification and characterization of staphylococcal enterotoxin types G and I from Staphylococcus aureus. Infect. Immun. 66: 33373348.
73. Nemati, M.,, K. Hermans,, D. Vancraeynest,, S. De Vliegher,, O. C. Sampimon,, M. Baele,, E. M. De Graef,, F. Pasmans, and, F. Haesebrouck. 2008. Screening of bovine coagulase-negative staphylococci from milk for superantigen-encoding genes. Vet. Rec. 163: 740743.
74. Normanno, G.,, M. Corrente,, G. La Salandra,, A. Dambrosio,, N. Quaglia,, A. Parisi,, G. Greco,, A. Bellacicco,, S. Virgilio, and, G. Celano. 2007. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in foods of animal origin product in Italy. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 117: 219222.
75. Omoe, K.,, D. L. Hu,, H. Takahashi-Omoe, A. Nakane, and, K. Shinagawa. 2003. Identification and characterization of a new staphylococcal enterotoxin-related putative toxin encoded by two kinds of plasmids. Infect. Immun. 71: 60886094.
76. Omoe, K.,, K. Imanishi,, D. L. Hu,, H. Kato,, Y. Fugane,, Y. Abe,, S. Hamaoka,, Y. Watanabe,, A. Nakane,, T. Uchiyama, and, K. Shinagawa. 2005. Characterization of novel staphylococcal enterotoxin-like toxin type P. Infect. Immun. 73: 55405546.
77. Omoe, K.,, K. Imanishi,, D. L. Hu,, H. Kato,, H. Takahashi-Omoe,, A. Nakane,, T. Uchiyama, and, K. Shinagawa. 2004. Biological properties of staphylococcal enterotoxin-like toxin type R. Infect. Immun. 72: 36643667.
78. Ono, H. K.,, K. Omoe,, K. Imanishi,, Y. Iwakabe,, D. L. Hu,, H. Kato,, N. Saito,, A. Nakane,, T. Uchiyama, and, K. Shinagawa. 2008. Identification and characterization of two novel staphylococcal enterotoxins, types S and T. Infect. Immun. 76: 49995005.
79. Orden, J. A.,, J. Goyache,, J. Hernandez,, A. Domenech,, G. Suarez, and, E. Gomez-Lucia. 1992. Production of staphylococcal enterotoxins and TSST-1 by coagulase negative staphylococci isolated from ruminant mastitis. Zentralbl. Veterinarmed. B 39: 144148.
80. Orwin, P. M.,, D. Y. Leung,, H. L. Donahue,, R. P. Novick, and, P. M. Schlievert. 2001. Biochemical and biological properties of Staphylococcal enterotoxin K. Infect. Immun. 69: 360366.
81. Orwin, P. M.,, D. Y. Leung,, T. J. Tripp,, G. A. Bohach,, C. A. Earhart,, D. H. Ohlendorf, and, P. M. Schlievert. 2002. Characterization of a novel staphylococcal enterotoxin-like superantigen, a member of the group V subfamily of pyrogenic toxins. Biochemistry 41: 1403314040.
82. Panneerseelan, L., and, P. M. Muriana. 2009. An immunomagnetic PCR signal amplification assay for sensitive detection of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins in foods. J. Food Prot. 72: 25382546.
83. Persoons, D.,, S. Van Hoorebeke,, K. Hermans,, P. Butaye,, A. de Kruif,, F. Haesebrouck, and, J. Dewulf. 2009. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in poultry. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 15: 452453.
84. Petersson, K.,, H. Pettersson,, N. J. Skartved,, B. Walse, and, G. Forsberg. 2003. Staphylococcal enterotoxin H induces V alpha-specific expansion of T cells. J. Immunol. 170: 41485414.
85. Pu, S.,, F. Han, and, B. Ge. 2009. Isolation and characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains from Louisiana retail meats. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 75: 265267.
86. Rall, V. L.,, F. P. Vieira,, R. Rall,, R. L. Vieitis,, A. Fernandes,, J. M. Candeias,, K. F. Cardoso, and, J. P. Araújo. 2008. PCR detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin genes in Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from raw and pasteurized milk. Vet. Microbiol. 132: 408413.
87. Ranelli, D. M.,, C. L. Jones,, M. B. Johns,, G. J. Mussey, and, S. A. Khan. 1985. Molecular cloning of staphylococcal enterotoxin B gene in Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82: 58505854.
88. Ruzin, A.,, J. A. Lindsay, and, R. P. Novick. 2001. Molecular genetics of SaPI1—a mobile pathogenicity island in Staphylococcus aureus. Mol. Microbiol. 41: 365377.
89. Sabour, P.,, J. Gill,, D. Lepp,, J. Pacan,, R. Ahmed,, R. Dingwell, and, K. Leslie. 2004. Molecular typing and distribution of Staphylococcus aureus isolates in Eastern Canadian dairy herds. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42: 34493455.
90. Seo, K. S., and, G. A. Bohach. 2010. Staphylococcal food poisoning, p. 119-130. In V. K. Juneja and, J. N. Sofos (ed.), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods: Challenges and Interventions. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
91. Sergio, D.,, T. Koh,, L. Hsu,, B. Ogden,, A. Goh, and, P. Chow. 2007. Investigation of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pigs used for research. J. Med. Microbiol. 56: 11071109.
92. Shuiep, E. S.,, T. Kanbar,, N. Eissa,, J. Alber,, C. Lammler,, M. Zschöck,, I. E. El Zubeir, and, R. Weiss. 2009. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from raw camel milk samples. Res. Vet. Sci. 86: 211215.
93. Sila, J.,, P. Sauer, and, M. Kolar. 2009. Comparison of the prevalence of genes coding for enterotoxins, exfoliatins, panton-valentine leukocidin and tsst-1 between methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible isolates of Staphylococcus aureus at the university hospital in olomouc. Biomed. Pap. Med. Fac. Univ. Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 153: 215218.
94. Smith, T. C.,, M. J. Male,, A. L. Harper,, J. S. Kroeger,, G. P. Tinkler,, E. D. Moritz,, A. W. Capuano,, L. A. Herwaldt, and, D. J. Diekema. 2008. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain ST398 is present in midwestern U.S. swine and swine workers. PLoS ONE 4: e4258.
95. Sugiyama, Y.,, K. Okii,, Y. Murakami,, T. Yokoyama,, Y. Take-sue, H. Ohge, T. Sueda, and, E. Hiyama. 2009. Changes in the agr locus affect enteritis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 47: 15281535.
96. Sung, J. M., and, J. A. Lindsay. 2007. Staphylococcus aureus strains that are hypersusceptible to resistance gene transfer from enterococci. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51: 21892191.
97. Thomas, D.,, S. Chou,, O. Dauwalder, and, G. Lina. 2007. Diversity in Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins. Chem. Immunol. Allergy 93: 2441.
98. Thomas, D. Y.,, S. Jarraud,, B. Lemercier,, G. Cozon,, K. Echasserieau,, J. Etienne,, M. L. Gougeon,, G. Lina, and, F. Vandenesch. 2006. Staphylococcal enterotoxin-like toxins U2 and V, two new staphylococcal superantigens arising from recombination within the enterotoxin gene cluster. Infect. Immun. 74: 47244734.
99. Ubeda, C.,, E. Maiques,, E. Knecht,, I. Lasa,, R. P. Novick, and, J. R. Penadés. 2005. Antibiotic-induced SOS response promotes horizontal dissemination of pathogenicity island-encoded virulence factors in staphylococci. Mol. Microbiol. 56: 836844.
100. van Duijkeren, E.,, R. Ikawaty,, M. Broekhuizen-Stins, M. Jansen,, E. Spalburg,, A. de Neeling,, J. Allaart,, A. van Nes,, J. Wagenaar, and, A. Fluit. 2008. Transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains between different kinds of pig farms. Vet. Microbiol. 126: 383389.
101. van Loo, I. H.,, B. M. Diederen,, P. H. Savelkoul,, J. H. Wouden-berg,, R. Roosendaal,, A. van Belkum,, N. Lemmensden Toom,, C. Verhulst,, P. H. van Keulen, and, J. A. Kluytmans. 2007. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in meat products, the Netherlands. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 13: 17531755.
102. van Rijen, M. M.,, T. Bosch,, M. E. Heck, and, J. A. Kluytmans. 2009. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus epidemiology and transmission in a Dutch hospital. J. Hosp. Infect. 72: 299306.
103. van Rijen, M. M.,, P. H. Van Keulen, and, J. A. Kluytmans. 2008. Increase in a Dutch hospital of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus related to animal farming. Clin. Infect Dis. 46: 261263.
104. Varshney, A. K.,, J. R. Mediavilla,, N. Robiou,, A. Guh,, X. Wang,, P. Gialanella,, M. H. Levi,, B. N. Kreiswirth, and, B. C. Fries. 2009. Diverse enterotoxin gene profiles among clonal complexes of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from the Bronx, New York. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 75: 68396849.
105. Veiga, H., and, M. G. Pinho. 2009. Inactivation of the SauI type I restriction-modification system is not sufficient to generate Staphylococcus aureus strains capable of efficiently accepting foreign DNA. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 75: 30343038.
106. Voss, A.,, F. Loeffen,, J. Bakker,, C. Klaassen, and, M. Wulf. 2005. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pig farming. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 11: 19651966.
107. Wagenaar, J. A.,, H. Yue,, J. Pritchard,, M. Broekhuizen-Stins, X. Huijsdens, D. J. Mevius, T. Bosch, and, E. van Duijkeren. 2009. Unexpected sequence types in livestock associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA): MRSA ST9 and a single locus variant of ST9 in pig farming in China. Vet. Microbiol. 139: 405409.
108. Weese, J. S.,, B. Avery,, J. Rousseau, and, R. Reid-Smith. 2009. Presented at the ASM-ESCMID conference on methicillin-resistant staphylococci in animals, London, United Kingdom.
109. Weese, J. S.,, B. P. Avery,, S. Gow,, C. Booker, and, R. Reid-Smith. 2009. Presented at the ASM-ESCMID Conference on methicillin-resistant staphylococci in animals, London, United Kingdom.
110. Zell, C.,, M. Resch,, R. Rosenstein,, T. Albrecht,, C. Hertel, and, F. Götz. 2008. Characterization of toxin production of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from food and starter cultures. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 127: 246251.
111. Zhang, S.,, J. J. Iandolo, and, G. C. Stewart. 1998. The enterotoxin D plasmid of Staphylococcus aureus encodes a second enterotoxin determinant (sej). FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 168: 227233.


Generic image for table
Table 1

SE protein properties and genetic location

Citation: Weese S, Mao J, Donovan D. 2011. , p 113-123. In Fratamico P, Liu Y, Kathariou S (ed), Genomes of Foodborne and Waterborne Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816902.ch9

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error