1887

Chapter 17 : Emerging and Reemerging Infections: the Critical Societal Determinants, Their Mitigation, and Our Responsibilities

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Emerging and Reemerging Infections: the Critical Societal Determinants, Their Mitigation, and Our Responsibilities, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816940/9781555811211_Chap17-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816940/9781555811211_Chap17-2.gif

Abstract:

There are two fundamental approaches to controlling emerging and reemerging infections. Some are convinced that in future decades, one of the most important emerging and reemerging infections will be caused by genetically changing influenza viruses. The most effective approach to minimizing the incidence and severity of emerging and reemerging infections is amelioration of the societal conditions that provide the milieu in which these infections arise and flourish. Potential effects of world population growth on variables related to emerging and reemerging infections have been provided in this chapter. Since the variables that influence emerging and reemerging infections are also issues that must be addressed if society is to thrive, or even survive, it is imperative that an understanding of these issues be an integral part of the education of every student. Although this discussion is focused on the American educational system, the educational changes suggested for the United States are equally applicable to other countries, both developed and developing. Individuals and their professional societies thus have the opportunity to use the growing concerns about emerging and reemerging infections to influence the body politic to take actions focused on ameliorating the societal conditions associated with such infections; doing so not only will reduce the risks of emerging and reemerging infections but will benefit the entire global community.

Citation: Louria D. 1998. Emerging and Reemerging Infections: the Critical Societal Determinants, Their Mitigation, and Our Responsibilities, p 247-260. In Scheld W, Armstrong D, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 1. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816940.ch17

Key Concept Ranking

Infectious Diseases
0.57248366
Ebola Virus
0.47612384
T Lymphocytes
0.4671404
Carbon Dioxide
0.459103
Influenza A virus
0.4454953
0.57248366
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Approaches to coping with emerging and reemerging infections.

Citation: Louria D. 1998. Emerging and Reemerging Infections: the Critical Societal Determinants, Their Mitigation, and Our Responsibilities, p 247-260. In Scheld W, Armstrong D, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 1. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816940.ch17
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Progressive urbanization of the planet.

Citation: Louria D. 1998. Emerging and Reemerging Infections: the Critical Societal Determinants, Their Mitigation, and Our Responsibilities, p 247-260. In Scheld W, Armstrong D, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 1. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816940.ch17
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 3.
Figure 3.

Population aging in different geographic areas.

Citation: Louria D. 1998. Emerging and Reemerging Infections: the Critical Societal Determinants, Their Mitigation, and Our Responsibilities, p 247-260. In Scheld W, Armstrong D, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 1. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816940.ch17
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 4.
Figure 4.

Interrelatedness of major societal determinants.

Citation: Louria D. 1998. Emerging and Reemerging Infections: the Critical Societal Determinants, Their Mitigation, and Our Responsibilities, p 247-260. In Scheld W, Armstrong D, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 1. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816940.ch17
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555816940.chap17
1. American Aging Association. 1991. Age News. vol. 21. American Aging Association Inc., Chester. Pa.
2. Baker, H.,, O. Frank,, I. Thind,, S. P. Jaslow,, and D. B. Louria. 1979. Vitamin profiles in elderly persons living at home or in nursing homes versus profile in healthy young subjects. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 27: 444 450.
3. Bogden, J. D.,, A. Bendich,, F. W. Kemp,, K. S. Bruening,, J. H. Skumik,, T. Denny,, H. Baker,, and D. B. Louria. 1994. Daily micronutrient supplements enhance delayed-hypersensitivity skin test responses in older people. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 60: 437 447.
4. Cook, G. C. 1992. Effect of global warming on the distribution of parasitic and other infectious diseases: a review. J. R. Soc. Med. 85: 688 692.
5. Daynes, R. A.,, and B. A. Araneo. 1992. Prevention and reversal of some age-associated changes in immunologic responses by supplemental dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate therapy. Aging Immunol. Infect. Dis. 3: 135 154.
6. Duhos, R. 1978. Cited in A. MacLeish, Riders on the Earth, p. 36. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston. Mass.
7. Evans, C. W.,, and L. Meyer. 1992. Chromium picolinate increases longevity. Age 15: 134.
8. Flavin, C.,, and O. Tunali. 1996. Climate of Hope: New Strategies for Stabilizing the World's Atmosphere. Worldwatch Paper 130. Worldwatch Institute, Washington. D.C.
9. FlaYin, C. 1989. Slowing Global Warming: a Worldwide Strategy. Worldwatch Paper 91. Worldwatch Institute, Washington, D.C.
10. Gardner, G.,, and J. Perry,. 1995. Dam starts up, p. 124 125. In L. Starke (ed.). Vital Signs 1995 . Worldwatch Institute, Washington, D.C.
11. Harman, D. 1995. Role of antioxidant nutrients in aging: overview. Age 18: 51 62.
12. Heidrick, M. L.,, L. C. Hendricks,, and D. E. Cook. 1984. Effect of dietary 2-mercaptoethanol on the life span. immune system, tumor incidence and lipid peroxidation damage in spleen lymphocytes of aging BC3F, mice. Mech. Ageing Dev. 27: 341 358.
13. Houghton, J. T.,, L. G. M. Filho,, B. A. Callander,, N. Harris,, A. Kattenberg,, and K. Maskeil. 1996. Climate Change 1995. The Science of Climate Change. Contributions of Working Group 1 to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
14. Hunter, J . M.,, L. Rey,, K. Y. Chu,, E. O. Adekolu-John,, and K. E. Molt. 1993. Parasitic Diseases in Water Resources Development. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
15. John, T. J. 1994. Learning from plague in India. Lancet 344: 972.
16. Khalil, M. A. K. ed.). 1993. Atmospheric Methane: Sources. Sinks and Role in Global Change. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany.
17. Kuno, G. 1995. Review of the factors modulating dengue transmission. Epidemiol. Rev. 17: 321 335.
18. Louria, D. B.,, P. Sen,, C. B. Sherer,, and W. E. Farrer. 1993. Infections in older patients: a systematic clinical approach. Geriatrics 48: 28 34.
19. Lutz, W. 1994. The Future of World Population. Population Bulletin. vol. 49. no. 1. Population Reference Bureau Inc., Washingron, D.C.
20. MacKenzie, W. R.,, N. J. Hoxie,, M. E. Proctor,, M. S. Gradus,, K. A. Blair,, D. E. Peterson,, J. J. Kazmierczak,, D. G. Addiss,, K. R. Fox,, J. B. Rose,, and J. P. Davis. 1994. A massive outbreak in Milwaukee of cryptosporidium infection transmitted through the public water supply. N. Engl. J. Med. 331: 161 167.
21. MacLeish, A. Riders on the Earth. p. 32. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass.
22. McMichael, A. J.,, A. Haines,, A. Slooff,, and S. Kovats (ed.). 1996. Climate Change and Human Health. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
23. Murasko, D. M.,, P. Weiner,, and D. Kaye. 1988. Association of lack of mitogen induced lymphocyte proliferation with increased mortality in the elderly, Aging Immunol. Infect. Dis. 1: 1 6.
24. Nagel, J. E.,, R. S. Pyle,, F. J. Chrest,, and W. H. Adler. 1982. Oxidative metabolism and bactericidal capacity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes from normal young and aged adults. J. Gerontol. 37: 529 534.
25. Orr, W. C.,, and R. S. Sohal. 1994. Extension of life-span by overexpression of superoxide dismutase and catalase in Drosophila melanogaster. Science 263: 1128 1130.
26. Patz, J. A.,, P. R. Epstein,, T. A. Burke,, and J. M. Balbus. 1996. Global climate change and emerging infectious diseases. JAMA 275: 217 223.
27. Popadopoulos, N. G.,, P. E. LiaDou,, and J. T. Papavassiliou. 1993. Strain dependent alterations of polymorphonuclear leukocyte phagocytosis and bacterial function in healthy elderly subjects. Aging Immunol. Infect. Dis. 4: 223 229.
28.Population Division, Department of International Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations Secretariat. 1991. Long Range Population Projections. Population Newsletter no. 51. United Nations Secretariat, New York, N. Y.
29.Population Reference Bureau Inc. 1987. Human Needs and Nature's Balance. Population, Resources and the Environment. Population Reference Bureau, Washington, D.C.
30. Puchelle, E.,, J. Zahm,, and A. Bertrand. 1979. Influence of age on bronchial mucociliary transpert. Scand. J. Respir. Dis. 60: 307 313.
31. Richter, M., and C A. Jodouin. 1991. Immunoglobulin synthesis by the B cells of healthy ambulatory elderly is markedly delayed in culture. Aging Immunol. Infect. Dis. 3: 1 10.
32. Roberts-Thomson, I. C, S. Whittingham, U. Youngchaiyud, and I. R. Mackay. 1974. Ageing. immune response and mortality. Lancet ii: 368 370.
33. Rogers, D. J.,, and M. J. Packer. 1993. Vector borne diseases. models and global change. Lancet 342: 1282 1284.
34. Rose, M. R.,, and T. J. Nusbaum. 1994. Prospects for postponing human aging. FASEB J. 8: 925 928.
35. Sanchez, A.,, T. G. Ksiazek,, P. E. Rollin,, C. J. Peters,, S. T. Nichol,, A. S. Khan,, and B. W. J. Mahy. 1995. Reemergence of Ebola virus in Africa. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 1: 96 97.
36. Sen, P.,, J. R. Middleton,, G. Perez,, M. E. Gombert,, J. D. Lee,, and D. B. Louria. 1994. Host defense abnormalities and infections in older persons. Infect. Med. 11: 364 370.
37. Sivard, R. L. 1993. World Military and Social Expenditures. World Priorities Inc., Washington. D.C.
38. Thoman, M. L.,, and W. O. Weigle. 1985. Reconstitution of in vivo cell-mediated lympholysis responses in aged mice with interleukin 2. J. Immunol. 134: 949 952.
39. U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1992. An Aging World II. International Population Reports. P-25 92-3. U.S. Government Priming Office, Washington D.C.
40. Wayne, S. J.,, R. L. Rhyne,, P. J. Garry,, and J. S. Goodwin. 1990. Cell-mediated immunity as a predictor of morbidity and mortality in subjects over 60. J. Gerontol. 4S: M45 M48.
41. Weindruch, R.,, and R. L. Walford. 1982. Dietary restriction in mice beginning at 1 year of age: effect on life span and spontaneous cancer incidence. Science 215: 1415 1418.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1.

Major societal determinants of emerging and reemerging infections

Citation: Louria D. 1998. Emerging and Reemerging Infections: the Critical Societal Determinants, Their Mitigation, and Our Responsibilities, p 247-260. In Scheld W, Armstrong D, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 1. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816940.ch17
Generic image for table
Table 2.

Potential effects of world population growth on variables related to emerging and reemerging infections

Citation: Louria D. 1998. Emerging and Reemerging Infections: the Critical Societal Determinants, Their Mitigation, and Our Responsibilities, p 247-260. In Scheld W, Armstrong D, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 1. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816940.ch17
Generic image for table
Table 3.

Consequences of dam construction and irrigation projects for incidence and prevalence of emerging and reemerging parasitic infections

Citation: Louria D. 1998. Emerging and Reemerging Infections: the Critical Societal Determinants, Their Mitigation, and Our Responsibilities, p 247-260. In Scheld W, Armstrong D, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 1. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816940.ch17

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error