1887

16 : From Prions to Parasites: Issues and Concerns in Blood Safety

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

From Prions to Parasites: Issues and Concerns in Blood Safety, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816957/9781555811419_Chap16-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816957/9781555811419_Chap16-2.gif

Abstract:

In recent years, blood safety has been the focus of increased attention. Blood safety issues have been numerous and varied and have encompassed a wide range of microorganisms and concerns. This chapter illustrates a variety of issues and challenges in this area, including those posed by emerging infections that may be transmissible by blood. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) strains are classified into different groups based on nucleic acid sequence analysis. HIV-I and HIV-2 are at the extreme of this diversity. Hepatitis G virus (HGY) and human herpesvirus 8 (HHY-8) are two newly discovered viruses that pose very different challenges to blood safety. HGY, a flavivirus, is fairly prevalent among blood donors; 1 to 2% of healthy blood donors have evidence of infection. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rare, invariably fatal degenerative disease believed to be caused by an unconventional, disinfection-resistant infectious agent. Bacterial contamination can occur at one or more points in the collection, processing, pooling, and transfusion of blood. Several parasitic agents have recently caused concern for blood safety. The same approaches that have contributed to improved blood safety, including donor selection, testing, viral inactivation procedures, improved transfusion practices, and surveillance, are expected to continue to play a major role in dealing with these challenges and other potential threats to blood safety.

Citation: Khabbaz R, Chamberland M. 1998. From Prions to Parasites: Issues and Concerns in Blood Safety, p 295-310. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 2. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816957.ch16
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Worldwide diversity of HIV isolates (reprinted from reference 40). HIV-1 group M subtypes A through I are represented on the map by letters A through I, and group O is represented by the letter O. The map is not an exhaustive list of all reported subtypes, nor does it include isolated reports or recently imported cases.

Citation: Khabbaz R, Chamberland M. 1998. From Prions to Parasites: Issues and Concerns in Blood Safety, p 295-310. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 2. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816957.ch16
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555816957.chap16
1. Alter, H. J.,, Y. Nakatsuji,, J. Melpolder,, J, Wages,, R. Wesley,, J. W. Shih,, and J. P. Kim. 1997. The incidence of transfusion-associated hepatitis G virus infection and its relation to liver disease. N. Engl. J. Med. 336: 747 754.
2. Alter, H. J. 1997. G-pers creepers. where'd you get those papers? A reassessment of the literature on the hepatitis G virus. Transfusion 37: 569 572. (Editorial).
3. Alter, H, J, 1995. To C or not to C: these are the questions. Blood 85: 1681 1695.
4. Alter, M, J. 1995. Residual risk of transfusion-associated hepatitis, p. 23. In Programs and Abstracts of the NIH Consensus Development Conference on Infectious Disease Testing for Blood Transfusions. National institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md.
5. Alter, M. J.,, M. Gallagher,, T. T. Morris,, L. A. Moyer,, E. L. Meeks,, K. Krawczynski,, J. P. Kim,, and H. S. Margolis. 1997. Acute non-A-E hepatitis in the United States and the role of hepatitis G virus infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 336: 741 746.
6. AuBuchon, J. P. 1997. Blood transfusion options: improving outcomes and reducing costs. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 121: 40 47.
7. Barrett, B. B.,, J. W. Andersen,, and K. C. Anderson. 1993. Strategies for the avoidance of bacterial contamination of blood components. Transfusion 33: 228 233.
8. B1ackbourn, D. J.,, J. Ambroziak,, E. Lennette,, M. Adams,, B. Ramachandran,, and J. A. Levy. 1997. Infectious human herpesvirus 8 in a healthy North American blood donor. Lancet 349: 609 611.
9. Brashear, R. J.,, M. A. Winkler,, J. D. Schur,, H. Lee,, J. D. Burczak,, H. J. Hall,, and A. A. Pan. 1995. Detection of antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi among blood donors in the southwestern and western United States. I. Evaluation of the sensitivity and specificity of an enzyme immunoassay for detecting antibodies to T. cruzi. Transfusion 35: 213 218.
10. Bresee, J. S.,, E. E. Mast,, P. J. Coleman,, M. J. Baron,, L. B. Schonberger,, M. J. Alter,, M. M Jonas,, M. Y. Yu,, P. M. Renzi,, and L. C. Schneider. 1996. Hepatitis C virus infection associated with administration of intravenous immune globulin: a cohort study. JAMA 276: 1563 1567.
11. Busch, M. P.,, S. L. Stramer,, and S. H. Kleinman,. 1997. Evolving applications of nucleic acid amplification assays for prevention of virus transmission by blood components and derviatives, p. 123 176. In G. Garratty (ed.), Application of Molecular Biology to Blood Transfusion Medicine. American Association of Blood Banks, Bethesda, Md.
12. Busch, M. P.,, L. L. L. Lee,, G. A. Satten,, D. R. Henrard,, H. Farzadegan,, K. E. Nelson,, S. Read,, R. Y. Dodd,, and L. R. Petersen. 1995. Time course of detection of viral and serologic markers preceding human immunodeficiency virus type I seroconversion: implications for screening of blood and tissue donors. Transfusion 35: 91 97.
13. Busch, M. P.,, S. A. Glynn,, and G. B. Schreiber. 1997. Potential increased risk of virus transmission due to exclusion of older donors because of concern over Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Transfusion 37: 996 1002.
14. Centers for Disease Control. 1990. Human T-lymphotropic virus type I screening in volunteer blood donors—United States, 1989. Morb. Mortal. Weekly Rep. 39: 915.
15. Centers for Disease Control. 1991. Public Health Service inter-agency guidelines for screening donors of blood, plasma, organs, tissues, and semen for evidence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C. Morbid. Mortal. Weekly Rep. 40(RR-4): 117.
16. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1996. Prevention of hepatitis A through active or passive immunization: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Morbid. Mortal. Weekly Rep. 45(RR-15): 130.
17. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1996. Identification of HIV-1 group O infection—Los Angeles County, California. Morbid. Mortal. Weekly Rep. 45: 561565.
18. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1997. Red blood cell transfusions contaminated with Yersinia enterocolitica—United States, 1991-1996, and initiation of a national study to detect bacteria-associated transfusion reactions. Morbid. Mortal. Weekly Rep. 46: 553555.
19. Conry-Cantelina, C.,, J. C. Melpolder,, and H. J. Alter. 1997. Intranasal drug use among volunteer whole blood donors: results of a survey. Transfusion 37(9S): 99S. (Abstract.)
20. Cossart, Y. E.,, A. M. Field,, B. Cant,, and D. Widdows. 1975. Parvovirus-like particles in human sera. Lancet i: 72 73.
21. Davanipour, Z.,, M. Alter,, E. Sobel,, D. M. Asher,, and D. C. Gajdusek. 1985. A case-control study of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Dietary risk factors. Am. J. Epidemiol. 122: 443 451.
22. DeArmond, S. J.,, and S. P. Prusiner. 1995. Etiology and pathogenesis of prion diseases. Am. J. Pathol. 146: 785 811.
23. Dodd, R. Y., 1994. Adverse consequences of blood transfusion: quantitative risk estimates. p. 1. In S. T. Nance (ed.), Blood Supply Risks, Perceptions and Prospects for the Future. American Association of Blood Banks, Bethesda, Md.
24. Dodd, R. Y. 1995. Scaling the heights. Transfusion 35: 186 188. (Editorial).
25. Dodd, R. H.,, G. D. Griffin,, A. Conrad,, R. I. F. Smith,, P. L. Page,, and S. L. Stramer. 1997. Pilot study to determine the feasibility of PCR testing of pooled donor samples for HBV, HCV, HAV and parvovirus B19. Transfusion 37(9S): IS.(Abstract).
26. Dreslys, J. P.,, C. Lasmezas,, and D. Dormont. 1994. Selection of specific strains in iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Lancet 343: 848 849.
27. Eberhard, M. L.,, E. M. Walker,, and F. J. Steurer. 1995. Survival and infectivity of Babesia in blood maintained at 25°C and 2-4°C. J. Parasitol. 81: 790 792.
28. Esmonde, T. F.,, R. G. Will,, J. M. Slattery,, R. Knight,, R. Harries-Jones,, R. de Silva,, and W. B. Matthews. 1993. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and blood transfusion. Lancet 341: 205 207.
29. Evatt, B. Unpublished data.
30. Gao, S. J.,, L. Kingsley,, M. Li,, W. Zheng,, C. Parravicini,, J. Ziegler,, R. Newton,, C. R. Rinaldo,, A. Saah,, J. Phair,, R. Detels,, Y. Chang,, and P. S. Moore. 1996. KSHY antibodies among Americans, Italians and Ugandans with and without Kaposi's sarcoma. Nat. Med. 2: 925 928.
31. Gerber, M. A.,, E. D. Shapiro,, P. J. Krause,, R. G. Cable,, S. J. Badon,, and R. W. Ryan. 1994. The risk of acquiring Lyme disease or babesiosis from a blood transfusion. J. Infect. Dis. 170: 231 234.
32. Giacoia, G. P.,, and D. O. Kasprisin. 1989. Transfusion-acquired hepatitis A. South. Med. J. 82: 1357 1360.
33. Gretch, D. 1997. Diagnostic tests for hepatitis C, p. 45. In Program and Abstracts of NIH Consensus Development Conference on Management of Hepatitis C. National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md.
34. Gunby, P. 1993. Desert Storm veterans now may donate blood; others call for discussion of donor tests. JAMA 269: 451 452.
35. Heye, N.,, S. Hensen,, and N. Muller. 1994. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and blood transfusion. Lancet 343: 298 299.
36. Herwaldt, B. L.,, A. M. Kjemtrup,, P. A. Conrad,, R. C. Barnes,, M. Wilson,, M. G. McCarthy,, M. H. Sayers,, and M. L. Eberhard. 1997. Transfusion-transmitted babesiosis in Washington State: first reported case caused by a WAI-type parasite. J. Infect. Dis. 175: 1259 1262.
37. Herwaldt, B. L. Unpublished data.
38. Holman, R. C.,, A. S. Khan,, E. D. Belay,, and L. B. Schonberger. 1996. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the United States, 1979-1994: using national mortality data to assess the possible occurrence of variant cases. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 2: 333 337.
39. Hoppe, P. A. 1992. Interim measures for detection of bacterially contaminated red cell components. Transfusion 32: 199 201. (Editorial).
40. Hu, D. J.,, T. O. Dondero,, M. A. Rayfield,, J. R. George,, G. Schocketman,, H. W. Jaffe,, E. C. Luo,, M. L. Kalish,, B. G. Weniger,, C. P. Pau,, C. A. Schable,, and J. W. Curran. 1996. The emerging genetic diversity of HIV: the importance of global surveillance for diagnostics, research, and prevention. JAMA 275: 210 216.
41. Institute of Medicine. 1995. HIY and the blood supply: an analysis of crisis decision making. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.
42. Jagodzinski, L.,, F. Kraus,, and P. Garrett. 1994. Detection of hepatitis B viral sequences in early HBV infection. Transfusion 34(S): 37S.
43. Kedda, M. A.,, M. C. Kew,, R. J. Cohn,, S. P. Field,, R. Schwyzer,, E. Song,, and F. Fernandes-Costa. 1995. An outbreak of hepatitis A among South African patients with hemophilia: evidence implicating contaminated factor VIII concentrate as the source. Hepatology 22: 1363 1367.
44. Kedes, D. H.,, E. Operskalski,, M. Busch,, R. Kohn,, J. Flood,, and D. Ganem. 1996. The seroepidemiology of human herpesvirus 8 (Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus): distribution of infection in KS risk groups and evidence for sexual transmission. Nature Med 2: 918 924.
45. Kondo, K.,, and Y. Kuroiwa. 1982. A case control study of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: association with physical injuries. Ann. Neurol. 11: 377 381.
46. Lackritz, E. M.,, G. A. Satten,, J. Aberle-Grasse,, R. Y. Dodd,, V. P. Raimondi,, R. S. Janssen,, W. F. Lewis,, E. P. Notari IV,, and L. R. Petersen. 1995. Estimated risk of transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus by screened blood in the United States. N. Engl. J. Med. 333: 1721 1725.
47. Leiby, D. A.,, E. J. Read,, B. A. Lenes,, A. J. Yund,, R. J. Stumpf,, L. V. Kirchhoff,, and R. Y. Dodd. 1997. Seroepidemiology of Trypanosoma cruzi. etiologic agent of Chagas’ disease, in U.S. blood donors. J. Infect. Dis. 176: 1047 1052.
48. Lennette, E.,, D. J. Blackbourn,, and J. A. Levy. 1996. Antibodies to human herpesvirus type 8 in the general population and in Kaposi's sarcoma patients. Lancet 348: 858 861.
49. Levy, R.,, A. Weissman,, G, Blomberg,, and Z. J. Hagay. 1997. Infection by parvovirus B19 during pregnancy: a review. Obstet. Gynecol. Surv. 52: 254 259.
50. Little, B. W.,, J. Mastrianni,, A. L. DeHaven, el al. 1993. The epidemiology of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in eastern Pennsylvania. Neurology 43: A316. (Abstract).
51. Luban, N. L. C. 1994. Human parvoviruses: implications for transfusion medicine. Transfusion 34: 821 827.
52. Magill, A. J.,, M. Grogl,, R. A. Gasser Jr,, W. Sun,, and C. N. Oster. 1993. Visceral infection caused by Leishmania tropica in veterans of Operation Desert Stonn. N. Engl. J. Med. 328: 1383 1387.
53. Magill, A. J.,, M. Grogl,, S. C. Johnson,, and R. A. Grasser. 1994. Visceral infection due to Leishmania tropica in veterans of Operation Desert Storm who presented 2 years after leaving Saudi Arabia. Clin. Infect. Dis. 19: 805 806.
54. Mannucci, P. M. 1993. Clinical evaluation of viral safety of coagulation factor VIII and IX concentrates. Vox Sang. 64: 197 203.
55. Mannucci, P. M.,, S. Gdovin,, A. Gringeri,, M. Colombo,, A. Mele,, N. Schinaia,, N. Ciavarella,, S. U. Emerson,, and P. H. Purcell. 1994. Transmission of hepatitis A to patients with hemophilia by factor VIII concentrates treated with organic solvent and detergent to inactivate viruses. Ann. Intern . Med. 120: 1 7.
56. Manuelides, E. E.,, J. H. Kim,, J. R. Mericangas,, and L. Manuelides. 1985. Transmission to animals of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease from human blood. Lancet ii: 896 897.
57. Mintz, E. D.,, J. F. Anderson,, R. G. Cable,, and J. L. Hadler. 1991. Transfusion-transmitted babesiosis: a case report from a new endemic area. Transfusion 31: 365 368.
58. Morrow, J. F.,, H. G. Braine,, T. S. Kickler,, P. M. Ness,, J. D. Dick,, and A. K. Fuller. 1991. Septic reactions to platelet transfusions: a persistent problem. JAMA 266: 555 558.
59. O’Brien, T. R.,, J. R. George,, and S. D. Holmberg. 1992. Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 infection in the United States: epidemiology, diagnosis, and public health importance. JAMA 267: 2775 2779.
60. Operskalski, E. A.,, M. P. Busch,, J. W. Mosley,, and D. Kedes. 1997. Blood donations and viruses. Lancet 349: 1327.
61. Ragni, M. V.,, W. C. Koch,, and J. A. Jordan. 1996. Parvovirus B19 infection in patients with hemophilia. Transfusion 36: 238 241.
62. Pau, C. P.,, J. Hud,, C. Spruill,, C. Schabl,, E. Lackritz,, M. Kai,, J. R. George,, M. A. Rayfield,, T. J. Dondero,, A. E. Williams,, M. P. Busch,, A. E. Brown,, F. E. McCutchan, and G. Schochetman. 1996. Surveillance for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group O infections in the United States. Transfusion 36: 398 400.
63. Popovsky, M. A. 1991. Transfusion-transmitted babesiosis. Transfusion 31: 296 298.
64. Schable, S.,, L. Zekeng,, P. Chou-Pong,, D. Hu,, L. Kaptue,, L. Gurtler,, T. Dondero,, J. M. Tsague,, G. Schochelman,, and H. Jaffe. 1994. Sensitivity of United States HIV antibody tests for detection of HIV-1 group O infections. Lancet 344: 1333 1334.
65. Schmunis, G. A. 1991. Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas’ disease: status in the blood supply in endemic and nonendemic countries. Transfusion 31: 547 557.
66. Schreiber, G. B.,, M. P. Busch,, S. H. Kleinman,, and J. J. Korelitz. 1996. The risk of transfusion-transmitted viral infections. N. Engl. J. Med. 334: 1685 1690.
67. Schulman, I. A.,, M. D. Appleman,, S. Saxena,, A. L. Hiti,, and L. V. Kirchoff. 1997. Specific antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi among blood donors in Los Angeles, California. Transfusion 37: 727 731.
68. Sloand, E. M.,, E. Pitt,, and H. G. Klein. 1995. Safety of the blood supply. JAMA 274: 1368 1373.
69. Soucie, J. M.,, B. H. Robertson,, and B. P. Bell. Hepatitis A virus infections associated with clotting factor concentrate in the United States. Submitted for publication.
70. Stramer, S. L.,, J. Haberle-Grasse,, J. P. Brodsky,, M. P. Busch,, and E. M. Lackritz. 1997. US blood donor screening with p24 antigen (Ag); one year experience. Transfusion 37(9S): IS. (Abstract.)
71. Stramer, S. L.,, R. A. Porter,, J. P. Brodsky,, A. Conrad,, G. F. Smith,, and R. Y. Dodd. 1997. Sensitivity of HIV and HCV detection by pooled PCR testing. Transfusion 37(9S): 98S. (Abstract.)
72. Sullivan, M.,, A. Williams,, E. Guido,, R. Melter,, C. Schable,, and S. Stramer. 1997. Detection and characterization of an HIV type 2 antibody positive blood donor in the U.S. Transfusion 37(9S): 58S. (Abstract.)
73. Sullivan, M. T.,, L. B. Schonberger,, D. Kessler,, A. E. Williams,, and R. Y. Dodd. 1997. Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) investigational look-back study. Transfusion 37(9S): 2S. (Abstract.)
74. Sullivan, P. S.,, A. N. Do,, K. Robbins,, M. Kalish,, S. Subbarao,, D. Pieniazek,, C. Schable,, G. Afaq,, J. Markowitz,, R. Myers,, J. M. Joseph,, and G. Benjamin. 1997. Surveillance for variant strains of HIV: Subtype G and group O HIV-1. JAMA 278: 292. (Letter.)
75. Tamai, Y.,, H. Kojuma,, R. Kitajima,, M. Kalish,, S. Subbarao,, D. Pieniazek,, C. Schable,, G. Afaq,, J. Markowitz,, R. Myers,, J. M. Joseph,, and G. Benjamin. 1992. Demonstration of the transmissible agent in tissue from a pregnant woman with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. N. Engl. J. Med. 327: 649.
76. Tateishi, J. 1985. Transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease from human blood and urine into mice. Lancet ii: 1074.
77. Tipple, M. A.,, L. A. Bland,, J. J. Murphy,, M. J. Arduino,, A. L. Panlilio,, J. J. Farmer III,, M. A. Tourault,, C. R. Macpherson,, J. E. Menitove,, and A. J. Grindon. 1990. Sepsis associated with transfusion of red cells contaminated with Yersinia enterocolitica. Transfusion 30: 207.
78. Torok, T. J., 1995. Human parvovirus B19. p. 668 702. In J. S. Remington, and J. O. Klein (ed.), Infectious Diseases of the Fetus and Newborn Infant. W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa.
79. Tuma, W.,, V. Schottstedt,, and G. Bunger. 1997. PCR mini-pool testing of all donations from a large blood bank. In Program of Cambridge Healthtech Institutes Conference on Blood Safety Screening. Cambridge Healthtech Institute, Newton Upper Falls. Mass.
80. U.S. General Accounting Office. 1997. Blood Supply: Transfusion-Associated Risks. Government Printing Office. Washington. D.C.
81. Wagner, S. J.,, L. I. Friedman,, and R. Y. Dodd. 1994. Transfusion-associated bacterial sepsis. Clin. Micro. Rev. 7: 290 302.
82. Williams, A. E.,, R. A. Thomson,, G. B. Schreiber,, M. J. Arduino,, A. L. Panlilio,, J. J. Farmer III,, M. A. TourauIt,, C. R. Macpherson,, J. E. Menitove,, and A. J. Grindon. 1997. Estimates of infectious disease risk factors in US blood donors. JAMA 277: 967 972.
83. Williams, M. D.,, B. J. Cohen,, A. C. Beddall,, K. J. Pasi,, P. P. Mortimer,, and F. G. Hill. 1990. Transmission of human parvovirus B19 by coagulation factor concentrates. Vox Sang. 58: 177 181.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Estimated risk and window period of infectivity for transmission of HIV, HBV, and HCV through transfusion

Citation: Khabbaz R, Chamberland M. 1998. From Prions to Parasites: Issues and Concerns in Blood Safety, p 295-310. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 2. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816957.ch16
Generic image for table
Table 2

CJD deaths and death rates by age group in the United States, 1979 to 1994

Citation: Khabbaz R, Chamberland M. 1998. From Prions to Parasites: Issues and Concerns in Blood Safety, p 295-310. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 2. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816957.ch16

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error