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3 : Toroviruses: Emerging Pathogens of Humans and Animals

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Abstract:

The first torovirus was isolated from a horse with diarrhea in Berne, Switzerland, in 1972 and reported in 1983. The Berne virus grows well in cell lines such as mule skin fibroblasts, but the bovine counterpart, Breda virus, and the human toroviruses have yet to be grown in cell cultures. Toroviruses have been found to infect other domestic animals in studies based either on direct characterization of the virus, as in the case of the porcine torovirus, or on the presence of antibody to the Berne and Breda viruses. Seroconversion to torovirus as measured by the hemagglutination inhibition assay was more common in immunologically normal patients than in immunocompromised patients. In this study setting, bacterial pathogens were noted in a small fraction of both the torovirus group and the rotavirius/astrovirus group. In analyzing the disease caused by torovirus in humans, it is relevant to consider the presentation of torovirus infection in other animals. As was observed with the human toroviruses, the sequences of representative amplicons from the noncoding 3' end of the genomes were very similar, but they differed from each other and from the prototype Breda virus. Finally, torovirus was found significantly more frequently among calves symptomatic for diarrhea than among asymptomatic controls. The sequence information on the genomes of the Breda and the human viruses has been critical for the design of new diagnostic tests to place the diagnosis of these viruses on a firmer basis.

Citation: Petrie M, Tellier R. 2000. Toroviruses: Emerging Pathogens of Humans and Animals, p 23-32. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 4. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816971.ch3
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Figures

Image of Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Electron micrograph of torovirus from a human fecal specimen. Bar = 100nm.

Citation: Petrie M, Tellier R. 2000. Toroviruses: Emerging Pathogens of Humans and Animals, p 23-32. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 4. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816971.ch3
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Image of Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Schematic representation of the Breda virus genome showing the open reading frames for the four viral structural genes, the peplomer (S), the envelope (M), hemagglutinin-esterase (HE), and nucleocapsid (N). Numbers indicate the genome positions of the first and last ORF starting from the 3′ end of the genome. The two ORFs of the polymerase gene (POLla and POLlb) have not yet been sequenced. A represents the poly(A) sequence at the 3′ end of the genome. nts, nucleotides.

Citation: Petrie M, Tellier R. 2000. Toroviruses: Emerging Pathogens of Humans and Animals, p 23-32. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 4. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816971.ch3
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Image of Figure 3.
Figure 3.

(A) Representative sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gel stained with Coomassie blue (left) and corresponding immunoblots of stool specimens positive for Breda virus (BRV +) and negative controls (BRV−) with guinea pig preimmune and hyperimmune serum to the recombinant N protein. (B) Representative SDS·PAGE gel stained with Coomassie blue (left) and corresponding immunoblots of a stool specimen positive for human torovirus and corresponding immunoblots with guinea pig preimmune and hyperimmune serum to the recombinant N protein.

Citation: Petrie M, Tellier R. 2000. Toroviruses: Emerging Pathogens of Humans and Animals, p 23-32. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 4. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816971.ch3
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References

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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1.

Characteristics of case-control study patients

Citation: Petrie M, Tellier R. 2000. Toroviruses: Emerging Pathogens of Humans and Animals, p 23-32. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 4. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816971.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 2.

Clinical features of torovirus cases and rotavirus/ astrovirus cases

Citation: Petrie M, Tellier R. 2000. Toroviruses: Emerging Pathogens of Humans and Animals, p 23-32. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 4. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816971.ch3

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