Chapter 8 : The Genome: Diversity of Pathogenic Potential

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is a small, gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic coccobacillus that belongs in the family . A localized form of the disease, localized aggressive periodontitis, was originally found to be associated with the presence of in periodontal pockets. Genetic analyses show that the JP2 clone constitutes a subpopulation of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) group II. All isolates of the JP2 clone are serotype b, are identical in multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, and have the same DNA fingerprint using the restriction enzyme MspI, but show variation in ribotype. The RFLP group II strains, including strain JP2, have elevated expression of cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) measured as cytotoxicity for Chinese hamster ovary cells. Genomic islands that carry the leukotoxin gene cluster, the lipooligosaccharide biosynthesis gene cluster, the tight adherence gene cluster, and the CDT gene cluster are common to HK1651, D11S-1, and D7S-1 strains, whereas the other islands are strain specific. Members of the author's group used multilocus sequence analysis to study microevolution of the JP2 clone. Based on the assumptions that the variations were caused by single-site mutations and that each mutation occurred only once, it was possible to deduce an evolutionary model for serotype b, including the origin of the JP2 clone.

Citation: Poulsen K, Tettelin H, Kilian M. 2011. The Genome: Diversity of Pathogenic Potential, p 103-117. In Kolenbrander P (ed), Oral Microbial Communities. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817107.ch8
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Image of FIGURE 1

Map of the leukotoxin () operon in The genes in the operon are labeled A to D where is the structural gene, the gene product of is required for activation of the toxin, and and encode proteins that assist in secretion of the toxin. The 530-bp deletion in the promoter region in strains of the JP2 clone is indicated by dashed lines, and the insertion sequence found in a Japanese strain is denoted IS.

Citation: Poulsen K, Tettelin H, Kilian M. 2011. The Genome: Diversity of Pathogenic Potential, p 103-117. In Kolenbrander P (ed), Oral Microbial Communities. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817107.ch8
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Image of FIGURE 2

Phylogenetic tree constructed on the basis of substitutions in the partial genome sequences. The core segments, shared by all strains, of a Mauve alignment of the four were used for tree construction.

Citation: Poulsen K, Tettelin H, Kilian M. 2011. The Genome: Diversity of Pathogenic Potential, p 103-117. In Kolenbrander P (ed), Oral Microbial Communities. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817107.ch8
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Image of FIGURE 3

DNA asymmetry and DnaA box distribution on the chromosome of strain HK1651. Chromosome coordinates are shown on the axis beginning with the gene as in the databases. The gray line and the right axis show the (G-C) DNA asymmetry. Black vertical lines with diamonds and the left axis show the DnaA box distribution and a peak indicates presence of a cluster of three close DnaA boxes as described previously ( ). The figure was kindly provided by P. Mackiewicz.

Citation: Poulsen K, Tettelin H, Kilian M. 2011. The Genome: Diversity of Pathogenic Potential, p 103-117. In Kolenbrander P (ed), Oral Microbial Communities. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817107.ch8
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Generic image for table

Genetic distance between strains of serotype b, measured as the frequency of substitutions in homologous sequences in the aligned genomes

Citation: Poulsen K, Tettelin H, Kilian M. 2011. The Genome: Diversity of Pathogenic Potential, p 103-117. In Kolenbrander P (ed), Oral Microbial Communities. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817107.ch8

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