Chapter 15 : Interaction with Host Cells

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is a gram-negative filamentous anaerobe ubiquitous to the oral cavity. While the focus of this chapter is on interaction with host cells, the chapter also explains the role of coaggregation in oral microbial community interaction with the host. is an opportunistic pathogen implicated in various forms of periodontal disease. During periodontal infection, the cell mass of can increase as much as 10,000-fold, making it one of the most abundant anaerobic species in the diseased sites. In particular, is one of the leading organisms identified in intrauterine infections causing adverse pregnancy outcomes, including spontaneous miscarriage, preterm birth, and stillbirth. One common feature shared by bacterial pathogens is their ability to adhere to and invade host cells. modulates an array of host responses upon attachment to and invasion of host cells. A protein complex, FIP, composed of two subunits of 44 and 48 kDa, mediates T-cell suppression. Sequence analysis of TM7a shows that while the majority of the genes are only distantly related to genes found in other organisms, a minority share high sequence similarity with genes found in members of the classes , , and , which may result from horizontal gene transfer in the oral cavity. FadA is a unique adhesin in that both the secreted mFadA and the intact pre-FadA are required for function.

Citation: Han Y. 2011. Interaction with Host Cells, p 221-232. In Kolenbrander P (ed), Oral Microbial Communities. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817107.ch15
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Image of FIGURE 1

Kinetic study of intravenous injection of into pregnant mice. Mice were infected with a dose of 1 × 10 to 2.5 × 10 CFU of 12230. At each time point, i.e., 6, 18, 24, 48, and 72 h postinfection, three or four mice were dissected. The bacterial counts in the placentas, liver, spleen, fetuses, and amniotic fluid (A.F.) of each mouse are expressed as log CFU per gram of tissue or per milliliter of fluid. The results shown are the averages for all mice dissected at each time point. The standard deviations were <20% for values of >1 log CFU/g but >50% for those of <1 log CFU/g. Reproduced from ( ) with permission.

Citation: Han Y. 2011. Interaction with Host Cells, p 221-232. In Kolenbrander P (ed), Oral Microbial Communities. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817107.ch15
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Image of FIGURE 2

Transmission electron microscopy image of murine placenta at 24 h after infection with 12230. R, red blood cells in the blood vessel. The solid arrows point to bacteria attached to or internalized in the endothelial cells lining the veins. The open arrows point to the bacteria in the blood vessel. Magnification, ×6,000. Reproduced from ( ) with permission.

Citation: Han Y. 2011. Interaction with Host Cells, p 221-232. In Kolenbrander P (ed), Oral Microbial Communities. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817107.ch15
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Image of FIGURE 3

Amino acid sequence of FadA in one-letter code. The underlined residues encode the signal peptide, followed by mFadA. The central hairpin residues TRFY are marked by dotted lines, the leucine residues are marked by asterisks, and the histidine tag at the C terminus is italicized. Reproduced from ( ) with permission.

Citation: Han Y. 2011. Interaction with Host Cells, p 221-232. In Kolenbrander P (ed), Oral Microbial Communities. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817107.ch15
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Image of FIGURE 4

Amino acid sequence alignment of FadA and its paralogues. Highlighted in gray are the identical residues shared among FadA. The sequences of three FadA paralogues, FNN1529 from ATCC 25586, FNV2159 from ATCC 49256, and FNP1049 from ATCC 10953, are listed below the FadA sequence. The conserved and identical residues among FadA and the paralogues are indicated. Fn, ; Fp, ; Fs, The numbers above the sequence indicate amino acid positions in the secreted form of FadA, and the numbers beside the sequence indicate positions in the intact form. Reproduced from ( ) with permission.

Citation: Han Y. 2011. Interaction with Host Cells, p 221-232. In Kolenbrander P (ed), Oral Microbial Communities. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817107.ch15
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Image of FIGURE 5

Colonization of 12230, US1, and USF81 in the mouse placenta. Approximately 2 × 10 CFU of different strains were injected into each pregnant CF-1 mouse via tail vein on day 16 of gestation. The placentas were harvested 6 h (open bars) or 24 h (solid bars) later. Live bacterial titers in the placentas were determined and are expressed as log CFU/g of tissue. The results shown are the averages for three to seven mice per strain. The standard deviations are expressed as lines above the bars. *, < 0.05 compared to 12230. Reproduced from ( ) with permission.

Citation: Han Y. 2011. Interaction with Host Cells, p 221-232. In Kolenbrander P (ed), Oral Microbial Communities. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817107.ch15
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Homology between FadA and proteins from different organisms

Citation: Han Y. 2011. Interaction with Host Cells, p 221-232. In Kolenbrander P (ed), Oral Microbial Communities. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817107.ch15

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