Chapter 6 : The Niche of

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

The Niche of , Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817114/9781555819354_Chap06-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817114/9781555819354_Chap06-2.gif


This chapter presents an overview of the habitats where can be isolated. It reviews some of the data that characterize the boundaries of its broad ecological niche. The genus is not as genetically diverse as once thought and contains only three named species: , , and . The frequency of gene flow among the phylogenetic lineages and the phylogenetic scale at which it is occurring suggest that boundaries to gene flow among species are minimal and also that clades may not occupy entirely different ecological niches. The chapter discusses the niche of . A human host typically harbors two or three genotypes, and together these genotypes represent the majority of the cells to be found in a sample. First, nine or more genotypes may be detected in a sample at a single point in time. Second, selective plating reveals the presence of genotypes that exist at very low frequencies. Finally, the number of samples that contain rare genotypes also indicates that there may be a rather large pool of genotypes. The high densities of in sand led many to speculate that, as in the tropics and subtropics, is an environmental organism even in some of the coldest temperate regions. is widespread among warm-blooded animals and humans, and the dynamics of its colonization of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is dependent on a number of host and microbial determinants.

Citation: Alm E, Walk S, Gordon D. 2011. The Niche of , p 69-89. In Walk S, Feng P (ed), Population Genetics of Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817114.ch6
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Graphical representation of CCs of as determined by eBURST. Central circle denotes the ancestor of the CC: ST10 (A) and ST95 (B). Each dot denotes an ST, and the size of the dot indicates the number of representatives of the ST in the database (http://mlst.ucc.ie).

Citation: Alm E, Walk S, Gordon D. 2011. The Niche of , p 69-89. In Walk S, Feng P (ed), Population Genetics of Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817114.ch6
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2.
Figure 2.

The frequency distribution of the number of genotypes recovered per individual host. Data are for isolates from humans ( ) and wild boars ( ).

Citation: Alm E, Walk S, Gordon D. 2011. The Niche of , p 69-89. In Walk S, Feng P (ed), Population Genetics of Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817114.ch6
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 3.
Figure 3.

The relative abundance of the genotypes recovered from four human hosts ( ). The total number of isolated colonies analyzed for each person () was 175.

Citation: Alm E, Walk S, Gordon D. 2011. The Niche of , p 69-89. In Walk S, Feng P (ed), Population Genetics of Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817114.ch6
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 4.
Figure 4.

The relative frequency of strains of the four main phylogroups recovered from people living in different cities. Data are from references and .

Citation: Alm E, Walk S, Gordon D. 2011. The Niche of , p 69-89. In Walk S, Feng P (ed), Population Genetics of Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817114.ch6
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Allen, L. A.,, S. M. Pasley, and, M. A. Pierce. 1952. Some factors affecting the viability of faecal bacteria. J. Gen. Microbiol. 7: 3643.
2. Alm, E. W.,, J. Burke, and, E. Hagan. 2006. Persistence and potential replication of the fecal indicator bacteria, Escherichia coli, in the shoreline sand at Lake Huron. J. Great Lakes Res. 32: 401405.
3. Alm, E. W.,, J. Burke, and, A. Spain. 2003. Fecal indicator bacteria are abundant in wet sand at freshwater beaches. Water Res. 37: 39783982.
4. Anderson, I. C.,, M. W. Rhodes, and, H. I. Kator. 1983. Seasonal variation in survival of Escherichia coli exposed in situ in membrane diffusion chambers containing filtered and nonfiltered estuarine water. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 45: 18771883.
5. Aw, T. Y. 2003. Cellular redox: a modulator of intestinal epithelial cell proliferation. News Physiol. Sci. 18: 201204.
6. Ballyk, M. M.,, D. A. Jones, and, H. L. Smith. 2001. Microbial competition in reactors with wall attachment. Microb. Ecol. 41: 210221.
7. Bonde, G. J. 1966. Bacteriological methods for estimation of water pollution. Health Lab. Sci. 3: 124128.
8. Brenner, D. J.,, B. R. Davis,, A. G. Steigerwalt,, C. F. Riddle,, A. C. McWhorter,, S. D. Allen,, J. J. Farmer III,, Y. Saitoh, and, G. R. Fanning. 1982. Atypical biogroups of Escherichia coli found in clinical specimens and description of Escherichia hermannii sp. nov. J. Clin. Microbiol. 15: 703713.
9. Brenner, D. J.,, A. C. McWhorter,, J. K. Knutson, and, A. G. Steigerwalt. 1982. Escherichia vulneris: a new species of Enterobacteriaceae associated with human wounds. J. Clin. Microbiol. 15: 11331140.
10. Byappanahalli, M. N.,, D. A. Shively,, M. B. Nevers,, M. J. Sadowsky, and, R. L. Whitman. 2003. Growth and survival of Escherichia coli and enterococci populations in the macro-alga Cladophora (Chlorophyta). FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 46: 203211.
11. Byappanahalli, M. N.,, R. L. Whitman,, D. A. Shively,, J. Ferguson,, S. Ishii, and, M. J. Sadowsky. 2007. Population structure of Cladophora-borne Escherichia coli in nearshore water of Lake Michigan. Water Res. 41: 36493654.
12. Cabelli, V. J.,, A. P. Dufour,, M. A. Levin,, L. J. McCabe, and, P. W. Haberman. 1979. Relationship of microbial indicators to health effects at marine bathing beaches. Am. J. Public Health 69: 690696.
13. Cabelli, V. J.,, A. P. Dufour,, L. J. McCabe, and, M. A. Levin. 1982. Swimming-associated gastroenteritis and water quality. Am. J. Epidemiol. 115: 606616.
14. Carrillo, M.,, E. Estrada, and, T. C. Hazen. 1985. Survival and enumeration of the fecal indicators Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Escherichia coli in a tropical rain forest watershed. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 50: 468476.
15. Caugant, D. A.,, B. R. Levin, and, R. K. Selander. 1981. Genetic diversity and temporal variation in the E. coli population of a human host. Genetics 98: 467490.
16. Cilia, V.,, B. Lafay, and, R. Christen. 1996. Sequence heterogeneities among 16S ribosomal RNA sequences, and their effect on phylogenetic analyses at the species level. Mol. Biol. Evol. 13: 451461.
17. Clermont, O.,, M. Lescat,, C. L. O’Brien,, D. M. Gordon,, O. Tenaillon, and, E. Denamur. 2008. Evidence for a human-specific Escherichia coli clone. Environ. Microbiol. 10: 10001006.
18. Cobbold, R. N.,, D. D. Hancock,, D. H. Rice,, J. Berg,, R. Stilborn,, C. J. Hovde, and, T. E. Besser. 2007. Rectoanal junction colonization of feedlot cattle by Escherichia coli O157:H7 and its association with supershedders and excretion dynamics. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73: 15631568.
19. Desjardins, P.,, B. Picard,, B. Kaltenbock,, J. Elion, and, E. Denamur. 1995. Sex in Escherichia coli does not disrupt the clonal structure of the population: evidence from random amplified polymorphic DNA and restriction-fragment-length polymorphism. J. Mol. Evol. 41: 440448.
20. Dethlefsen, L.,, P. B. Eckburg,, E. M. Bik, and, D. A. Relman. 2006. Assembly of the human intestinal microbiota. Trends Ecol. Evol. 21: 517523.
21. Dixit, S. M.,, D. M. Gordon,, X. Y. Wu,, T. Chapman,, K. Kailasapathy, and, J. J. Chin. 2004. Diversity analysis of commensal porcine Escherichia coli—associations between genotypes and habitat in the porcine gastrointestinal tract. Microbiology 150: 17351740.
22. Dufour, A. P. (ed.). 1977. Escherichia coli: the Fecal Coliform, p. 48–58. In A. W. Hoadley and, B. J. Dutka (ed.), Bacterial Indicators/Health Hazards Associated with Water. American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA.
23. Eckburg, P. B.,, E. M. Bik,, C. N. Bernstein,, E. Purdom,, L. Dethlefsen,, M. Sargent,, S. R. Gill,, K. E. Nelson, and, D. A. Relman. 2005. Diversity of the human intestinal microbial flora. Science 308: 16351638.
24. Escherich, T. 1988. The intestinal bacteria of the neonate and breast-fed infant. 1884. Rev. Infect. Dis. 10: 12201225.
25. Farmer, J. J.,, III, B. R. Davis,, F. W. Hickman-Brenner,, A. McWhorter,, G. P. Huntley-Carter,, M. A. Asbury,, C. Riddle,, H. G. Wathen-Grady,, C. Elias,, G. R. Fanning,, A. G. Steigerwalt,, C. M. O’Hara,, G. K. Morris,, P. B. Smith, and, D. G. Brenner. 1985. Biochemical identification of new species and biogroups of Enterobacteriaceae isolated from clinical specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 21: 4676.
26. Farmer, J. J.,, III, G. R. Fanning,, B. R. Davis,, C. M. O’Hara,, C. Riddle,, F. W. Hickman-Brenner,, M. A. Asbury,, V. A. Lowery III, and, D. J. Brenner. 1985. Escherichia fergusonii and Enterobacter taylorae, two new species of Enterobacteriaceae isolated from clinical specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 21: 7781.
27. Faust, M. A.,, A. E. Aotaky, and, M. T. Hargadon. 1975. Effect of physical parameters on the in situ survival of Escherichia coli MC-6 in an estuarine environment. Appl. Microbiol. 30: 800806.
28. Feil, E. J.,, B. C. Li,, D. M. Aanensen,, W. P. Hanage, and, B. G. Spratt. 2004. eBURST: inferring patterns of evolutionary descent among clusters of related bacterial genotypes from multilocus sequence typing data. J. Bacteriol. 186: 15181530.
29. Francy, D. S.,, and A. M. Gifford. 2002. Escherichia coli in the swash zone at four Ohio bathing beaches. U.S. Geological Survey fact sheet FS-134-02. U.S. Geological Survey, Columbus, OH.
30. Fujioka, R. S.,, H. H. Hashimoto,, E. B. Siwak, and, R. H. Young. 1981. Effect of sunlight on survival of indicator bacteria in seawater. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 41: 690696.
31. Fujioka, R. S.,, and O. T. Narikawa. 1982. Effect of sunlight on enumeration of indicator bacteria under field conditions. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 44: 395401.
32. Fujioka, R. S.,, K. Tenno, and, S. Kansako. 1988. Naturally occurring fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci in Hawaii’s freshwater streams. Toxicity Assessment 3: 613630.
33. Garcia-Aljaro, C.,, E. Moreno,, A. Andreu,, G. Prats, and, A. R. Blanch. 2009. Phylogroups, virulence determinants and antimicrobial resistance in stx 2 gene-carrying Escherichia coli isolated from aquatic environments. Res. Microbiol. 160: 585591.
34. Gordon, D. M. 1997. The genetic structure of Escherichia coli populations in feral house mice. Microbiology 143 (Pt. 6): 20392046.
35. Gordon, D. M. 2010. Strain typing and the ecological structure of Escherichia coli. J. AOAC Int. 93: 974984.
36. Gordon, D. M.,, S. Bauer, and, J. R. Johnson. 2002. The genetic structure of Escherichia coli populations in primary and secondary habitats. Microbiology 148: 15131522.
37. Gordon, D. M.,, O. Clermont,, H. Tolley, and, E. Denamur. 2008. Assigning Escherichia coli strains to phylogenetic groups: multi-locus sequence typing versus the PCR triplex method. Environ. Microbiol. 10: 24842496.
38. Gordon, D. M.,, and A. Cowling. 2003. The distribution and genetic structure of Escherichia coli in Australian vertebrates: host and geographic effects. Microbiology 149: 35753586.
39. Gordon, D. M.,, and J. Lee. 1999. The genetic structure of enteric bacteria from Australian mammals. Microbiology 145 (Pt. 10): 26732682.
40. Haack, S. K.,, L. R. Fogarty, and, C. Wright. 2003. Escherichia coli and enterococci at beaches in the Grand Traverse Bay, Lake Michigan: sources, characteristics, and environmental pathways. Environ. Sci. Technol. 37: 32753282.
41. Hardina, C. M.,, and R. S. Fujioka. 1991. Soil: the environmental source of Escherichia coli and enterococci in Hawaii’s streams. Environ. Toxicol. Water Qual. 6: 185195.
42. Hartl, D. L.,, and D. E. Dykhuizen. 1984. The population genetics of Escherichia coli. Annu. Rev. Genet. 18: 3168.
43. Herzer, P. J.,, S. Inouye,, M. Inouye, and, T. S. Whittam. 1990. Phylogenetic distribution of branched RNA-linked multicopy single-stranded DNA among natural isolates of Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 172: 61756181.
44. Hooper, L. V.,, and J. I. Gordon. 2001. Commensal host-bacterial relationships in the gut. Science 292: 11151118.
45. Hume, I. D. 1999. Marsupial Nutrition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
46. Hyma, K. E.,, D. W. Lacher,, A. M. Nelson,, A. C. Bumbaugh,, J. M. Janda,, N. A. Strockbine,, V. B. Young, and, T. S. Whittam. 2005. Evolutionary genetics of a new pathogenic Escherichia species: Escherichia albertii and related Shigella boydii strains. J. Bacteriol. 187: 619628.
47. Ishii, S.,, W. B. Ksoll,, R. E. Hicks, and, M. J. Sadowsky. 2006. Presence and growth of naturalized Escherichia coli in temperate soils from Lake Superior watersheds. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72: 612621.
48. Jaureguy, F.,, L. Landraud,, V. Passet,, L. Diancourt,, E. Frapy,, G. Guigon,, E. Carbonnelle,, O. Lortholary,, O. Clermont,, E. Denamur,, B. Picard,, X. Nassif, and, S. Brisse. 2008. Phylogenetic and genomic diversity of human bacteremic Escherichia coli strains. BMC Genomics 9: 560.
49. Jimenez, L.,, I. Muniz,, G. A. Toranzos, and, T. C. Hazen. 1989. Survival and activity of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli in tropical freshwater. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 67: 6169.
50. Johnson, J. R.,, K. Owens,, A. Gajewski, and, C. Clabots. 2008. Escherichia coli colonization patterns among human household members and pets, with attention to acute urinary tract infection. J. Infect. Dis. 197: 218224.
51. Ksoll, W. B.,, S. Ishii,, M. J. Sadowsky, and, R. E. Hicks. 2007. Presence and sources of fecal coliform bacteria in epilithic periphyton communities of Lake Superior. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73: 37713778.
52. LaLiberte, P.,, and D. J. Grimes. 1982. Survival of Escherichia coli in lake bottom sediment. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 43: 623628.
53. Lawrence, J. G.,, H. Ochman, and, D. L. Hartl. 1991. Molecular and evolutionary relationships among enteric bacteria. J. Gen. Microbiol. 137: 19111921.
54. Leclerc, H.,, D. A. Mossel,, S. C. Edberg, and, C. B. Struijk. 2001. Advances in the bacteriology of the coliform group: their suitability as markers of microbial water safety. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 55: 201234.
55. Lecointre, G.,, L. Rachdi,, P. Darlu, and, E. Denamur. 1998. Escherichia coli molecular phylogeny using the incongruence length difference test. Mol. Biol. Evol. 15: 16851695.
56. Lopez-Torres, A. J.,, T. C. Hazen, and, G. A. Toranzos. 1987. Distribution and in situ survival and activity of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli in a tropical rain forest watershed. Curr. Microbiol. 15: 213218.
57. Maiden, M. C.,, J. A. Bygraves,, E. Feil,, G. Morelli,, J. E. Russell,, R. Urwin,, Q. Zhang,, J. Zhou,, K. Zurth,, D. A. Caugant,, I. M. Feavers,, M. Achtman, and, B. G. Spratt. 1998. Multilocus sequence typing: a portable approach to the identification of clones within populations of pathogenic microorganisms. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95: 31403145.
58. McFeters, G. A.,, and D. G. Stuart. 1972. Survival of coliform bacteria in natural waters: field and laboratory studies with membrane-filter chambers. Appl. Microbiol. 24: 805811.
59. McNeil, N. I.,, K. L. Ling, and, J. Wager. 1987. Mucosal surface pH of the large intestine of the rat and of normal and inflamed large intestine in man. Gut 28: 707713.
60. Moreno, E.,, J. R. Johnson,, T. Perez,, G. Prats,, M. A. Kuskowski, and, A. Andreu. 2009. Structure and urovirulence characteristics of the fecal Escherichia coli population among healthy women. Microbes Infect. 11: 274280.
61. Nowrouzian, F. L.,, I. Adlerberth, and, A. E. Wold. 2006. Enhanced persistence in the colonic microbiota of Escherichia coli strains belonging to phylogenetic group B2: role of virulence factors and adherence to colonic cells. Microbes Infect. 8: 834840.
62. Ochman, H.,, and R. K. Selander. 1984. Standard reference strains of Escherichia coli from natural populations. J. Bacteriol. 157: 690693.
63. Paradis, S.,, M. Boissinot,, N. Paquette,, S. D. Belanger,, E. A. Martel,, D. K. Boudreau,, F. J. Picard,, M. Ouellette,, P. H. Roy, and, M. G. Bergeron. 2005. Phylogeny of the Enterobacteriaceae based on genes encoding elongation factor Tu and F-ATPase β-subunit. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 55: 20132025.
64. Pham, H. N.,, K. Ohkusu,, N. Mishima,, M. Noda,, M. Monir Shah,, X. Sun,, M. Hayashi, and, T. Ezaki. 2007. Phylogeny and species identification of the family Enterobacteriaceae based on dnaJ sequences. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 58: 153161.
65. Power, M. L.,, J. Littlefield-Wyer,, D. M. Gordon,, D. A. Veal, and, M. B. Slade. 2005. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of encapsulated Escherichia coli isolated from blooms in two Australian lakes. Environ. Microbiol. 7: 631640.
66. Priest, F. G.,, and M. Barker. 2010. Gram-negative bacteria associated with brewery yeasts: reclassification of Obesumbacterium proteus biogroup 2 as Shimwellia pseudo-proteus gen. nov., sp. nov., and transfer of Escherichia blattae to Shimwellia blattae comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 60: 828833.
67. Pupo, G. M.,, R. Lan, and, P. R. Reeves. 2000. Multiple independent origins of Shigella clones of Escherichia coli and convergent evolution of many of their characteristics. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97: 1056710572.
68. Rivera, S. C.,, T. C. Hazen, and, G. A. Toranzos. 1988. Isolation of fecal coliforms from pristine sites in a tropical rain forest. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 54: 513517.
69. Rolhion, N.,, and A. Darfeuille-Michaud. 2007. Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli in inflammatory bowel disease. Inflamm. Bowel Dis. 13: 12771283.
70. Savageau, M. A. 1983. Escherichia coli habitats, cell types, and molecular mechanisms of gene control. Am. Nat. 122: 732744.
71. Schierack, P.,, A. Romer,, J. Jores,, H. Kaspar,, S. Guenther,, M. Filter,, J. Eichberg, and, L. H. Wieler. 2009. Isolation and characterization of intestinal Escherichia coli clones from wild boars in Germany. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 75: 695702.
72. Schlager, T. A.,, J. O. Hendley,, A. L. Bell, and, T. S. Whittam. 2002. Clonal diversity of Escherichia coli colonizing stools and urinary tracts of young girls. Infect. Immun. 70: 12251229.
73. Shulman, S. T.,, H. C. Friedmann, and, R. H. Sims. 2007. Theodor Escherich: the first pediatric infectious diseases physician? Clin. Infect. Dis. 45: 10251029.
74. Solo-Gabriele, H. M.,, M. A. Wolfert,, T. R. Desmarais, and, C. J. Palmer. 2000. Sources of Escherichia coli in a coastal subtropical environment. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66: 230237.
75. Steffes, C.,, J. Ellis,, J. Wu, and, B. P. Rosen. 1992. The lysP gene encodes the lysinespecific permease. J. Bacteriol. 174: 32423249.
76. Stemmons, E. D.,, and H. L. Smith. 2000. Competition in a chemostat with wall attachment. SIAM J. Appl. Math. 61: 567595.
77. Sund-Levander, M.,, C. Forsberg, and, L. K. Wahren. 2002. Normal oral, rectal, tympanic and axillary body temperature in adult men and women: a systematic literature review. Scand. J Caring Sci. 16: 122128.
78. Tenaillon, O.,, D. Skurnik,, B. Picard, and, E. Denamur. 2010. The population genetics of commensal Escherichia coli. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 8: 207217.
79. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1986. Ambient water quality criteria for bacteria—1986. Criteria and Standards Division, Office of Water Regulations and Standards, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
80. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1989. Drinking water: national primary water regulations; total coliforms (including fecal coliforms and E. coli). Final Rule. Fed. Reg. 54: 2754427568.
81. Unno, T.,, D. Han,, J. Jang,, S. N. Lee,, G. Ko,, H. Y. Choi,, J. H. Kim,, M. J. Sadowsky, and, H. G. Hur. 2009. Absence of Escherichia coli phylogenetic group B2 strains in humans and domesticated animals from Jeonnam Province, Republic of Korea. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 75: 56595666.
82. Van Donsel, D. J.,, and E. E. Geldreich. 1971. Relationships of salmonellae to fecal coliforms in bottom sediments. Water Res. 5: 10791087.
83. Van Donsel, D. J.,, E. E. Geldreich, and, N. A. Clarke. 1967. Seasonal variations in survival of indicator bacteria in soil and their contribution to storm-water pollution. Appl. Microbiol. 15: 13621370.
84. Walk, S. T.,, E. W. Alm,, L. M. Calhoun,, J. M. Mladonicky, and, T. S. Whittam. 2007. Genetic diversity and population structure of Escherichia coli isolated from freshwater beaches. Environ. Microbiol. 9: 22742288.
85. Walk, S. T.,, E. W. Alm,, D. M. Gordon,, J. L. Ram,, G. A. Toranzos,, J. M. Tiedje, and, T. S. Whittam. 2009. Cryptic lineages of the genus Escherichia. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 75: 65346544.
86. Whitman, R. L.,, and M. B. Nevers. 2003. Foreshore sand as a source of Escherichia coli in nearshore water of a Lake Michigan beach. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69: 55555562.
87. Whitman, R. L.,, D. A. Shively,, H. Pawlik,, M. B. Nevers, and, M. N. Byappanahalli. 2003. Occurrence of Escherichia coli and enterococci in Cladophora (Chlorophyta) in nearshore water and beach sand of Lake Michigan. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69: 47144719.
88. Whittam, T. S. 1989. Clonal dynamics of Escherichia coli in its natural habitat. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 55: 2332.
89. Whittam, T. S.,, H. Ochman, and, R. K. Selander. 1983. Geographic components of linkage disequilibrium in natural populations of Escherichia coli. Mol. Biol. Evol. 1: 6783.
90. Winfield, M. D.,, and E. A. Groisman. 2003. Role of nonhost environments in the lifestyles of Salmonella and Escherichia coli. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69: 36873694.
91. Wirth, T.,, D. Falush,, R. Lan,, F. Colles,, P. Mensa,, L. H. Wieler,, H. Karch,, P. R. Reeves,, M. C. Maiden,, H. Ochman, and, M. Achtman. 2006. Sex and virulence in Escherichia coli: an evolutionary perspective. Mol. Microbiol. 60: 11361151.
92. World Health Organization. 2008. Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality, 3rd ed., vol. 1. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.


Generic image for table
Table 1.

Phylogenetically incongruent housekeeping loci of and

Citation: Alm E, Walk S, Gordon D. 2011. The Niche of , p 69-89. In Walk S, Feng P (ed), Population Genetics of Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817114.ch6

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error