Chapter 10 : Fitness Islands in Uropathogenic

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Fitness Islands in Uropathogenic , Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817114/9781555819354_Chap10-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817114/9781555819354_Chap10-2.gif


The size of sequenced genomes varies from 4.6 Mb for the fecal/commensal K-12 strain MG1655 to 5.5 Mb for enterohemorrhagic (EHEC) strain O157:H7 EDL933. The majority of these differences are attributed to the insertion of large regions of genomic DNA. This chapter examines genes present on genomic islands and islets of uropathogenic (UPEC), with a primary focus on genes contributing to the overall fitness of the organism rather than traditional virulence genes. The acquisition and stable integration of multiple genomic islands and islets encoding fimbrial adhesins in UPEC illustrate the significance of adhesion within the urinary tract. The abundance of horizontally acquired, coregulated fimbrial adhesins in UPEC, each with distinct adhesive moieties, demonstrates a clear functional redundancy. The authors identified the sit iron transport system in six of seven arbitrarily selected UPEC strains and only one of three fecal/commensal strains (not in K-12) using CGH. Several well-studied strains, ABU strain 83972 and Nissle 1917, may hold the key to understanding their pathogenic relatives. ABU strain 83972 has lost many of the typical UPEC virulence genes and yet has retained systems contributing to fitness, particularly those involved in iron acquisition and transport (aerobactin, salmochelin, yersiniabactin, heme/hemoglobin, and ).

Citation: Lloyd A, Mobley H. 2011. Fitness Islands in Uropathogenic , p 157-179. In Walk S, Feng P (ed), Population Genetics of Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817114.ch10
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of Figure 1.
Figure 1.

PAIs, GIs, and phage (ϕ) of UPEC strain CFT073. Thirteen genomic insertions of >30 kb, relative to K-12, are shown as shaded boxes and denoted by the gene that resides most closely to the point of insertion.

Citation: Lloyd A, Mobley H. 2011. Fitness Islands in Uropathogenic , p 157-179. In Walk S, Feng P (ed), Population Genetics of Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817114.ch10
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Alteri, C. J.,, E. C. Hagan,, K. E. Sivick,, S. N. Smith, and, H. L. Mobley. 2009. Mucosal immunization with iron receptor antigens protects against urinary tract infection. PLoS Pathog. 5: e1000586.
2. Alteri, C. J.,, and H. L. Mobley. 2007. Quantitative profile of the uropathogenic Escherichia coli outer membrane proteome during growth in human urine. Infect. Immun. 75: 26792688.
3. Bach, S.,, A. de Almeida, and, E. Carniel. 2000. The Yersinia high-pathogenicity island is present in different members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 183: 289294.
4. Barnhart, M. M.,, and M. R. Chapman. 2006. Curli biogenesis and function. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 60: 131147.
5. Baumler, A. J.,, T. L. Norris,, T. Lasco,, W. Voight,, R. Reissbrodt,, W. Rabsch, and, F. Heffron. 1998. IroN, a novel outer membrane siderophore receptor characteristic of Salmonella enterica. J. Bacteriol. 180: 14461453.
6. Berlyn, M. K. 1998. Linkage map of Escherichia coli K-12, edition 10: the traditional map. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 62: 814984.
7. Blanco, J.,, M. Blanco,, M. P. Alonso,, J. E. Blanco,, E. A. Gonzalez, and, J. I. Garabal. 1992. Characteristics of haemolytic Escherichia coli with particular reference to production of cytotoxic necrotizing factor type 1 (CNF1). Res. Microbiol. 143: 869878.
8. Blum, G.,, M. Ott,, A. Lischewski,, A. Ritter,, H. Imrich,, H. Tschape, and, J. Hacker. 1994. Excision of large DNA regions termed pathogenicity islands from tRNA-specific loci in the chromosome of an Escherichia coli wild-type pathogen. Infect. Immun. 62: 606614.
9. Brzuszkiewicz, E.,, H. Bruggemann,, H. Liesegang,, M. Emmerth,, T. Olschlager,, G. Nagy,, K. Albermann,, C. Wagner,, C. Buchrieser,, L. Emody,, G. Gottschalk,, J. Hacker, and, U. Dobrindt. 2006. How to become a uropathogen: comparative genomic analysis of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli strains. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103: 1287912884.
10. Buchanan, K.,, S. Falkow,, R. A. Hull, and, S. I. Hull. 1985. Frequency among Enterobacteriaceae of the DNA sequences encoding type 1 pili. J. Bacteriol. 162: 799803.
11. Buckles, E. L.,, F. K. Bahrani-Mougeot,, A. Molina,, C. V. Lockatell,, D. E. Johnson,, C. B. Drachenberg,, V. Burland,, F. R. Blattner, and, M. S. Donnenberg. 2004. Identification and characterization of a novel uropathogenic Escherichia coli-associated fimbrial gene cluster. Infect. Immun. 72: 38903901.
12. Caprioli, A.,, V. Falbo,, F. M. Ruggeri,, L. Baldassarri,, R. Bisicchia,, G. Ippolito,, E. Romoli, and, G. Donelli. 1987. Cytotoxic necrotizing factor production by hemolytic strains of Escherichia coli causing extraintestinal infections. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25: 146149.
13. Carbonetti, N. H.,, S. Boonchai,, S. H. Parry,, V. Väisänen-Rhen,, T. K. Korhonen, and, P. H. Williams. 1986. Aerobactin-mediated iron uptake by Escherichia coli isolates from human extraintestinal infections. Infect. Immun. 51: 966968.
14. Carniel, E. 2001. The Yersinia high-pathogenicity island: an iron-uptake island. Microbes Infect. 3: 561569.
15. Chen, S. L.,, C. S. Hung,, J. Xu,, C. S. Reigstad,, V. Magrini,, A. Sabo,, D. Blasiar,, T. Bieri,, R. R. Meyer,, P. Ozersky,, J. R. Armstrong,, R. S. Fulton,, J. P. Latreille,, J. Spieth,, T. M. Hooton,, E. R. Mardis,, S. J. Hultgren, and, J. I. Gordon. 2006. Identification of genes subject to positive selection in uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli: a comparative genomics approach. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103: 59775982.
16. Clermont, O.,, S. Bonacorsi, and, E. Bingen. 2000. Rapid and simple determination of the Escherichia coli phylogenetic group. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66: 45554558.
17. Connell, I.,, W. Agace,, P. Klemm,, M. Schembri,, S. Marild, and, C. Svanborg. 1996. Type 1 fimbrial expression enhances Escherichia coli virulence for the urinary tract. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93: 98279832.
18. Dobrindt, U. 2005. (Patho-)Genomics of Escherichia coli. Int. J. Med. Microbiol. 295: 357371.
19. Eden, C. S.,, L. A. Hanson,, U. Jodal,, U. Lindberg, and, A. S. Akerlund. 1976. Variable adherence to normal human urinary-tract epithelial cells of Escherichia coli strains associated with various forms of urinary-tract infection. Lancet 1: 490492.
20. Falbo, V.,, M. Famiglietti, and, A. Caprioli. 1992. Gene block encoding production of cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 and hemolysin in Escherichia coli isolates from extraintestinal infections. Infect. Immun. 60: 21822187.
21. Falkow, S. 1996. The evolution of pathogenicity in Escherichia coli, Shigella and Salmonella, p. 2723–2729. In F. C. Neidhardt (ed.), Escherichia coli and Salmonella: Cellular and Molecular Biology. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
22. Feldmann, F.,, L. J. Sorsa,, K. Hildinger, and, S. Schubert. 2007. The salmochelin siderophore receptor IroN contributes to invasion of urothelial cells by extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli in vitro. Infect. Immun. 75: 31833187.
23. Foxman, B. 2003. Epidemiology of urinary tract infections: incidence, morbidity, and economic costs. Dis. Mon. 49: 5370.
24. Gransden, W. R.,, S. J. Eykyn,, I. Phillips, and, B. Rowe. 1990. Bacteremia due to Escherichia coli: a study of 861 episodes. Rev. Infect. Dis. 12: 10081018.
25. Groisman, E. A.,, and H. Ochman. 1996. Pathogenicity islands: bacterial evolution in quantum leaps. Cell 87: 791794.
26. Grozdanov, L.,, C. Raasch,, J. Schulze,, U. Sonnenborn,, G. Gottschalk,, J. Hacker, and, U. Dobrindt. 2004. Analysis of the genome structure of the nonpathogenic probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917. J. Bacteriol. 186: 54325441.
27. Guyer, D. M.,, I. R. Henderson,, J. P. Nataro, and, H. L. Mobley. 2000. Identification of Sat, an autotransporter toxin produced by uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Mol. Microbiol. 38: 5366.
28. Guyer, D. M.,, S. Radulovic,, F. E. Jones, and, H. L. Mobley. 2002. Sat, the secreted autotransporter toxin of uropathogenic Escherichia coli, is a vacuolating cytotoxin for bladder and kidney epithelial cells. Infect. Immun. 70: 45394546.
29. Hacker, J.,, G. Blum-Oehler,, I. Muhldorfer, and, H. Tschape. 1997. Pathogenicity islands of virulent bacteria: structure, function and impact on microbial evolution. Mol. Microbiol. 23: 10891097.
30. Hacker, J.,, and E. Carniel. 2001. Ecological fitness, genomic islands and bacterial pathogenicity. A Darwinian view of the evolution of microbes. EMBO Rep. 2: 376381.
31. Hacker, J.,, and J. B. Kaper. 2000. Pathogenicity islands and the evolution of microbes. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 54: 641679.
32. Hagan, E. C.,, and H. L. Mobley. 2009. Haem acquisition is facilitated by a novel receptor Hma and required by uropathogenic Escherichia coli for kidney infection. Mol. Microbiol. 71: 7991.
33. Hancock, V.,, A. S. Seshasayee,, D. W. Ussery,, N. M. Luscombe, and, P. Klemm. 2008. Transcriptomics and adaptive genomics of the asymptomatic bacteriuria Escherichia coli strain 83972. Mol. Genet. Genomics 279: 523534.
34. Heimer, S. R.,, D. A. Rasko,, C. V. Lockatell,, D. E. Johnson, and, H. L. Mobley. 2004. Autotransporter genes pic and tsh are associated with Escherichia coli strains that cause acute pyelonephritis and are expressed during urinary tract infection. Infect. Immun. 72: 593597.
35. Henderson, I. R.,, F. Navarro-Garcia,, M. Desvaux,, R. C. Fernandez, and, D. Ala’Aldeen. 2004. Type V protein secretion pathway: the autotransporter story. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 68: 692744.
36. Henderson, J. P.,, J. R. Crowley,, J. S. Pinkner,, J. N. Walker,, P. Tsukayama,, W. E. Stamm,, T. M. Hooton, and, S. J. Hultgren. 2009. Quantitative metabolomics reveals an epigenetic blueprint for iron acquisition in uropathogenic Escherichia coli. PLoS Pathog. 5: e1000305.
37. Hentschel, U.,, and J. Hacker. 2001. Pathogenicity islands: the tip of the iceberg. Microbes Infect. 3: 545548.
38. Holden, N. J.,, M. Totsika,, E. Mahler,, A. J. Roe,, K. Catherwood,, K. Lindner,, U. Dobrindt, and, D. L. Gally. 2006. Demonstration of regulatory cross-talk between P fimbriae and type 1 fimbriae in uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Microbiology 152: 11431153.
39. Hunt, M. D.,, G. S. Pettis, and, M. A. McIntosh. 1994. Promoter and operator determinants for fur-mediated iron regulation in the bidirectional fepA-fes control region of the Escherichia coli enterobactin gene system. J. Bacteriol. 176: 39443955.
40. Johnson, J. R. 1991. Virulence factors in Escherichia coli urinary tract infection. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 4: 80128.
41. Johnson, J. R.,, S. Jelacic,, L. M. Schoening,, C. Clabots,, N. Shaikh,, H. L. Mobley, and, P. I. Tarr. 2005. The IrgA homologue adhesin Iha is an Escherichia coli virulence factor in murine urinary tract infection. Infect. Immun. 73: 965971.
42. Johnson, J. R.,, S. L. Moseley,, P. L. Roberts, and, W. E. Stamm. 1988. Aerobactin and other virulence factor genes among strains of Escherichia coli causing urosepsis: association with patient characteristics. Infect. Immun. 56: 405412.
43. Johnson, J. R.,, T. A. Russo,, P. I. Tarr,, U. Carlino,, S. S. Bilge,, J. C. Vary, Jr., and, A. L. Stell. 2000. Molecular epidemiological and phylogenetic associations of two novel putative virulence genes, iha and iroN E. coli, among Escherichia coli isolates from patients with urosepsis. Infect. Immun. 68: 30403047.
44. Johnson, T. J.,, S. Kariyawasam,, Y. Wannemuehler,, P. Mangiamele,, S. J. Johnson,, C. Doetkott,, J. A. Skyberg,, A. M. Lynne,, J. R. Johnson, and, L. K. Nolan. 2007. The genome sequence of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli strain O1:K1:H7 shares strong similarities with human extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli genomes. J. Bacteriol. 189: 32283236.
45. Kallenius, G.,, R. Mollby,, S. B. Svenson,, I. Helin,, H. Hultberg,, B. Cedergren, and, J. Winberg. 1981. Occurrence of P-fimbriated Escherichia coli in urinary tract infections. Lancet 2: 13691372.
46. Kaper, J. B.,, J. P. Nataro, and, H. L. Mobley. 2004. Pathogenic Escherichia coli. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 2: 123140.
47. Klemm, P. 1986. Two regulatory fim genes, fimB and fimE, control the phase variation of type 1 fimbriae in Escherichia coli. EMBO J. 5: 13891393.
48. Klemm, P.,, V. Hancock, and, M. A. Schembri. 2007. Mellowing out: adaptation to commensalism by Escherichia coli asymptomatic bacteriuria strain 83972. Infect. Immun. 75: 36883695.
49. Klemm, P.,, V. Roos,, G. C. Ulett,, C. Svanborg, and, M. A. Schembri. 2006. Molecular characterization of the Escherichia coli asymptomatic bacteriuria strain 83972: the taming of a pathogen. Infect. Immun. 74: 781785.
50. Kruis, W.,, P. Fric,, J. Pokrotnieks,, M. Lukas,, B. Fixa,, M. Kascak,, M. A. Kamm,, J. Weismueller,, C. Beglinger,, M. Stolte,, C. Wolff, and, J. Schulze. 2004. Maintaining remission of ulcerative colitis with the probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 is as effective as with standard mesalazine. Gut 53: 16171623.
51. Lane, M. C.,, C. J. Alteri,, S. N. Smith, and, H. L. Mobley. 2007. Expression of flagella is coincident with uropathogenic Escherichia coli ascension to the upper urinary tract. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104: 1666916674.
52. Lane, M. C.,, and H. L. Mobley. 2007. Role of P-fimbrial-mediated adherence in pyelonephritis and persistence of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) in the mammalian kidney. Kidney Int. 72: 1925.
53. Lasaro, M. A.,, N. Salinger,, J. Zhang,, Y. Wang,, Z. Zhong,, M. Goulian, and, J. Zhu. 2009. F1C fimbriae play an important role in biofilm formation and intestinal colonization by the Escherichia coli commensal strain Nissle 1917. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 75: 246251.
54. Lawrence, J. G. 2005. Horizontal and vertical gene transfer: the life history of pathogens. Contrib. Microbiol. 12: 255271.
55. Lawrence, J. G.,, and H. Ochman. 1998. Molecular archaeology of the Escherichia coli genome. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95: 94139417.
56. Lawrence, J. G.,, and J. R. Roth. 1999. Genomic flux: genome evolution by gene loss and acquisition, p. 263–290. In R. L. Charlebois (ed.), Organization of the Prokaryotic Genome. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
57. Lloyd, A. L.,, T. A. Henderson,, P. D. Vigil, and, H. L. Mobley. 2009. Genomic islands of uropathogenic Escherichia coli contribute to virulence. J. Bacteriol. 191: 34693481.
58. Lloyd, A. L.,, D. A. Rasko, and, H. L. Mobley. 2007. Defining genomic islands and uropathogen-specific genes in uropathogenic Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 189: 35323546.
59. Lloyd, A. L.,, S. N. Smith,, K. A. Eaton, and, H. L. Mobley. 2009. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli suppresses the host inflammatory response via pathogenicity island genes sisA and sisB. Infect. Immun. 77: 53225333.
60. Mabbett, A. N.,, G. C. Ulett,, R. E. Watts,, J. J. Tree,, M. Totsika,, C. L. Ong,, J. M. Wood,, W. Monaghan,, D. F. Looke,, G. R. Nimmo,, C. Svanborg, and, M. A. Schembri. 2009. Virulence properties of asymptomatic bacteriuria Escherichia coli. Int. J. Med. Microbiol. 299: 5363.
61. Mobley, H. L.,, D. M. Green,, A. L. Trifillis,, D. E. Johnson,, G. R. Chippendale,, C. V. Lockatell,, B. D. Jones, and, J. W. Warren. 1990. Pyelonephritogenic Escherichia coli and killing of cultured human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells: role of hemolysin in some strains. Infect. Immun. 58: 12811289.
62. Moss, J. E.,, T. J. Cardozo,, A. Zychlinsky, and, E. A. Groisman. 1999. The selC- associated SHI-2 pathogenicity island of Shigella flexneri. Mol. Microbiol. 33: 7483.
63. Nowicki, B.,, J. P. Barrish,, T. Korhonen,, R. A. Hull, and, S. I. Hull. 1987. Molecular cloning of the Escherichia coli O75X adhesin. Infect. Immun. 55: 31683173.
64. Nowicki, B.,, A. Labigne,, S. Moseley,, R. Hull,, S. Hull, and, J. Moulds. 1990. The Dr hemagglutinin, afimbrial adhesins AFA-I and AFA-III, and F1845 fimbriae of uropathogenic and diarrhea-associated Escherichia coli belong to a family of hemagglutinins with Dr receptor recognition. Infect. Immun. 58: 279281.
65. Nowicki, B.,, J. Moulds,, R. Hull, and, S. Hull. 1988. A hemagglutinin of uropathogenic Escherichia coli recognizes the Dr blood group antigen. Infect. Immun. 56: 10571060.
66. Nowicki, B.,, M. Rhen,, V. Väisänen-Rhen,, A. Pere, and, T. K. Korhonen. 1984. Immunofluorescence study of fimbrial phase variation in Escherichia coli KS71. J. Bacteriol. 160: 691695.
67. Ochman, H.,, J. G. Lawrence, and, E. A. Groisman. 2000. Lateral gene transfer and the nature of bacterial innovation. Nature 405: 299304.
68. Ott, M.,, J. Hacker,, T. Schmoll,, T. Jarchau,, T. K. Korhonen, and, W. Goebel. 1986. Analysis of the genetic determinants coding for the S-fimbrial adhesin ( sfa) in different Escherichia coli strains causing meningitis or urinary tract infections. Infect. Immun. 54: 646653.
69. Ott, M.,, H. Hoschutzky,, K. Jann,, I. Van Die, and, J. Hacker. 1988. Gene clusters for S fimbrial adhesin ( sfa) and F1C fimbriae ( foc) of Escherichia coli: comparative aspects of structure and function. J. Bacteriol. 170: 39833990.
70. Ouyang, Z.,, and R. Isaacson. 2006. Identification and characterization of a novel ABC iron transport system, fit, in Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 74: 69496956.
71. Parham, N. J.,, S. J. Pollard,, M. Desvaux,, A. Scott-Tucker,, C. Liu,, A. Fivian, and, I. R. Henderson. 2005. Distribution of the serine protease autotransporters of the Enterobacteriaceae among extraintestinal clinical isolates of Escherichia coli. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43: 40764082.
72. Parham, N. J.,, U. Srinivasan,, M. Desvaux,, B. Foxman,, C. F. Marrs, and, I. R. Henderson. 2004. PicU, a second serine protease autotransporter of uropathogenic Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 230: 7383.
73. Pearson, M. M.,, and H. L. Mobley. 2008. Repression of motility during fimbrial expression: identification of 14 mrpJ gene paralogues in Proteus mirabilis. Mol. Microbiol. 69: 548558.
74. Perry, R. D.,, P. B. Balbo,, H. A. Jones,, J. D. Fetherston, and, E. DeMoll. 1999. Yersiniabactin from Yersinia pestis: biochemical characterization of the siderophore and its role in iron transport and regulation. Microbiology 145( Pt. 5): 11811190.
75. Preston, G. M.,, B. Haubold, and, P. B. Rainey. 1998. Bacterial genomics and adaptation to life on plants: implications for the evolution of pathogenicity and symbiosis. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 1: 589597.
76. Rasko, D. A.,, M. J. Rosovitz,, G. S. Myers,, E. F. Mongodin,, W. F. Fricke,, P. Gajer,, J. Crabtree,, M. Sebaihia,, N. R. Thomson,, R. Chaudhuri,, I. R. Henderson,, V. Sperandio, and, J. Ravel. 2008. The pangenome structure of Escherichia coli: comparative genomic analysis of E. coli commensal and pathogenic isolates. J. Bacteriol. 190: 68816893.
77. Raymond, K. N.,, E. A. Dertz, and, S. S. Kim. 2003. Enterobactin: an archetype for microbial iron transport. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100: 35843588.
78. Rippere-Lampe, K. E.,, A. D. O’Brien,, R. Conran, and, H. A. Lockman. 2001. Mutation of the gene encoding cytotoxic necrotizing factor type 1 ( cnf1) attenuates the virulence of uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 69: 39543964.
79. Robinson, G. L. 1951. The haemolysin of Bacterium coli. J. Gen. Microbiol. 5: 788792.
80. Rode, C. K.,, L. J. Melkerson-Watson,, A. T. Johnson, and, C. A. Bloch. 1999. Type-specific contributions to chromosome size differences in Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 67: 230236.
81. Ronald, A. 2002. The etiology of urinary tract infection: traditional and emerging pathogens. Am. J. Med. 113( Suppl. 1A): 14S19S.
82. Roos, V.,, M. A. Schembri,, G. C. Ulett, and, P. Klemm. 2006. Asymptomatic bacteriuria Escherichia coli strain 83972 carries mutations in the foc locus and is unable to express F1C fimbriae. Microbiology 152: 17991806.
83. Runyen-Janecky, L. J.,, and S. M. Payne. 2002. Identification of chromosomal Shigella flexneri genes induced by the eukaryotic intracellular environment. Infect. Immun. 70: 43794388.
84. Russo, T. A.,, U. B. Carlino, and, J. R. Johnson. 2001. Identification of a new iron-regulated virulence gene, ireA, in an extraintestinal pathogenic isolate of Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 69: 62096216.
85. Russo, T. A.,, and J. R. Johnson. 2000. Proposal for a new inclusive designation for extraintestinal pathogenic isolates of Escherichia coli: ExPEC. J. Infect. Dis. 181: 17531754.
86. Russo, T. A.,, C. D. McFadden,, U. B. Carlino-MacDonald,, J. M. Beanan,, T. J. Barnard, and, J. R. Johnson. 2002. IroN functions as a siderophore receptor and is a urovirulence factor in an extraintestinal pathogenic isolate of Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 70: 71567160.
87. Russo, T. A.,, C. D. McFadden,, U. B. Carlino-MacDonald,, J. M. Beanan,, R. Olson, and, G. E. Wilding. 2003. The siderophore receptor IroN of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli is a potential vaccine candidate. Infect. Immun. 71: 71647169.
88. Sabri, M.,, S. Leveille, and, C. M. Dozois. 2006. A SitABCD homologue from an avian pathogenic Escherichia coli strain mediates transport of iron and manganese and resistance to hydrogen peroxide. Microbiology 152: 745758.
89. Schmidt, H.,, and M. Hensel. 2004. Pathogenicity islands in bacterial pathogenesis. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 17: 1456.
90. Schubert, S.,, P. Darlu,, O. Clermont,, A. Wieser,, G. Magistro,, C. Hoffmann,, K. Weinert,, O. Tenaillon,, I. Matic, and, E. Denamur. 2009. Role of intraspecies recombination in the spread of pathogenicity islands within the Escherichia coli species. PLoS Pathog. 5: e1000257.
91. Schubert, S.,, A. Rakin,, D. Fischer,, J. Sorsa, and, J. Heesemann. 1999. Characterization of the integration site of Yersinia high-pathogenicity island in Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 179: 409414.
92. Schubert, S.,, A. Rakin,, H. Karch,, E. Carniel, and, J. Heesemann. 1998. Prevalence of the “high-pathogenicity island” of Yersinia species among Escherichia coli strains that are pathogenic to humans. Infect. Immun. 66: 480485.
93. Schultz, M. 2008. Clinical use of E. coli Nissle 1917 in inflammatory bowel disease. Inflamm. Bowel Dis. 14: 10121018.
94. Simms, A. N.,, and H. L. Mobley. 2008. PapX, a P fimbrial operon-encoded inhibitor of motility in uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 76: 48334841.
95. Smith, Y. C.,, S. B. Rasmussen,, K. K. Grande,, R. M. Conran, and, A. D. O’Brien. 2008. Hemolysin of uropathogenic Escherichia coli evokes extensive shedding of the uroepithelium and hemorrhage in bladder tissue within the first 24 hours after intraurethral inoculation of mice. Infect. Immun. 76: 29782990.
96. Snyder, J. A.,, B. J. Haugen,, E. L. Buckles,, C. V. Lockatell,, D. E. Johnson,, M. S. Donnenberg,, R. A. Welch, and, H. L. Mobley. 2004. Transcriptome of uropathogenic Escherichia coli during urinary tract infection. Infect. Immun. 72: 63736381.
97. Snyder, J. A.,, B. J. Haugen,, C. V. Lockatell,, N. Maroncle,, E. C. Hagan,, D. E. Johnson,, R. A. Welch, and, H. L. Mobley. 2005. Coordinate expression of fimbriae in uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 73: 75887596.
98. Stamm, W. E.,, and T. M. Hooton. 1993. Management of urinary tract infections in adults. N. Engl. J. Med. 329: 13281334.
99. Sun, J.,, F. Gunzer,, A. M. Westendorf,, J. Buer,, M. Scharfe,, M. Jarek,, F. Gossling,, H. Blocker, and, A. P. Zeng. 2005. Genomic peculiarity of coding sequences and metabolic potential of probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 inferred from raw genome data. J. Biotechnol. 117: 147161.
100. Swenson, D. L.,, N. O. Bukanov,, D. E. Berg, and, R. A. Welch. 1996. Two pathogenicity islands in uropathogenic Escherichia coli J96: cosmid cloning and sample sequencing. Infect. Immun. 64: 37363743.
101. Tarr, P. I.,, S. S. Bilge,, J. C. Vary, Jr.,, S. Jelacic,, R. L. Habeeb,, T. R. Ward,, M. R. Baylor, and, T. E. Besser. 2000. Iha: a novel Escherichia coli O157:H7 adherence-conferring molecule encoded on a recently acquired chromosomal island of conserved structure. Infect. Immun. 68: 14001407.
102. Torres, A. G.,, and S. M. Payne. 1997. Haem iron-transport system in enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7. Mol. Microbiol. 23: 825833.
103. Torres, A. G.,, P. Redford,, R. A. Welch, and, S. M. Payne. 2001. TonB-dependent systems of uropathogenic Escherichia coli: aerobactin and heme transport and TonB are required for virulence in the mouse. Infect. Immun. 69: 61796185.
104. Väisänen-Rhen, V. 1984. Fimbria-like hemagglutinin of Escherichia coli O75 strains. Infect. Immun. 46: 401407.
105. Valle, J.,, A. N. Mabbett,, G. C. Ulett,, A. Toledo-Arana,, K. Wecker,, M. Totsika,, M. A. Schembri,, J. M. Ghigo, and, C. Beloin. 2008. UpaG, a new member of the trimeric autotransporter family of adhesins in uropathogenic Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 190: 41474161.
106. Warner, P. J.,, P. H. Williams,, A. Bindereif, and, J. B. Neilands. 1981. ColV plasmidspecific aerobactin synthesis by invasive strains of Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 33: 540545.
107. Welch, R. A.,, V. Burland,, G. Plunkett III,, P. Redford,, P. Roesch,, D. Rasko,, E. L. Buckles,, S. R. Liou,, A. Boutin,, J. Hackett,, D. Stroud,, G. F. Mayhew,, D. J. Rose,, S. Zhou,, D. C. Schwartz,, N. T. Perna,, H. L. Mobley,, M. S. Donnenberg, and, F. R. Blattner. 2002. Extensive mosaic structure revealed by the complete genome sequence of uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99: 1702017024.
108. Welch, R. A.,, E. P. Dellinger,, B. Minshew, and, S. Falkow. 1981. Haemolysin contributes to virulence of extraintestinal E. coli infections. Nature 294: 665667.
109. Wick, L. M.,, W. Qi,, D. W. Lacher, and, T. S. Whittam. 2005. Evolution of genomic content in the stepwise emergence of Escherichia coli O157:H7. J. Bacteriol. 187: 17831791.
110. Williams, P. H. 1979. Novel iron uptake system specified by ColV plasmids: an important component in the virulence of invasive strains of Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 26: 925932.
111. Zhou, D.,, W. D. Hardt, and, J. E. Galan. 1999. Salmonella typhimurium encodes a putative iron transport system within the centisome 63 pathogenicity island. Infect. Immun. 67: 19741981.


Generic image for table
Table 1.

Features of UPEC strains

Citation: Lloyd A, Mobley H. 2011. Fitness Islands in Uropathogenic , p 157-179. In Walk S, Feng P (ed), Population Genetics of Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817114.ch10
Generic image for table
Table 2.

Predicted fimbrial gene clusters in UPEC strain CFT073

Citation: Lloyd A, Mobley H. 2011. Fitness Islands in Uropathogenic , p 157-179. In Walk S, Feng P (ed), Population Genetics of Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817114.ch10

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error