Chapter 33 : Tuberculosis and Organ Transplantation

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Tuberculosis and Organ Transplantation, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817138/9781555815134_Chap33-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817138/9781555815134_Chap33-2.gif


is a significant opportunistic pathogen in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients due to its high morbidity and mortality. The time of onset of symptoms of tuberculosis after transplantation varies. It is quite common for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in SOT recipients to be delayed for weeks, due to absence of clinical suspicion. After transplant, the diagnostic yield of tuberculin skin test is very low but nevertheless remains the first step in post-transplant evaluation of suspected tuberculosis. Patients awaiting an SOT often have cutaneous anergy due to their underlying disease. Cellular immune testing could be performed at the time of the second positive purified protein derivative (PPD) skin test to determine the presence of anergy. Disseminated tuberculosis is an absolute contraindication for the use of any organ for transplantation. Liver transplant recipients present special problems when receiving treatment for latent tuberculosis infection due to the high risk of hepatotoxicity. In liver recipients, the development of liver toxicity is a particular concern during the treatment of tuberculosis. The main problems that can occur after transplantation are the drug interactions and the recurrence of hepatitis C virus infection, which may increase the risk of tuberculosis and favor toxicity. The most common manifestations of tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution syndrome are fever, lymphadenopathy, and worsening respiratory symptoms. Tuberculosis has important implications in the outcome of transplant patients. The overall mortality rate in solid organ recipients with tuberculosis is as high as 29%.

Citation: Aguado J, Singh N. 2011. Tuberculosis and Organ Transplantation, p 498-508. In Schlossberg D (ed), Tuberculosis and Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817138.ch33
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


1. Agarwal, S. K.,, S. Gupta,, S. C. Dash,, D. Bhowmik, and, S. C. Tiwari. 2004. Prospective randomised trial of isoniazid prophylaxis in renal transplant recipient. Int. Urol. Nephrol. 36: 425431.
2. Aguado, J. M.,, J. A. Herrero,, J. Gavaldá,, J. Torre-Cisneros,, M. Blanes,, G. Rufí,, A. Moreno,, M. Gurguí,, M. Hayek,, C. Lumbreras,, C. Cantarell, et al. 1997. Clinical presentation and outcome of tuberculosis in kidney, liver, and heart transplant recipients in Spain. Transplantation 63: 12781286.
3. Aguado, J. M.,, J. Torre-Cisneros,, J. Fortún,, N. Benito,, Y. Meije,, A. Doblas, and, P. Muñoz. 2009. Tuberculosis in solid-organ transplant recipients: consensus statement of the group for the study of infection in transplant recipients (GESITRA) of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology. Clin. Infect. Dis. 48: 12761284.
4. al-Sulaiman, M. H.,, J. M. Dhar, and, A. A. al-Khader. 1990. Successful use of rifampicin in the treatment of tuberculosis in renal transplant patients immunosuppressed with cyclosporine. Transplantation 50: 597598.
5. American Thoracic Society. 1974. Preventive therapy of tuberculous infection. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 110: 371374.
6. American Thoracic Society, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Infectious Diseases Society of America. 2005. American Thoracic Society/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Infectious Diseases Society of America: controlling tuberculosis in the United States. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 172: 11691227.
7. Antony, S. J.,, C. Ynares, and, J. S. Dummer. 1997. Isoniazid hepatotoxicity in renal transplant recipients. Clin. Transplant. 11: 3437.
8. Asano, T.,, H. Kawamoto,, J. Asakuma,, T. Tanimoto,, H. Kobayashi, and, M. Hayakawa. 2000. Paradoxical worsening of tuberculosis after anti-TB therapy in a kidney transplant recipient. Transplant. Proc. 32: 19601962.
9. Basiri, A.,, S. M. Moghaddam,, N. Simforoosh,, B. Einollahi,, M. Hosseini,, A. Foirouzan,, F. Pourrezagholi,, M. Nafar,, M. A. Zargar,, G. Pourmand,, A. Tara,, H. Mombeni,, M. R. Moradi,, A. Taghizadeh,, H. R. Gholamrezaee,, A. Bohlouli,, H. Nezhadgashti,, A. Amirzadehpasha,, E. Ahmad,, M. Salehipour,, M. Yazdani,, A. Nasrollahi,, K. Falaknazi,, M. R. Mahdavi,, A. Shamsa,, B. Feizzadeh,, M. J. Mojahedi,, N. Oghbaee,, R. E. Azad, and, Z. Mohammadi. 2005. Preliminary report of a nationwide case-control study for identifying risk factors of tuberculosis following renal transplantation. Transplant. Proc. 37: 30413044.
10. Basiri, A.,, S. M. Hosseini-Moghaddam,, N. Simforoosh,, B. Einollahi,, M. Hosseini,, A. Foirouzan,, F. Pourrezagholi,, M. Nafar,, M. A. Zargar,, G. Pourmand,, A. Tara,, H. Mombeni,, M. R. Moradi,, A. T. Afshar,, H. R. Gholamrezaee,, A. Bohlouli,, H. Nezhadgashti,, A. Akbarzadehpasha,, E. Ahmad,, M. Salehipour,, M. Yazdani,, A. Nasrollahi,, N. Oghbaee,, R. E. Azad,, Z. Mohammadi, and, Z. Razzaghi. 2008. The risk factors and laboratory diagnostics for post renal transplant tuberculosis: a case-control, country-wide study on definitive cases. Transpl. Infect. Dis. 10: 231235.
11. Benito, N.,, O. Sued,, A. Moreno,, J. P. Horcajada,, J. González,, M. Navasa, and, A. Rimola. 2002. Diagnosis and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection in liver transplant recipients in an endemic area. Transplantation 74: 13811386.
12. Blanes, M.,, D. Gomez,, M. J. Giménez, and, M. Salavert. 2009. Evaluación de la infección en el donante y en el receptor de trasplante de órgano sólido y de progenitors hematopoyéticos, p. 131–158. In J. M. Aguado,, J. Fortún,, J. Gavaldà,, A. Pahissa, and, J. Torre-Cisneros (ed.), Infecciones en Pacientes Trasplantados, 3a ed. Elsevier, Madrid, Spain.
13. Blumberg, H. M.,, W. J. Burman,, R. E. Chaisson,, C. L. Daley,, S. C. Etkind,, L. N. Friedman,, P. Fujiwara,, M. Grzemska,, P. C. Hopewell,, M. D. Iseman,, R. M. Jasmer,, V. Koppaka,, R. I. Menzies,, R. J. O’Brien,, R. R. Reves,, L. B. Reichman,, P. M. Simone,, J. R. Starke, and, A. A. Vernon. 2003. American Thoracic Society/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Infectious Diseases Society of America: treatment of tuberculosis. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 167: 603662.
14. Bravo, C.,, J. Roldán,, A. Roman,, J. Degracia,, J. Majo,, J. Guerra,, V. Monforte,, R. Vidal, and, F. Morell. 2005. Tuberculosis in lung transplant recipients. Transplantation 79: 5964.
15. Buffington, G. A.,, J. H. Dominguez,, W. F. Piering,, L. A. Hebert,, H. M. Kauffman, Jr., and, J. Lemann, Jr. 1976. Interaction of rifampicin and glucocorticoids. Adverse effect on renal allograft function. JAMA 236: 19581960.
16. Chan, G. L.,, J. T. Sinnott,, P. J. Emmanuel,, S. Cyanle, and, S. S. Weinstein. 1992. Drug interactions with cyclosporine: focus on antimicrobial agents. Clin. Transpl. 6: 141153.
17. Chou, N. K.,, J. L. Wang,, N. H. Chi,, I. H. Wu,, S. C. Huang,, Y. S. Chen,, H. Y. Yu,, C. I. Tsao,, W. J. Ko,, H. Y. Su,, S. C. Chang,, S. H. Chu, and, S. S. Wang. 2008. Tuberculosis after heart transplantation: twenty years of experience in a single center in Taiwan. Transplant. Proc. 40: 26312633.
18. Codeluppi, M.,, S. Cocchi,, G. Guaraldi,, F. Di Benedetto,, N. De Ruvo,, M. Meacci,, B. Meccugni,, R. Esposito, and, G. E. Gerunda. 2006. Posttransplant Mycobacterium tuberculosis disease following liver transplantation and the need for cautious evaluation of Quantiferon TB GOLD results in the transplant setting: a case report. Transplant. Proc. 38: 10831085.
19. Costa, J. M. N.,, A. M. Meyers,, J. R. Botha,, A. A. Conlan, and, A. Myburgh. 1998. Mycobacterial infections in recipients of kidney allografts. A seventeen-year experience. Acta Med. Port. 1: 5157.
20. Daniels, N. J.,, J. S. Dover, and, R. K. Schachter. 1984. Interaction between cyclosporin and rifampin. Lancet ii: 639.
21. de la Cámara, R.,, R. Martino,, E. Granados,, F. J. Rodriguez-Salvanés,, M. Rovira,, R. Cabrera,, J. López,, R. Parody,, J. Sierra,, J. M. Fernández-Rañada,, E. Carreras, et al. 2000. Tuberculosis after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: incidence, clinical characteristics and outcome. Bone Marrow Transplant. 26: 291298.
22. Dheda, K.,, Z. F. Udwadia,, J. F. Huggett,, M. A. Johnson, and, G. A. Rook. 2005. Utility of the antigen-specific interferon-gamma assay for the management of tuberculosis. Curr. Opin. Pulm. Med. 11: 195202.
23. EBPG Expert Group on Renal Transplantation. 2002. European best practice guidelines for renal transplantation. Section IV: long-term management of the transplant recipient. IV.7.2. Late infections. Tuberculosis. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 17 (Suppl. 4): 3943.
24. Fortún, J.,, P. Martín-Dávila,, E. Navas,, M. J. Pérez-Elías,, J. Cobo,, M. Tato,, E. G. De la Pedrosa,, E. Gómez-Mampaso, and, S. Moreno. 2005. Linezolid for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 56: 180185.
25. Ginsburg, A. S.,, J. H. Grosset, and, W. R. Bishai. 2003. Fluoroquinolones, tuberculosis, and resistance. Lancet Infect. Dis. 3: 432442.
26. Gottesdiener, K. M. 1989. Transplanted infections: donor-to-host transmission with the allograft. Ann. Intern. Med. 110: 10011016.
27. Graham, J. C.,, A. M. Kearns,, J. G. Magee,, M. F. El-Sheikh,, M. Hudson,, D. Manas,, F. K. Gould,, K. E. Orr, and, R. Freeman. 2001. Tuberculosis transmitted through transplantation. J. Infect. 43: 251254.
28. Hall, C. M.,, P. A. Willcox,, C. R. Swanepoel,, D. Kahn, and, R. Van Zyl-Smit. 1994. Mycobacterial infection in renal transplant recipients. Chest 106: 435439.
29. Hernandez-Hernandez, E.,, J. Alberu,, L. Gonzalez-Michaca,, M. Bobadilla-del Valle,, R. Correa-Rotter, and, J. Sifuentes-Osornio. 2006. Screening for tuberculosis in the study of the living renal donor in a developing country. Transplantation 81: 290292.
30. Higgins, R. S. D.,, S. Kusne,, J. Reyes,, S. Yousem,, R. Gordon, and, R. Van Thiel. 1992. Mycobacterium tuberculosis after liver transplantation: management and guidelines for prevention. Clin. Transplant. 6: 8190.
31. Horsburgh, Jr., C. R.,, S. Feldman, and, R. Ridzon. 2000. Practice guidelines for the treatment of tuberculosis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 31: 633639.
32. Hsu, M. S.,, J. L. Wang,, W. J. Ko,, P. H. Lee,, N. K. Chou,, S. S. Wang,, S. H. Chu, and, S. C. Chang. 2007. Clinical features and outcome of tuberculosis in solid organ transplant recipients. Am. J. Med. Sci. 334: 106110.
33. Jereb, J. A.,, D. R. Burwen,, S. W. Dooley,, W. H. Haas,, J. T. Crawford, and, L. J. Geiter. 1993. Nosocomial outbreak of tuberculosis in a renal transplant unit: application of a new technique for restriction fragment polymorphism analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. J. Infect. Dis. 168: 12191224.
34. Jie, T.,, A. J. Matas,, K. J. Gillingham,, D. E. Sutherland,, D. L. Dunn, and, A. Humar. 2005. Mycobacterial infections after kidney transplant. Transplant. Proc. 37: 937939.
35. John, G. T.,, V. Shankar,, A. M. Abraham,, U. Mukundan,, P. P. Thomas, and, C. K. Jacob. 2001. Risk factors for post-transplant tuberculosis. Kidney Int. 60: 11481153.
36. John, G. T.,, and V. Shankar. 2002. Mycobacterial infections in organ transplant recipients. Semin. Respir. Infect. 17: 274283.
37. John, G. T.,, P. P. Thomas,, M. Thomas,, L. Jeyaseelan,, C. K. Jacob, and, J. C. Shastry. 1994. A double-blind randomized controlled trial of primary isoniazid prophylaxis in dialysis and transplant patients. Transplantation 57: 16831684.
38. Kiuchi, T.,, Y. Inomata,, S. Uemoto,, K. Satomura,, H. Egawa,, H. Okajima,, Y. Yamaoka, and, K. Tanaka. 1997. A hepatic graft tuberculosis transmitted from a living-related donor. Transplantation 63: 905907.
39. Kunimoto, D.,, A. Warman,, A. Beckon,, D. Doering, and, L. Melenka. 2003. Severe hepatotoxicity associated with rifampinpyrazinamide preventative therapy requiring transplantation in an individual at low risk for hepatotoxicity. Clin. Infect. Dis. 36: e158e161.
40. Lawn, S. D.,, L. G. Bekker, and, R. F. Miller. 2005. Immune reconstitution disease associated with mycobacterial infections in HIV-infected individuals receiving antiretrovirals. Lancet Infect. Dis. 5: 361373.
41. Lee, J.,, W. W. Yew,, C. F. Wong,, P. C. Wong, and, C. S. Chiu. 2003. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in a lung transplant recipient. J. Heart Lung Transplant. 22: 11681173.
42. Lichtenstein, I. H.,, and R. R. MacGregor. 1983. Mycobacterial infections in renal transplant recipients: report of five cases and review of the literature. Rev. Infect. Dis. 5: 216226.
43. Lloveras, J.,, P. K. Peterson,, R. L. Simmons, and, J. S. Najarian. 1982 Mycobacterial infections in renal transplant recipients. Arch. Intern. Med. 142: 888892.
44. Lopez-Montes, A.,, E. Gallego,, E. Lopez,, J. Perez,, I. Lorenzo,, F. Llamas,, A. Serrano,, E. Andres,, L. Illescas, and, C. Gomez. 2004. Treatment of tuberculosis with rifabutin in a renal transplant recipient. Am. J. Kidney Dis. 44: e59e63.
45. Lou, H. X.,, M. A. Shullo, and, T. P. McKaveney. 2002. Limited tolerability of levofloxacin and pyrazinamide for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis prophylaxis in a solid organ transplant population. Pharmacotherapy 226: 701704.
46. Lui, S. L.,, F. K. Li,, B. Y. Choy,, T. M. Chan,, W. K. Lo, and, K. N. Lai. 2004. Long-term outcome of isoniazid prophylaxis against tuberculosis in Chinese renal transplant recipients. Transpl. Infect. Dis. 6: 5556.
47. Meyers, B. R.,, M. Halpern,, P. Sheiner,, M. H. Mendelson,, E. Neibart, and, C. Miller. 1994. Tuberculosis in liver transplant patients. Transplantation 58: 301306.
48. Meyers, B. R.,, G. A. Papanicolaou,, P. Sheiner,, S. Emre, and, C. Miller. 2000. Tuberculosis in orthotopic liver transplant patients: increased toxicity of recommended agents; cure of disseminated infection with nonconventional regimens. Transplantation 69: 6469.
49. Miró, J. M.,, F. Aguero,, M. Laguno,, M. Tuset,, C. Cervera,, A. Moreno,, J. C. Garcia-Valdecasas,, A. Rimola, and Hospital Clinic OLT in HIV Working Group. 2007. Liver transplantation in HIV/hepatitis co-infection. J. HIV Ther. 12: 2435.
50. Miró, J. M.,, J. Torre-Cisnero,, A. Moreno,, M. Tuset,, C. Quereda,, M. Laguno,, E. Vidal,, A. Rivero,, J. Gonzalez,, C. Lumbreras,, J. A. Iribarren,, J. Fortún,, A. Rimola,, A. Rafecas,, G. Barril,, M. Crespo,, J. Colom,, J. Vilardell,, J. A. Salvador,, R. Polo,, G. Garrido,, L. Chamorro, and, B. Miranda. 2005. GESIDA/GESITRA-SEIMC, PNS and ONT consensus document on solid organ transplant (SOT) in HIV-infected patients in Spain (March, 2005). Enferm. Infecc. Microbiol. Clin. 23: 353362.
51. Modry, D. L.,, E. B. Stinson,, P. E. Oyer,, S. W. Jamieson,, J. C. Baldwin, and, N. E. Shumway. 1985. Acute rejection and massive cyclosporine requirements in heart transplant recipients treated with rifampin. Transplantation 39: 313314.
52. Morales, P.,, A. Briones,, J. J. Torres,, A. Sole,, D. Perez, and, A. Pastor. 2005. Pulmonary tuberculosis in lung and heart-lung transplantation: fifteen years of experience in a single center in Spain. Transplant. Proc. 37: 40504055.
53. Mullerova, M.,, J. Pekarek, and, J. Nouzak. 1974. Immunosuppression and experimental tuberculosis. Biomed 20: 390397.
54. Muñoz, P.,, C. Rodriguez, and, E. Bouza. 2005. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in recipients of solid organ transplants. Clin. Infect. Dis. 40: 581587.
55. O’Brien, R. J. 2003. Development of fluoroquinolones as first-line drugs for tuberculosis--at long last! Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 168: 12661268.
56. Offermann, G.,, F. Keller, and, M. Molzahn. 1985. Low cyclosporin A blood levels and acute graft rejection in a renal transplant recipient during rifampin treatment. Am. J. Nephrol. 5: 385387.
57. Park, Y. S.,, J. Y. Choi,, C. H. Cho,, K. H. Chang,, Y. G. Song,, Y. S. Kim, and, J. M. Kim. 2004. Clinical outcomes of tuberculosis in renal transplant recipients. Yonsei Med. J. 45: 865872.
58. Place, S.,, C. Knoop,, M. Remmelink,, S. Baldassarre,, J. P. Van Vooren,, F. Jacobs,, F. Mascart, and, M. Estenne. 2007. Paradoxical worsening of tuberculosis in a heart-lung transplant recipient. Transpl. Infect. Dis. 9: 219224.
59. Qunibi, W. Y.,, M. B. Al-Sibai,, S. Taher,, E. J. Harder,, E. De Vol,, O. Al-Furayh, and, H. E. Ginn. 1990. Mycobacterial infection after renal transplantation-report of 14 cases and review of the literature. Q. J. Med. 77: 10391060.
60. Riska, H.,, C. Gronhagen-Riska, and, J. Ahonen. 1987. Tuberculosis and renal allograft transplantation. Transplant. Proc. 19: 40964097.
61. Roman, A.,, C. Bravo,, G. Levy,, V. Monforte,, R. Vidal,, J. Sole,, J. Maestre, and, F. Morell. 2000. Isoniazid prophylaxis in lung transplantation. J. Heart Lung Transplant. 19: 903906.
62. Rungruanghiranya, S.,, C. Ekpanyaskul,, S. Jirasiritum,, C. Nilthong,, K. Pipatpanawong, and, V. Mavichak. 2008. Tuberculosis in Thai renal transplant recipients: a 15-year experience. Transplant. Proc. 40: 23762379.
63. Sayiner, A.,, T. Ece,, S. Duman,, A. Yildiz,, M. Ozkahya,, Z. Kilicaslan, and, Y. Tokat. 1990. Tuberculosis in renal transplant recipients. Transplantation 68: 12681271.
64. Schluger, L. K.,, P. A. Sheiner,, M. Jonas,, J. V. Guarrera,, I. M. Fiel,, B. Meyers, and, P. D. Berk. 1996. Isoniazid hepatotoxicity after orthotopic liver transplantation. Mt. Sinai J. Med. 63: 364369.
65. Singh, N.,, O. Lortholary,, B. D. Alexander,, K. L. Gupta,, G. T. John,, K. Pursell,, P. Munoz,, G. B. Klintmalm,, V. Stosor,, R. del Busto,, A. P. Limaye,, J. Somani,, M. Lyon,, S. Houston,, A. A. House,, T. L. Pruett,, S. Orloff,, A. Humar,, L. Dowdy,, J. Garcia-Diaz,, A. C. Kalil,, R. A. Fisher, and, S. Husain. 2005. An immune reconstitution syndrome-like illness associated with Cryptococcus neoformans infection in organ transplant recipients. Clin. Infect. Dis. 40: 17561761.
66. Singh, N.,, and D. L. Paterson. 1998. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in solid-organ transplant recipients: impact and implications for management. Clin. Infect. Dis. 27: 12661277.
67. Singh, N.,, M. M. Wagener, and, T. Gayowski. 2002. Safety and efficacy of isoniazid chemoprophylaxis administered during liver transplant candidacy for the prevention of posttransplant tuberculosis. Transplantation 74: 892895.
68. Sinnott, J. T,, and P. J. Emmanuel. 1990. Mycobacterial infections in the transplant patient. Semin. Respir. Infect. 5: 6573.
69. Subramanian, A.,, S. Dorman, and AST Infectious Diseases Community of Practice. 2009. Mycobacterium tuberculosis in solid organ transplant recipients. Am. J. Transplant. 9 (Suppl. 4) : S57S62.
70. Sud, K.,, T. Muthukumar,, B. Singh,, S. K. Garg,, H. S. Kohli,, V. Jha,, K. L. Gupta, and, V. Sakhuja. 2000. Isoniazid does not affect bioavailability of cyclosporine in renal transplant recipients. Methods Find. Exp. Clin. Pharmacol. 22: 647649.
71. Sundberg, R.,, R. Shapiro,, F. Darras,, C. Jensen,, V. Scantlebury,, M. Jordan,, J. McCauley,, S. Kusne,, M. B. Edmond, and, M. Ho. 1991. A tuberculosis outbreak in a renal transplant program. Transpl. Proc. 23: 30913092.
72. Thomas, P. A.,, and M. A. Manko. 1975. Chemoprophylaxis for the prevention of the tuberculosis in the immunosuppressed renal allograft recipient. Transplantation 20: 7677.
73. Torre-Cisneros, J.,, J. J. Castón,, J. Moreno,, A. Rivero,, E. Vidal,, R. Jurado, and, J. M. Kindelán. 2004. Tuberculosis in the transplant candidate: importance of early diagnosis and treatment. Transplantation 77: 13761380.
74. Torre-Cisneros, J.,, M. De la Mata,, S. Rufian,, J. L. Villanueva-Marcos,, J. Gutiérrez-Aroca,, M. Casal,, G. Miño, and, C. Pera. 1995. Importance of surveillance mycobacterial cultures after liver transplantation. Transplantation 60: 10541055.
75. Torre-Cisneros, J.,, A. Doblas,, J. M. Aguado,, R. San Juan,, M. Blanes,, M. Montejo,, C. Cervera,, O. Len,, J. Carratala,, J. M. Cisneros,, G. Bou,, P. Muñoz,, A. Ramos,, M. Gurgui,, N. Borrell,, J. Fortún,, A. Moreno,, J. Gavalda, and Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases. 2009. Tuberculosis after solid-organ transplant: incidence, risk factors, and clinical characteristics in the RESITRA (Spanish Network of Infection in Transplantation) cohort. Clin. Infect. Dis. 48: 16571665.
76. Torres, J.,, J. M. Aguado,, R. San Juan,, A. Andrés,, P. Sierra,, F. López-Medrano, and, J. M. Morales. 2008. Hepatitis C virus, an important risk factor for tuberculosis in immunocompromised: experience with kidney transplantation. Transpl. Int. 21: 873878.
77. Vandevelde, C.,, A. Chang,, D. Andrews,, W. Riggs, and, P. Jewesson. 1991. Rifampin and ansamycin interactions with cyclosporine after renal transplantation. Pharmacotherapy 11: 8889.
78. Vikrant, S.,, S. K. Agarwal,, S. Gupta,, D. Bhowmik,, S. C. Tiwari,, S. C. Dash,, S. Guleria, and, S. N. Mehta. 2005. Prospective randomized control trial of isoniazid chemoprophylaxis during renal replacement therapy. Transpl. Infect. Dis. 7: 99108.
79. Weisdorf, D. 2003. Typical and atypical Mycobacterium infections after hemopoietic stem cell or solid organ transplantation, p. 250–258 In R. A. Bowden,, P. Ljungman, and, C. V. Paya (ed.), Transplant Infections, 2nd ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
80. Yee, D.,, C. Valiquette,, M. Pelletier,, I. Parisien,, I. Rocher, and, D. Menzies. 2003. Incidence of serious side effects from first-line antituberculosis drugs among patients treated for active tuberculosis. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 167: 14721477.
81. Zhang, X. F.,, Y. Lv,, W. J. Xue,, B. Wang,, C. Liu,, P. X. Tian,, L. Yu,, X. Y. Chen, and, X. M. Liu. 2008. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in solid organ transplant recipients: experience from a single center in China. Transplant. Proc. 40: 13821385.


Generic image for table
Table 1.

Prevalence and incidence of tuberculosis in SOT

Citation: Aguado J, Singh N. 2011. Tuberculosis and Organ Transplantation, p 498-508. In Schlossberg D (ed), Tuberculosis and Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817138.ch33
Generic image for table
Table 2.

Risk factors for tuberculosis

Citation: Aguado J, Singh N. 2011. Tuberculosis and Organ Transplantation, p 498-508. In Schlossberg D (ed), Tuberculosis and Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817138.ch33
Generic image for table
Table 3.

Recommendations of the GESITRA ( ) for treatment of tuberculosis in SOT

Citation: Aguado J, Singh N. 2011. Tuberculosis and Organ Transplantation, p 498-508. In Schlossberg D (ed), Tuberculosis and Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817138.ch33

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error