Chapter 39 :

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817138/9781555815134_Chap39-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817138/9781555815134_Chap39-2.gif


is a pathogenic mycobacterium, which makes it, along with its related species , distinct from the other nontuberculous mycobacterium (NTM) that are opportunistic pathogens. The Esx secretion system is critical for virulence of both and and is highly conserved between the two species. When multilocus sequence analysis applied to 22 strains, it was found that significant molecular differences separated clinical isolates from the piscine isolates. Molecular biology techniques have been successfully applied to identification of mycobacteria. Scarce cases of infection occurring in patients treated with tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitor therapy have been reported since 2002. Therefore, it is not possible to draw any conclusions regarding the frequency or the severity of infection in this population. Instead, preventive strategies are recommended especially for those patients. Distal aspects of the upper limbs, such as the finger/hand, are the most common sites of infection in relation to fish/water animal exposure. From the studies dealing with a large number of strains and applying a standard method of testing, has a natural multidrug resistance pattern. Broth microdilution susceptibility testing is recommended by CLSI and may use the commercially available Sensititre MIC plates. Patients infected with M. marinum are usually treated with antibiotics. A variety of antibiotics have been used, including tetracyclines, co-trimoxazole, rifampin plus ethambutol, and more rarely clarithromycin, levofloxacin, and amikacin. The chapter describes epidemiology and prevention of .

Citation: Cambau E, Aubry A. 2011. , p 586-600. In Schlossberg D (ed), Tuberculosis and Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817138.ch39
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Typical photochromogenic colonies of grown on Löwenstein-Jensen solid medium.

Citation: Cambau E, Aubry A. 2011. , p 586-600. In Schlossberg D (ed), Tuberculosis and Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817138.ch39
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Sporotrichoid form of skin lesions typical of infection. (Courtesy of Hervé Darie, Noisy le Grand, France.)

Citation: Cambau E, Aubry A. 2011. , p 586-600. In Schlossberg D (ed), Tuberculosis and Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817138.ch39
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 3.
Figure 3.

Active disease histopathologic section of tissue from a patient with an infection. The lesion shows granulomatous infiltrate with epithelioid and giant cells. (Courtesy of Bernard Cribier, Strasbourg, France.)

Citation: Cambau E, Aubry A. 2011. , p 586-600. In Schlossberg D (ed), Tuberculosis and Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817138.ch39
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 4.
Figure 4.

Microbiological diagnosis of human infection due to .

Citation: Cambau E, Aubry A. 2011. , p 586-600. In Schlossberg D (ed), Tuberculosis and Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817138.ch39
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Ang, P.,, N. Rattana-Apiromyakij, and, C. L. Goh. 2000. Retrospective study of Mycobacterium marinum skin infections. Int. J. Dermatol. 39: 343347.
2. Arend, S. M.,, K. E. van Meijgaarden,, K. de Boer,, E. C. de Palou,, D. van Soolingen,, T. H. Ottenhoff, and, J. T. van Dissel. 2002. Tuberculin skin testing and in vitro T cell responses to ESAT-6 and culture filtrate protein 10 after infection with Mycobacterium marinum or M. kansasii. J. Infect. Dis. 186: 17971807.
3. Aronson, J. 1926. Spontaneous tuberculosis in salt water fish. J. Infect. Dis. 39: 315320.
4. Astrofsky, K. M.,, M. D. Schrenzel,, R. A. Bullis,, R. M. Smolowitz, and, J. G. Fox. 2000. Diagnosis and management of atypical Mycobacterium spp. infections in established laboratory zebrafish ( Brachydanio rerio) facilities. Comp. Med. 50: 666672.
5. Aubry, A.,, O. Chosidow,, E. Caumes,, J. Robert, and, E. Cambau. 2002. Sixty-three cases of Mycobacterium marinum infection: clinical features, treatment, and antibiotic susceptibility of causative isolates. Arch. Intern. Med. 162: 17461752.
6. Aubry, A.,, V. Jarlier,, S. Escolano,, C. Truffot-Pernot, and, E. Cambau. 2000. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Mycobacterium marinum. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44: 31333136.
7. Baker, J.,, and W. Hagan. 1942. Tuberculosis of a Mexican platyfish ( Platypoecilus maculatus). J. Infect. Dis. 70: 248252.
8. Barker, L. P.,, D. M. Brooks, and, P. L. Small. 1998. The identification of Mycobacterium marinum genes differentially expressed in macrophage phagosomes using promoter fusions to green fluorescent protein. Mol. Microbiol. 29: 11671177.
9. Barker, L. P.,, K. M. George,, S. Falkow, and, P. L. Small. 1997. Differential trafficking of live and dead Mycobacterium marinum organisms in macrophages. Infect. Immun. 65: 14971504.
10. Bataillon, E.,, A. Moeller, and, L. Terre. 1902. Über die identitat des Bacillus des Karpfens (Bataillon, Dubard et terre) und des bacillus der Blindsschleuche (Moeller). Zentralbl. Tuberc. 3: 467468.
11. Behr, M. A.,, and J. O. Falkinham III. 2009. Molecular epidemiology of nontuberculous mycobacteria. Future Microbiol. 4: 10091020.
12. Bhatty, M. A.,, D. P. Turner, and, S. T. Chamberlain. 2000. Mycobacterium marinum hand infection: case reports and review of literature. Br. J. Plast. Surg. 53: 161165.
13. Bonafe, J. L.,, N. Grigorieff-Larrue, and, R. Bauriaud. 1992. Atypical cutaneous mycobacterium diseases. Results of a national survey. Ann. Dermatol. Venereol. 119: 463470.
14. Braback, M.,, K. Riesbeck, and, A. Forsgren. 2002. Susceptibilities of Mycobacterium marinum to gatifloxacin, gemifloxacin, levofloxacin, linezolid, moxifloxacin, telithromycin, and quinupristin-dalfopristin (Synercid) compared to its susceptibilities to reference macrolides and quinolones. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46: 11141116.
15. Brown-Elliott, B. A.,, C. J. Crist,, L. B. Mann,, R. W. Wilson, and, R. J. Wallace, Jr. 2003. In vitro activity of linezolid against slowly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47: 17361738.
16. Casal, M.,, and M. M. Casal. 2001. Multicenter study of incidence of Mycobacterium marinum in humans in Spain. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 5: 197199.
17. Cernoch, P.,, R. Enns, and, M. Saubolle. 1994. Cumitech 16A, Laboratory Diagnosis of the Mycobacterioses. Coordinating ed., Alice C. Weissfeld. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.
18. Chan, K.,, T. Knaak,, L. Satkamp,, O. Humbert,, S. Falkow, and, L. Ramakrishnan. 2002. Complex pattern of Mycobacterium marinum gene expression during long-term granulomatous infection. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99: 39203925.
19. Chemlal, K.,, G. Huys,, P. A. Fonteyne,, V. Vincent,, A. G. Lopez,, L. Rigouts,, J. Swings,, W. M. Meyers, and, F. Portaels. 2001. Evaluation of PCR-restriction profile analysis and IS 2404 restriction fragment length polymorphism and amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting for identification and typing of Mycobacterium ulcerans and M. marinum. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39: 32723278.
20. Chow, S. P.,, F. K. Ip,, J. H. Lau,, R. J. Collins,, K. D. Luk,, Y. C. So, and, W. K. Pun. 1987. Mycobacterium marinum infection of the hand and wrist. Results of conservative treatment in twenty-four cases. J. Bone Joint. Surg. Am. 69: 11611168.
21. Clark, R. B.,, H. Spector,, D. M. Friedman,, K. J. Oldrati,, C. L. Young, and, S. C. Nelson. 1990. Osteomyelitis and synovitis produced by Mycobacterium marinum in a fisherman. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28: 25702572.
22. Cosma, C.,, L. Swaim,, H. Volkman,, L. Ramakrishnan, and, J. Davis. 2006. Zebrafish and frog models of Mycobacterium marinum infection. Curr. Protoc. Microbiol. 10: 10B.2.
23. Daffe, M.,, M. Laneelle, and, C. Lacave. 1991. Structure and stereochemistry of mycolic acids of Mycobacterium marinum and Mycobacterium ulcerans. Res. Microbiol. 142: 397403.
24. Dailloux, M.,, C. Laurain, and, M. Weber. 1999. Water and nontuberculous mycobacteria. Water Res. 33: 22192228.
25. Danko, J. R.,, W. R. Gilliland,, R. S. Miller, and, C. F. Decker. 2009. Disseminated Mycobacterium marinum infection in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis receiving infliximab therapy. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 41: 252255.
26. Dare, J. A.,, S. Jahan,, K. Hiatt, and, K. D. Torralba. 2009. Reintroduction of etanercept during treatment of cutaneous Mycobacterium marinum infection in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis. Arthritis Rheum. 61: 583586.
27. Dauendorffer, J. N.,, I. Guillemin,, A. Aubry,, C. Truffot-Pernot,, W. Sougakoff,, V. Jarlier, and, E. Cambau. 2003. Identification of mycobacterial species by PCR sequencing of quinolone resistance-determining regions of DNA gyrase genes. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41: 13111315.
28. Decostere, A.,, K. Hermans, and, F. Haesebrouck. 2004. Piscine mycobacteriosis: a literature review covering the agent and the disease it causes in fish and humans. Vet. Microbiol. 99: 159166.
29. Dionne, M. S.,, N. Ghori, and, D. S. Schneider. 2003. Drosophila melanogaster is a genetically tractable model host for Mycobacterium marinum. Infect. Immun. 71: 35403550.
30. Dobos, K. M.,, F. D. Quinn,, D. A. Ashford,, C. R. Horsburgh, and, C. H. King. 1999. Emergence of a unique group of necrotizing mycobacterial diseases. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5: 367378.
31. Edelstein, H. 1994. Mycobacterium marinum skin infections. Report of 31 cases and review of the literature. Arch. Intern. Med. 154: 13591364.
32. Even-Paz, Z.,, H. Haas,, T. Sacks, and, E. Rosenmann. 1976. Mycobacterium marinum skin infections mimicking cutaneous leishmaniasis. Br. J. Dermatol. 94: 435442.
33. Flynn, C. M.,, C. M. Kelley,, M. S. Barrett, and, R. N. Jones. 1997. Application of the Etest to the antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium marinum clinical isolates. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35: 20832086.
34. Funakoshi, T.,, Y. Kazumi,, R. Okada,, K. Nishimoto,, M. Saito,, M. Amagai,, H. Shimura, and, M. Ohyama. 2009. Intractable ulcer caused by Mycobacterium shinshuense: successful identification of mycobacterium strain by 16S ribosomal RNA 3’-end sequencing. Clin. Exp. Dermatol. 34: e712e715.
35. Gao, L. Y.,, R. Groger,, J. S. Cox,, S. M. Beverley,, E. H. Lawson, and, E. J. Brown. 2003. Transposon mutagenesis of Mycobacterium marinum identifies a locus linking pigmentation and intracellular survival. Infect. Immun. 71: 922929.
36. Gauthier, D. T.,, and M. W. Rhodes. 2009. Mycobacteriosis in fishes: a review. Vet. J. 180: 3347.
37. Glickman, M. S. 2008. Cording, cord factors, and trehalose dimycolate, p. 63–73. In M. Daffe and, J. Reyrat (ed.), The Mycobacterial Cell Envelope. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
38. Gluckman, S. J. 1995. Mycobacterium marinum. Clin. Dermatol. 13: 273276.
39. Good, R. C. 1980. From the Center for Disease Control. Isolation of nontuberculous mycobacteria in the United States, 1979. J. Infect. Dis. 142: 779783.
40. Hagedorn, M.,, K. H. Rohde,, D. G. Russell, and, T. Soldati. 2009. Infection by tubercular mycobacteria is spread by nonlytic ejection from their amoeba hosts. Science 323: 17291733.
41. Harriff, M. J.,, L. E. Bermudez, and, M. L. Kent. 2007. Experimental exposure of zebrafish, Danio rerio (Hamilton), to Mycobacterium marinum and Mycobacterium peregrinum reveals the gastrointestinal tract as the primary route of infection: a potential model for environmental mycobacterial infection. J. Fish Dis. 30: 587600.
42. Heckert, R. A.,, S. Elankumaran,, A. Milani, and, A. Baya. 2001. Detection of a new Mycobacterium species in wild striped bass in the Chesapeake Bay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39: 710715.
43. Helguera-Repetto, C.,, R. A. Cox,, J. L. Munoz-Sanchez, and, J. A. Gonzalez-y-Merchand. 2004. The pathogen Mycobacterium marinum, a faster growing close relative of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, has a single rRNA operon per genome. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 235: 281288.
44. Hess, S. D.,, A. S. Van Voorhees,, L. M. Chang,, J. M. Junkins-Hopkins, and, C. L. Kovarik. 2009. Subcutaneous Mycobacterium marinum infection in a patient with chronic rheumatoid arthritis receiving immunosuppressive therapy. Int. J. Dermatol. 48: 782783.
45. Ho, M. H.,, C. K. Ho, and, L. Y. Chong. 2006. Atypical mycobacterial cutaneous infections in Hong Kong: 10-year retrospective study. Hong Kong Med. J. 12: 2126.
46. Holmes, G. F.,, S. M. Harrington,, M. J. Romagnoli, and, W. G. Merz. 1999. Recurrent, disseminated Mycobacterium marinum infection caused by the same genotypically defined strain in an immunocompromised patient. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 30593061.
47. Huminer, D.,, S. D. Pitlik,, C. Block,, L. Kaufman,, S. Amit, and, J. B. Rosenfeld. 1986. Aquarium-borne Mycobacterium marinum skin infection. Report of a case and review of the literature. Arch. Dermatol. 122: 698703.
48. Iijima, S.,, J. Saito, and, F. Otsuka. 1997. Mycobacterium marinum skin infection successfully treated with levofloxacin. Arch. Dermatol. 133: 947949.
49. Jacobs, J. M.,, M. R. Rhodes,, A. Baya,, R. Reimschuessel,, H. Townsend, and, R. M. Harrell. 2009. Influence of nutritional state on the progression and severity of mycobacteriosis in striped bass Morone saxatilis. Dis. Aquat. Organ. 87: 183197.
50. Jernigan, J. A.,, and B. M. Farr. 2000. Incubation period and sources of exposure for cutaneous Mycobacterium marinum infection: case report and review of the literature. Clin. Infect. Dis. 31: 439443.
51. Julian, E.,, M. Roldan,, A. Sanchez-Chardi,, O. Astola,, G. Agusti, and, M. Luquin. Microscopic cords, a virulence-related characteristic of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, are also present in nonpathogenic mycobacteria. J. Bacteriol. 192: 17511760.
52. Kim, B. J.,, S. H. Lee,, M. A. Lyu,, S. J. Kim,, G. H. Bai,, G. T. Chae,, E. C. Kim,, C. Y. Cha, and, Y. H. Kook. 1999. Identification of mycobacterial species by comparative sequence analysis of the RNA polymerase gene ( rpoB). J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 17141720.
53. King, A. J.,, J. A. Fairley, and, J. E. Rasmussen. 1983. Disseminated cutaneous Mycobacterium marinum infection. Arch. Dermatol. 119: 268270.
54. Kobashi, Y.,, K. Mouri,, S. Yagi,, Y. Obase,, N. Miyashita,, N. Okimoto,, T. Matsushima,, T. Kageoka, and, M. Oka. 2009. Clinical evaluation of the QuantiFERON-TB Gold test in patients with non-tuberculous mycobacterial disease. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 13: 14221426.
55. Kozin, S. H.,, and A. T. Bishop. 1994. Atypical mycobacterium infections of the upper extremity. J. Hand Surg. Am. 19: 480487.
56. Lacaille, F.,, S. Blanche,, C. Bodemer,, C. Durand,, Y. De Prost, and, J. L. Gaillard. 1990. Persistent Mycobacterium marinum infection in a child with probable visceral involvement. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 9: 5860.
57. Lai, C. C.,, L. N. Lee,, Y. L. Chang,, Y. C. Lee,, L. W. Ding, and, P. R. Hsueh. 2005. Pulmonary infection due to Mycobacterium marinum in an immunocompetent patient. Clin. Infect. Dis. 40: 206208.
58. Lebrun, L.,, C. Onody,, V. Vincent, and, P. Nordmann. 1996. Evaluation of the Etest for rapid susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium avium to clarithromycin. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 37: 9991003.
59. Leoni, E.,, P. Legnani,, M. T. Mucci, and, R. Pirani. 1999. Prevalence of mycobacteria in a swimming pool environment. J. Appl. Microbiol. 87: 683688.
60. Lewis, F. M.,, B. J. Marsh, and, C. F. von Reyn. 2003. Fish tank exposure and cutaneous infections due to Mycobacterium marinum: tuberculin skin testing, treatment, and prevention. Clin. Infect. Dis. 37: 390397.
61. Linell, F.,, and A. Norden. 1954. Mycobacterium balnei. A new acid fast bacillus occurring in swimming pools and capable of producing skin lesions in humans. Acta Tuberc. Scand. 33: 154.
62. Nikaido, H. 2003. Molecular basis of bacterial outer membrane permeability revisited. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 67: 593656.
63. Parent, L. J.,, M. M. Salam,, P. C. Appelbaum, and, J. H. Dossett. 1995. Disseminated Mycobacterium marinum infection and bacteremia in a child with severe combined immunodeficiency. Clin. Infect. Dis. 21: 13251327.
64. Passantino, A.,, D. Macri,, P. Coluccio,, F. Foti, and, F. Marino. 2008. Importation of mycobacteriosis with ornamental fish: medico-legal implications. Travel Med. Infect. Dis. 6: 240244.
65. Pfyffer, G. E.,, H. M. Welscher,, P. Kissling,, C. Cieslak,, M. J. Casal,, J. Gutierrez, and, S. Rusch-Gerdes. 1997. Comparison of the Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) with radiometric and solid culture for recovery of acid-fast bacilli. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35: 364368.
66. Philpott, J.,, A. Woodburne, and, O. Philpott. 1963. Swimming pool granuloma: a study of 290 cases. Arch. Dermatol. 88: 158.
67. Pourahmad, F.,, K. D. Thompson,, J. B. Taggart,, A. Adams, and, R. H. Richards. 2008. Evaluation of the INNO-LiPA mycobacteria v2 assay for identification of aquatic mycobacteria. J. Fish Dis. 31: 931940.
68. Prouty, M. G.,, N. E. Correa,, L. P. Barker,, P. Jagadeeswaran, and, K. E. Klose. 2003. Zebrafish- Mycobacterium marinum model for mycobacterial pathogenesis. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 225: 177182.
69. Ramakrishnan, L.,, and S. Falkow. 1994. Mycobacterium marinum persists in cultured mammalian cells in a temperature-restricted fashion. Infect. Immun. 62: 32223229.
70. Ramakrishnan, L.,, H. T. Tran,, N. A. Federspiel, and, S. Falkow. 1997. A crtB homolog essential for photochromogenicity in Mycobacterium marinum: isolation, characterization, and gene disruption via homologous recombination. J. Bacteriol. 179: 58625898.
71. Ramos, J. M.,, M. F. Garcia-Sepulcre,, J. C. Rodriguez,, S. Padilla, and, F. Gutierrez. 2010. Mycobacterium marinum infection complicated by anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy. J. Med. Microbiol. 59: 617621.
72. Ramsay, J. M.,, V. Watral,, C. B. Schreck, and, M. L. Kent. 2009. Husbandry stress exacerbates mycobacterial infections in adult zebrafish, Danio rerio (Hamilton). J. Fish Dis. 32: 931941.
73. Ranger, B. S.,, E. A. Mahrous,, L. Mosi,, S. Adusumilli,, R. E. Lee,, A. Colorni,, M. Rhodes, and, P. L. Small. 2006. Globally distributed mycobacterial fish pathogens produce a novel plasmid-encoded toxic macrolide, mycolactone F. Infect. Immun. 74: 60376045.
74. Rhomberg, P. R.,, and R. N. Jones. 2002. In vitro activity of 11 antimicrobial agents, including gatifloxacin and GAR936, tested against clinical isolates of Mycobacterium marinum. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 42: 145147.
75. Rogall, T.,, J. Wolters,, T. Flohr, and, E. C. Bottger. 1990. Towards a phylogeny and definition of species at the molecular level within the genus Mycobacterium. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 40: 323330.
76. Ruley, K. M.,, J. H. Ansede,, C. L. Pritchett,, A. M. Talaat,, R. Reimschuessel, and, M. Trucksis. 2004. Identification of Mycobacterium marinum virulence genes using signature-tagged mutagenesis and the goldfish model of mycobacterial pathogenesis. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 232: 7581.
77. Russo, C.,, E. Tortoli, and, D. Menichella. 2006. Evaluation of the new GenoType Mycobacterium assay for identification of mycobacterial species. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44: 334339.
78. Salati, F.,, M. Meloni,, A. Fenza,, G. Angelucci,, A. Colorni, and, G. Orru. 2010. A sensitive FRET probe assay for the selective detection of Mycobacterium marinum in fish. J. Fish Dis. 33: 4756.
79. Schmoor, P.,, V. Descamps,, F. Bouscarat,, M. Grossin,, S. Belaich, and, B. Crickx. 2003. Tropical fish salesmen’s knowledge and behaviour concerning “fish tank granuloma.” Ann. Dermatol. Venereol. 130: 425427.
80. Sechi, L. A.,, A. Colorni,, I. Dupre,, P. Molicotti,, G. Fadda, and, S. Zanetti. 2002. Strain variation in Mediterranean and Red Sea Mycobacterium marinum isolates. New Microbiol. 25: 351356.
81. Stahl, D. A.,, and J. W. Urbance. 1990. The division between fast-and slow-growing species corresponds to natural relationships among the mycobacteria. J. Bacteriol. 172: 116124.
82. Stamm, L. M.,, J. H. Morisaki,, L. Y. Gao,, R. L. Jeng,, K. L. McDonald,, R. Roth,, S. Takeshita,, J. Heuser,, M. D. Welch, and, E. J. Brown. 2003. Mycobacterium marinum escapes from phagosomes and is propelled by actin-based motility. J. Exp. Med. 198: 13611368.
83. Stinear, T. P.,, G. A. Jenkin,, P. D. Johnson, and, J. K. Davies. 2000. Comparative genetic analysis of Mycobacterium ulcer-ans and Mycobacterium marinum reveals evidence of recent divergence. J. Bacteriol. 182: 63226330.
84. Stinear, T. P.,, A. Mve-Obiang,, P. L. Small,, W. Frigui,, M. J. Pryor,, R. Brosch,, G. A. Jenkin,, P. D. Johnson,, J. K. Davies,, R. E. Lee,, S. Adusumilli,, T. Garnier,, S. F. Haydock,, P. F. Leadlay, and, S. T. Cole. 2004. Giant plasmid-encoded polyketide synthases produce the macrolide toxin of Mycobacterium ulcerans. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101: 13451349.
85. Stinear, T. P.,, T. Seemann,, P. F. Harrison,, G. A. Jenkin,, J. K. Davies,, P. D. Johnson,, Z. Abdellah,, C. Arrowsmith,, T. Chillingworth,, C. Churcher,, K. Clarke,, A. Cronin,, P. Davis,, I. Goodhead,, N. Holroyd,, K. Jagels,, A. Lord,, S. Moule,, K. Mungall,, H. Norbertczak,, M. A. Quail,, E. Rabbinowitsch,, D. Walker,, B. White,, S. Whitehead,, P. L. Small,, R. Brosch,, L. Ramakrishnan,, M. A. Fischbach,, J. Parkhill, and, S. T. Cole. 2008. Insights from the complete genome sequence of Mycobacterium marinum on the evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Genome Res. 18: 729741.
86. Stinear, T. P.,, T. Seemann,, S. Pidot,, W. Frigui,, G. Reysset,, T. Garnier,, G. Meurice,, D. Simon,, C. Bouchier,, L. Ma,, M. Tichit,, J. L. Porter,, J. Ryan,, P. D. Johnson,, J. K. Davies,, G. A. Jenkin,, P. L. Small,, L. M. Jones,, F. Tekaia,, F. Laval,, M. Daffe,, J. Parkhill, and, S. T. Cole. 2007. Reductive evolution and niche adaptation inferred from the genome of Mycobacterium ulcer-ans, the causative agent of Buruli ulcer. Genome Res. 17: 192200.
87. Stragier, P.,, A. Ablordey,, W. M. Meyers, and, F. Portaels. 2005. Genotyping Mycobacterium ulcerans and Mycobacterium marinum by using mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units. J. Bacteriol. 187: 16391647.
88. Stragier, P.,, K. Hermans,, T. Stinear, and, F. Portaels. 2008. First report of a mycolactone-producing Mycobacterium infection in fish agriculture in Belgium. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 286: 9395.
89. Streit, M.,, L. M. Bohlen,, T. Hunziker,, S. Zimmerli,, G. G. Tscharner,, H. Nievergelt,, T. Bodmer, and, L. R. Braathen. 2006. Disseminated Mycobacterium marinum infection with extensive cutaneous eruption and bacteremia in an immunocompromised patient. Eur. J. Dermatol. 16: 7983.
90. Swift, S.,, and H. Cohen. 1962. Granulomas of the skin due to Mycobacterium balnei after abrasions from a fishtank. N. Engl. J. Med. 297: 12441246.
91. Talaat, A. M.,, R. Reimschuessel,, S. S. Wasserman, and, M. Trucksis. 1998. Goldfish, Carassius auratus, a novel animal model for the study of Mycobacterium marinum pathogenesis. Infect. Immun. 66: 29382942.
92. Talaat, A. M.,, and M. Trucksis. 2000. Transformation and transposition of the genome of Mycobacterium marinum. Am. J. Vet. Res. 61: 125128.
93. Tchornobay, A. M.,, A. L. Claudy,, J. L. Perrot,, V. Levigne, and, M. Denis. 1992. Fatal disseminated Mycobacterium marinum infection. Int. J. Dermatol. 31: 286287.
94. Tobin, D. M.,, J. C. Vary, Jr.,, J. P. Ray,, G. S. Walsh,, S. J. Dunstan,, N. D. Bang,, D. A. Hagge,, S. Khadge,, M. C. King,, T. R. Hawn,, C. B. Moens, and, L. Ramakrishnan. 2010. The lta4h locus modulates susceptibility to mycobacterial infection in zebrafish and humans. Cell 140: 717730.
95. Tonjum, T.,, D. B. Welty,, E. Jantzen, and, P. L. Small. 1998. Differentiation of Mycobacterium ulcerans, M. marinum, and M. haemophilum: mapping of their relationships to M. tuberculosis by fatty acid profile analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization, and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 918925.
96. Tortoli, E.,, A. Nanetti,, C. Piersimoni,, P. Cichero,, C. Farina,, G. Mucignat,, C. Scarparo,, L. Bartolini,, R. Valentini,, D. Nista,, G. Gesu,, C. P. Tosi,, M. Crovatto, and, G. Brusarosco. 2001. Performance assessment of new multiplex probe assay for identification of mycobacteria. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39: 10791084.
97. Trucksis, M. 2000. Fishing for mycobacterial virulence genes: a promising animal model. ASM News 66: 668674.
98. Ucko, M.,, and A. Colorni. 2005. Mycobacterium marinum infections in fish and humans in Israel. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43: 892895.
99. Ucko, M.,, A. Colorni,, H. Kvitt,, A. Diamant,, A. Zlotkin, and, W. R. Knibb. 2002. Strain variation in Mycobacterium marinum fish isolates. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68: 52815287.
100. Utrup, L. J.,, T. D. Moore,, P. Actor, and, J. A. Poupard. 1995. Susceptibilities of nontuberculosis mycobacterial species to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid alone and in combination with antimycobacterial agents. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 39: 14541457.
101. van der Sar, A. M.,, A. M. Abdallah,, M. Sparrius,, E. Reinders,, C. M. Vandenbroucke-Grauls, and, W. Bitter. 2004. Mycobacterium marinum strains can be divided into two distinct types based on genetic diversity and virulence. Infect. Immun. 72: 63066312.
102. van Ingen, J.,, R. de Zwaan,, R. Dekhuijzen,, M. Boeree, and, D. van Soolingen. 2009. Region of difference 1 in nontuberculous Mycobacterium species adds a phylogenetic and taxonomical character. J. Bacteriol. 191: 58655867.
103. Vera-Cabrera, L.,, B. A. Brown-Elliott,, R. J. Wallace, Jr.,, J. Ocampo-Candiani,, O. Welsh,, S. H. Choi, and, C. A. Molina-Torres. 2006. In vitro activities of the novel oxazolidinones DA-7867 and DA-7157 against rapidly and slowly growing mycobacteria. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 50: 40274029.
104. Wallace, R.,, J. Glassroth,, D. Griffith, et al. 1997. Diagnostic and treatment of disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 156: S1S25.
105. Wallace, R. J., Jr.,, and K. Wiss. 1981. Susceptibility of Mycobacterium marinum to tetracyclines and aminoglycosides. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 20: 610612.
106. Wayne, L. G.,, and H. A. Sramek. 1992. Agents of newly recognized or infrequently encountered mycobacterial diseases. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 5: 125.
107. Werngren, J.,, B. Olsson-Liljequist,, L. Gezelius, and, S. E. Hoffner. 2001. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycobacterium marinum determined by E-test and agar dilution. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 33: 585588.
108. Wolinsky, E. 1992. Mycobacterial diseases other than tuberculosis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 15: 110.
109. Yip, M. J.,, J. L. Porter,, J. A. Fyfe,, C. J. Lavender,, F. Portaels,, M. Rhodes,, H. Kator,, A. Colorni,, G. A. Jenkin, and, T. Stinear. 2007. Evolution of Mycobacterium ulcerans and other mycolactone-producing mycobacteria from a common Mycobacterium marinum progenitor. J. Bacteriol. 189: 20212029.
110. Zanoni, R. G.,, D. Florio,, M. L. Fioravanti,, M. Rossi, and, M. Prearo. 2008. Occurrence of Mycobacterium spp. in ornamental fish in Italy. J. Fish Dis. 31: 433441.
111. Zenone, T.,, A. Boibieux,, S. Tigaud,, J. F. Fredenucci,, V. Vincent,, C. Chidiac, and, D. Peyramond. 1999. Non-tuberculous mycobacterial tenosynovitis: a review. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 31: 221228.


Generic image for table
Table 1.

Published studies of M. marinum infections that include more than 10 patients

Citation: Cambau E, Aubry A. 2011. , p 586-600. In Schlossberg D (ed), Tuberculosis and Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817138.ch39
Generic image for table
Table 2.

MICs of 17 antibiotics against 54 strains of determined by the agar dilution method

Citation: Cambau E, Aubry A. 2011. , p 586-600. In Schlossberg D (ed), Tuberculosis and Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817138.ch39

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error