Chapter 15 : Nitrification in Inland Waters

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Nitrification in Inland Waters, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817145/9781555814816_Chap15-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817145/9781555814816_Chap15-2.gif


This chapter presents the latest information on nitrification in inland waters, and deals mostly with ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) as they are primarily important for the onset of the process of nitrification, although their activity might be influenced by the presence of active nitrite-oxidizing bacteria, especially after starvation for ammonium. Nitrification in lakes takes place in the sediment as well as in the water column. As in lakes, nitrification in streams and rivers occurs primarily in the oxic surface layers of the sediment. The use of the gene led to quite different results: no gene fragments related to the lineage were found in any of the compartments; whereas the pelagic and the epiphytic compartments had only gene fragments of the lineage, and the benthic compartments contained a mixture of fragments of the , , and sp. Nm143 lineages. In summary, nitrification in streams and rivers appears to be associated with particles, and the nature of the particles may determine the size of the nitrification rate. Overall, members of the lineage are most numerous among the ammonia-oxidizing betaproteobacteria, both in rivers and lakes. After being detected in large numbers in soils and marine environments, the first observations of crenarchaea containing the gene are published, but their role in nitrification in inland waters still has to be demonstrated.

Citation: Laanbroek H, Bollmann A. 2011. Nitrification in Inland Waters, p 385-403. In Ward B, Arp D, Klotz M (ed), Nitrification. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817145.ch15
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of FIGURE 1

Numbers of gene copy numbers obtained by quantitative PCR from the epiphyton on macrophytes (gray bars), the water column (white bars), and the sediment (black bars) from three eutrophic lakes in The Netherlands.

Citation: Laanbroek H, Bollmann A. 2011. Nitrification in Inland Waters, p 385-403. In Ward B, Arp D, Klotz M (ed), Nitrification. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817145.ch15
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2

Growth rates (day) of freshwater (white bars) and brackish (gray bars) inoculums containing AOB from the Scheldt estuary in medium of different compositions.

Citation: Laanbroek H, Bollmann A. 2011. Nitrification in Inland Waters, p 385-403. In Ward B, Arp D, Klotz M (ed), Nitrification. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817145.ch15
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Admiraal, W. I. M.,, and Y. J. H. Botermans. 1989. Comparison of nitrification rates in 3 branches of the lower river Rhine. Biogeochemistry 8: 135151.
2. Ahlgren, I.,, F. Sorensson,, T. Waara, and, K. Vrede. 1994. Nitrogen budgets in relation to microbial transformations in lakes. Ambio 23: 367377.
3. Anonymous. 2007. United Nations Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. The Stationery Office, House of Commons, London, United Kingdom.
4. Anthoni, U.,, C. Christophersen,, J. O. Madsen,, S. Wiumandersen, and, N. Jacobsen. 1980. Biologically-active sulfur-compounds from the greenalga Chara globularis. Phytochemistry 19: 12281229.
5. Belser, L. W. 1979. Population ecology of nitrifying bacteria. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 33: 309335.
6. Beman, J. M.,, and C. A. Francis. 2006 Diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria in the sediments of a hypernutrified subtropical estuary: Bahia del Tobari, Mexico. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72: 77677777.
7. Bernhard, A. E.,, T. Donn,, A. E. Giblin, and, D. A. Stahl. 2005. Loss of diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria correlates with increasing salinity in an estuary system. Environ. Microbiol. 7: 12891297.
8. Bernhardt, E. S.,, R. O. Hall, and, G. E. Likens. 2002. Whole-system estimates of nitrification and nitrate uptake in streams of the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest. Ecosystems 5: 419430.
9. Beutel, M. W. 2001. Oxygen consumption and ammonia accumulation in the hypolimnion of Walker Lake, Nevada. Hydrobiologia 466: 107117.
10. Beutel, M. W. 2006. Inhibition of ammonia release from anoxic profundal sediments in lakes using hypolimnetic oxygenation. Ecol. Eng. 28: 271279.
11. Billen, G. 1975. Nitrification in the scheldt estuary (Belgium and the Netherlands). Estuar. Coas. Mar. Sci. 9: 7989.
12. Bodelier, P. L. E.,, J. A. Libochant,, C. W. P. M. Blom, and, H. J. Laanbroek. 1996. Dynamics of nitrification and denitrification in root-oxygenated sediments and adaptation of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria to low-oxygen or anoxic habitats. App. Environ. Microbiol. 62: 41004107.
13. Bollmann, A.,, and H. J. Laanbroek. 2001. Continuous culture enrichments of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria at low ammonium concentrations. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 37: 211221.
14. Bollmann, A.,, and H. J. Laanbroek. 2002. Influence of oxygen partial pressure and salinity on the community composition of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in the Schelde estuary. Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 28: 239247.
15. Brion, N.,, G. Billen,, L. Guezennec, and, A. Ficht. 2000. Distribution of nitrifying activity in the Seine River (France) from Paris to the estuary. Estuaries 23: 669682.
16. Caffrey, J. M.,, N. Harrington,, I. Solem, and, B. B. Ward. 2003. Biogeochemical processes in a small California estuary. 2. Nitrification activity, community structure and role in nitrogen budgets. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 248: 2740.
17. Carini, S. A.,, and S. B. Joye. 2008. Nitrification in Mono Lake, California: activity and community composition during contrasting hydrological regimes. Limnol. Oceanogr. 53: 25462557.
18. Cebron, A.,, T. Berthe, and, J. Garnier. 2003. Nitrification and nitrifying bacteria in the lower Seine River and estuary (France). App. Environ. Microbiol. 69: 70917100.
19. Cebron, A.,, M. Coci,, J. Garnier, and, H. J. Laanbroek. 2004. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoretic analysis of ammonia-oxidizing bacterial community structure in the lower Seine River: impact of Paris wastewater effluents. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70: 67266737.
20. Cebron, A.,, J. Garnier, and, G. Billen. 2005. Nitrous oxide production and nitrification kinetics by natural bacterial communities of the lower Seine river (France). Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 41: 2538.
21. Christofi, N.,, T. Preston, and, W. D. P. Stewart. 1981. Endogenous nitrate production in an experimental enclosure during summer stratification. Water Res. 15: 343349.
22. Coci, M. 2007. Niche differentiation between ammonia-oxidising bacteria in aquatic environments. Ph.D. thesis. Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
23. Coci, M.,, D. Riechmann,, P. L. E. Bodelier,, S. Stefani,, G. Zwart, and, H. J. Laanbroek. 2005. Effect of salinity on temporal and spatial dynamics of ammonia-oxidising bacteria from intertidal freshwater sediment. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 53: 359368.
24. Coci, M.,, P. L. E. Bodelier, and, H. J. Laanbroek. 2008. Epiphyton as a niche for ammonia-oxidizing bacteria: Detailed comparison with benthic and pelagic compartments in shallow freshwater lakes. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74: 19631971.
25. Cooper, A. B. 1984. Activities of benthic nitrifiers in streams and their role in oxygen consumption. Microb. Ecol. 10: 316333.
26. Curtis, E. J. C.,, K. Durrant, and, M. M. I. Harman. 1975. Nitrification in rivers in the Trent Basin. Water Res. 9: 255268.
27. De Bie, M. J. M.,, A. G. C. L. Speksnijder,, G. A. Kowalchuk,, T. Schuurman,, G. Zwart,, J. R. Stephen, et al. 2001. Shifts in the dominant populations of ammonia-oxidizing beta-subclass Proteobacteria along the eutrophic Schelde estuary. Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 23: 225236.
28. De Bie, M. J. M.,, J. J. Middelburg,, M. Starink, and, H. J. Laanbroek. 2002a. Factors controlling nitrous oxide at the microbial community and estuarine scale. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 240: 19.
29. De Bie, M. J. M.,, M. Starink,, H. T. S. Boschker,, J. J. Peene, and, H. J. Laanbroek. 2002b. Nitrification in the Schelde estuary: methodological aspects and factors influencing its activity. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 42: 99107.
30. De Wilde, H. P. J.,, and M. J. M. De Bie. 2000. Nitrous oxide in the Schelde estuary: production by nitrification and emission to the atmosphere. Mar. Chem. 69: 203216.
31. Delaune, R. D.,, L. M. Salinas,, R. S. Knox,, M. N. Sarafyan, and, C. J. Smith. 1991. Water quality of a coastal river receiving nutrient inputs—ammonium nitrogen transformations. J. Environ. Sci. Health A 26: 12871302.
32. Eriksson, P. G. 2001. Interaction effects of flow velocity and oxygen metabolism on nitrification and denitrification in biofilms on submersed macrophytes. Biogeochemistry 55: 2944.
33. Eriksson, P. G.,, and J. L. Andersson. 1999. Potential nitrification and cation exchange on litter of emergent, freshwater macrophytes. Freshwater Biol. 42: 479486.
34. Eriksson, P. G.,, and S. E. B. Weisner. 1999. An experimental study on effects of submersed macro-phytes on nitrification and denitrification in ammonium-rich aquatic systems. Limnol. Oceanogr. 44: 19931999.
35. Finlay, J. C.,, R. W. Sterner, and, S. Kumar. (2007) Isotopic evidence for in-lake production of accumulating nitrate in lake superior. Ecol. Applic. 17: 23232332.
36. Francis, C. A.,, G. D. O’Mullan, and, B. B. Ward. 2003. Diversity of ammonia monooxygenase ( amoA) genes across environmental gradients in Chesapeake Bay sediments. Geobiology 1: 129140.
37. Freitag, T. E.,, L. Chang, and, J. I. Prosser. 2006. Changes in the community structure and activity of betaproteobacterial ammonia-oxidizing sediment bacteria along a freshwater-marine gradient. Environ. Microbiol. 8: 684696.
38. Garland, J. H. N. 1978. Nitrification in the River Trent, p. 167. In A. James (ed.), Mathematical Models in Water Pollution Control. Wiley, Chichester, United Kingdom.
39. Gillan, D. C.,, A. Speksnijder,, G. Zwart, and, C. De Ridder. 1998. Genetic diversity of the biofilm covering Montacuta ferruginosa (Mollusca, Bivalvia) as evaluated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis and cloning of PCR-amplified gene fragments coding for 16S rRNA. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64: 34643472.
40. Gorra, R.,, M. Coci,, R. Ambrosoli, and, H. J. Laanbroek. 2007. Effects of substratum on the diversity and stability of ammonia-oxidizing communities in a constructed wetland used for wastewater treatment. J. Appl. Microbiol. 103: 14421452.
41. Graetz, D. A.,, D. R. Keeney, and, R. B. Aspiras. 1973. E h status of lake sediment-water systems in relation to nitrogen transformations. Limnol. Oceanogr. 18: 908917.
42. Hall, G. H. 1986. Nitrification in lakes, p. 127–156. In J. I. Prosser (ed.), Nitrification. IRL Press, Oxford, United Kingdom.
43. Hastings, R. C.,, J. R. Saunders,, G. H. Hall,, R. W. Pickup, and, A. J. McCarthy. 1998. Application of molecular biological techniques to a seasonal study of ammonia oxidation in a eutrophic freshwater lake. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64: 36743682.
44. Helder, W.,, and R. T. P. Devries. 1983. Estuarine nitrite maxima and denitrifying bacteria (EmsDollard estuary). Neth. J. Sea Res. 17: 118.
45. Hermansson, A.,, and P. E. Lindgren. 2001. Quantification of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in arable soil by real-time PCR. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67: 972976.
46. Hiorns, W. D.,, R. C. Hastings,, I. M. Head,, A. J. McCarthy,, J. R. Saunders,, R. W. Pickup, and, G. H. Hall. 1995. Amplification of 16S ribosomal RNA genes of autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria demonstrates the ubiquity of nitrosospiras in the environment. Microbiology 141: 27932800.
47. Horne, A. J.,, and C. R. Goldman (ed.). 1994. Limnology. McGraw-Hill Inc., New York, NY.
48. Hornek, R.,, A. Pommerening-Roser,, H. P. Koops,, A. H. Farnleitner,, N. Kreuzinger,, A. Kirschner, and, R. L. Mach. 2006. Primers containing universal bases reduce multiple amoA gene specific DGGE band patterns when analysing the diversity of beta-ammonia oxidizers in the environment. J. Microbiol. Methods 66: 147155.
49. Horz, H. P.,, J. H. Rotthauwe,, T. Lukow, and, W. Liesack. 2000. Identification of major subgroups of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in environmental samples by T-RFLP analysis of amoA PCR products. J. Microbiol. Methods 39: 197204.
50. Joye, S. B.,, and J. T. Hollibaugh. 1995. Influence of sulfide inhibition of nitrification on nitrogen regeneration in sediments. Science 270: 623625.
51. Kaste, O.,, and A. Lyche-Solheim. 2005. Influence of moderate phosphate addition on nitrogen retention in an acidic boreal lake. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 62: 312321.
52. Kemp, M. J.,, and W. K. Dodds. 2001. Centimeterscale patterns in dissolved oxygen and nitrification rates in a prairie stream. J. North Am. Benthol. Soc. 20: 347357.
53. Kemp, M. J.,, and W. K. Dodds. 2002. The influence of ammonium, nitrate, and dissolved oxygen concentrations on uptake, nitrification, and denitrification rates associated with prairie stream substrata. Limnol. Oceanogr. 47: 13801393.
54. Kester, R. A.,, W. De Boer, and, H. J. Laanbroek. 1997. Production of NO and N 2O by pure cultures of nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria during changes in aeration. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63: 38723877.
55. Kim, O. S.,, P. Junier,, J. F. Imhoff, and, K. P. Witzel. 2006. Comparative analysis of ammonia-oxidizing bacterial communities in two lakes in North Germany and the Baltic Sea. Arch. Hydrobiol. 167: 335350.
56. Kim, O. S.,, P. Junier,, J. F. Imhoff, and, K. P. Witzel. 2008. Comparative analysis of ammonia monooxygenase ( amoA) genes in the water column and sediment-water interface of two lakes and the Baltic Sea. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 66: 367378.
57. Konneke, M.,, A. E. Bernhard,, J. R. de la Torre,, C. B. Walker,, J. B. Waterbury, and, D. A. Stahl. 2005. Isolation of an autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing marine archaeon. Nature 437: 543546.
58. Koops, H. P.,, and H. Harms. 1985. Deoxyribonucleic-acid homologies among 96 strains of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. Arch. Microbiol. 141: 214218.
59. Koops, H. P.,, and A. Pommerening-Röser. 2001. Distribution and ecophysiology of the nitrifying bacteria emphasizing cultured species. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 37: 19.
60. Koops, H.-P.,, U. Purkhold,, A. Pommerening-Röser,, G. Timmermann, and, M. Wagner. 2003. The lithotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. In M. Dworkin,, S. Falcow,, E. Rosenberg,, K.-H. Schleifer,, and E. Stackebrandt (ed.), The Procaryotes, an Evolving Electronic Resource for the Microbiological Community, 3rd ed. Springer, New York, NY.
61. Kowalchuk, G. A.,, and J. R. Stephen. 2001. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria: a model for molecular microbial ecology. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 55: 485529.
62. Kowalchuk, G. A.,, J. R. Stephen,, W. De Boer,, J. I. Prosser,, T. M. Embley, and, J. W. Woldendorp. 1997. Analysis of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria of the beta subdivision of the class proteobacteria in coastal sand dunes by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequencing of PCR-amplified 16S ribosomal DNA fragments. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63: 14891497.
63. Kowalchuk, G. A.,, P. L. E. Bodelier,, G. H. J. Heilig,, J. R. Stephen, and, H. J. Laanbroek. 1998. Community analysis of ammonia-oxidising bacteria, in relation to oxygen availability in soils and root-oxygenated sediments, using PCR, DGGE and oligonucleotide probe hybridisation. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 27: 339350.
64. Laanbroek, H. J.,, and M.-J. Bär-Gilissen. 2002. Weakened activity of starved ammonia-oxidizing bacteria by the presence of pre-activated Nitrobacter winogradskyi. Microb. Environ. 17: 122127.
65. Laanbroek, H. J.,, and S. Gerards. 1993. Competition for limiting amounts of oxygen between Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi grown in mixed continuous cultures. Arch. Microbiol. 159: 453459.
66. Laanbroek, H. J.,, and A. Speksnijder. 2008. Niche separation of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria across a tidal freshwater marsh. Environ. Microbiol. 10: 30173025.
67. Laanbroek, H. .,, P. L. E. Bodelier, and, S. Gerards. 1994. Oxygen consumption kinetics of nitrosomonas europaea and nitrobacter hamburgensis grown in mixed continuous cultures at different oxygen concentrations. Arch. Microbiol. 161: 156162.
68. Leininger, S.,, T. Urich,, M. Schloter,, L. Schwark,, J. Qi,, G. W. Nicol, et al. 2006. Archaea predominate among ammonia-oxidizing prokaryotes in soils. Nature 442: 806809.
69. Lepisto, A.,, K. Granlund,, P. Kortelainen, and, A. Raike. 2006. Nitrogen in river basins: sources, retention in the surface waters and peatlands, and fluxes to estuaries in Finland. Sci. Total Environ. 365: 238259.
70. Lipschultz, F.,, S. C. Wofsy, and, L. E. Fox. 1986. Nitrogen-metabolism of the eutrophic Delaware reiver ecosystem. Limnol. Oceanogr. 31: 701716.
71. McCaig, A. E.,, T. M. Embley, and, J. I. Prosser. 1994. Molecular analysis of enrichment cultures of marine ammonia oxidisers. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 120: 363367.
72. Molot, L. A.,, and P. J. Dillon. 1993. Nitrogen mass balances and denitrification rates in central Ontario lakes. Biogeochemistry 20: 195212.
73. Mosier, A. C.,, and C. A. Francis. 2008. Relative abundance and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria in the San Francisco Bay estuary. Environ. Microbiol. 10: 30023016.
74. Mulholland, P. J.,, J. L. Tank,, D. M. Sanzone,, W. M. Wollheim,, B. J. Peterson,, J. R. Webster, and, J. L. Meyer. 2000. Nitrogen cycling in a forest stream determined by a N-15 tracer addition. Ecol. Monogr. 70: 471493.
75. Muyzer, G.,, E. C. Dewaal, and, A. G. Uitterlinden. 1993. Profiling of complex microbial populations by denaturing gradient gel-electrophoresis analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified genes coding for 16S ribosomal RNA. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59: 695700.
76. Owens, N. J. P. 1986. Estuarine nitrification—a naturally occurring fluidized-bed reaction Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 22: 3144.
77. Pauer, J. J.,, and M. T. Auer. 2000. Nitrification in the water column and sediment of a hypereutrophic lake and adjoining river system. Water Res. 34: 12471254.
78. Penton, C. R.,, A. H. Devol, and, J. M. Tiedje. 2006. Molecular evidence for the broad distribution of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in freshwater and marine sediments. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72: 68296832.
79. Peterson, B. J.,, W. M. Wollheim,, P. J. Mulholland,, J. R. Webster,, J. L. Meyer,, J. L. Tank, et al. 2001. Control of nitrogen export from watersheds by headwater streams. Science 292: 8690.
80. Purkhold, U.,, A. Pommerening-Röser,, S. Juretschko,, M. C. Schmid,, H. P. Koops, and, M. Wagner. 2000. Phylogeny of all recognized species of ammonia oxidizers based on comparative 16S rRNA and amoA sequence analysis: implications for molecular diversity surveys. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66: 53685382.
81. Purkhold, U.,, M. Wagner,, G. Timmermann,, A. Pommerening-Roser, and, H. P. Koops. 2003. 16S rRNA and amoA-based phylogeny of 12 novel betaproteobacterial ammonia-oxidizing isolates: extension of the dataset and proposal of a new lineage within the nitrosomonads. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 53: 14851494.
82. Rysgaard, S.,, N. Risgaardpetersen,, N. P. Sloth,, K. Jensen, and, L. P. Nielsen. 1994. Oxygen regulation of nitrification and denitrification in sediments. Limnol. Oceanogr. 39: 16431652.
83. Satoh, K.,, C. Itoh,, D. L. Kang,, H. Sumida,, R. Takahashi,, K. Isobe, et al. 2007. Characteristics of newly isolated ammonia-oxidizing bacteria from acid sulfate soil and the rhizoplane of leucaena grown in that soil. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 53: 2331.
84. Schleper, C.,, G. Jurgens, and, M. Jonuscheit. 2005. Genomic studies of uncultivated archaea. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 3: 479488.
85. Schwert, D. P.,, and J. P. White. 1974. Method for in situ measurement of nitrification in a stream. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 28: 10821083.
86. Skjelkvale, B. L.,, J. L. Stoddard,, D. S. Jeffries,, K. Torseth,, T. Hogasen,, J. Bowman, et al. 2005. Regional scale evidence for improvements in surface water chemistry 1990–2001. Environ. Pollut. 137: 165176.
87. Speksnijder, A.,, G. A. Kowalchuk,, K. Roest, and, H. J. Laanbroek. 1998. Recovery of a Nitrosomonas-like 16S rDNA sequence group from freshwater habitats. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 21: 321330.
88. Stehr, G.,, S. Zorner,, B. Bottcher, and, H. P. Koops. 1995a. Exopolymers: an ecological characteristic of a floc-attached, ammonia-oxidizing bacterium. Microb. Ecol. 30: 115126.
89. Stehr, G.,, B. Bottcher,, P. Dittberner,, G. Rath, and, H. P. Koops. 1995b. The ammonia-oxidizing nitrifying population of the River Elbe estuary. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 17: 177186.
90. Sterner, R. W.,, E. Anagnostou,, S. Brovold,, G. S. Bullerjahn,, J. C. Finlay,, S. Kumar, et al. 2007. Increasing stoichiometric imbalance in North America’s largest lake: nitrification in Lake Superior. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34: 10406.
91. Stewart, W. D. P.,, T. Preston,, H. G. Peterson, and, N. Christofi. 1982. Nitrogen cycling in eutrophic freshwaters. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 296: 491509.
92. Stoddard, J. L.,, D. S. Jeffries,, A. Lukewille,, T. A. Clair,, P. J. Dillon,, C. T. Driscoll, et al. 1999. Regional trends in aquatic recovery from acidification in North America and Europe. Nature 401: 575578.
93. Strauss, E. A.,, and G. A. Lamberti. 2000. Regulation of nitrification in aquatic sediments by organic carbon. Limnol. Oceanogr. 45: 18541859.
94. Strauss, E. A.,, N. L. Mitchell, and, G. A. Lamberti. 2002. Factors regulating nitrification in aquatic sediments: effects of organic carbon, nitrogen availability, and pH. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 59: 554563.
95. Strous, M.,, E. Pelletier,, S. Mangenot,, T. Rattei,, A. Lehner,, M. W. Taylor, et al. 2006. Deciphering the evolution and metabolism of an anammox bacterium from a community genome. Nature 440: 790794.
96. Urakawa, H.,, S. Kurata,, T. Fujiwara,, D. Kuroiwa,, H. Maki,, S. Kawabata, et al. 2006. Characterization and quantification of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in eutrophic coastal marine sediments using polyphasic molecular approaches and immunofluorescence staining. Environ. Microbiol. 8: 787803.
97. Van de Graaf, A. A.,, A. Mulder,, P. De Bruijn,, M. S. M. Jetten,, L. A. Robertson, and, J. G. Kuenen. 1995. Anaerobic oxidation of ammonium is a biologically mediated process. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61: 12461251.
98. Verhagen, F. J. M.,, and H. J. Laanbroek. 1991. Competition for ammonium between nitrifying and heterotrophic bacteria in dual energy-limited chemostats. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57: 32553263.
99. Verhagen, F. J. M.,, H. Duyts, and, H. J. Laanbroek. 1992. Competition for ammonium between nitrifying and heterotrophic bacteria in continuously percolated soil columns. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58: 33033311.
100. Vincent, W. F.,, and M. T. Downes. 1981. Nitrate accumulation in aerobic hypolimnia—relative importance of benthic and planktonic nitrifiers in an oligotrophic lake. App. Environ. Microbiol. 42: 565573.
101. Whitby, C. B.,, J. R. Saunders,, J. Rodriguez,, R. W. Pickup, and, A. McCarthy. 1999. Phylogenetic differentiation of two closely related Nitrosomonas spp. that inhabit different sediment environments in an oligotrophic freshwater lake. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65: 48554862.
102. Whitby, C. B.,, J. R. Saunders,, R. W. Pickup, and, A. J. McCarthy. 2001. A comparison of ammonia-oxidiser populations in eutrophic and oligotrophic basins of a large freshwater lake. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek Int. J. Gen. Mol. Microbiol. 79: 179188.
103. Ye, W. J.,, X. L. Liu,, S. Q. Lin,, J. Tan,, J. L. Pan,, D. T. Li, and, H. Yang. 2009. The vertical distribution of bacterial and archaeal communities in the water and sediment of Lake Taihu. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 70: 263276.


Generic image for table

Observed rates of nitrification in epilimnion and hypolimnion of a selected number of lakes

Citation: Laanbroek H, Bollmann A. 2011. Nitrification in Inland Waters, p 385-403. In Ward B, Arp D, Klotz M (ed), Nitrification. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817145.ch15
Generic image for table

Distribution of ammonia-oxidizing betaproteobacteria in inland waters as detected by molecular analyses based on either the 16S rRNA or the gene

Citation: Laanbroek H, Bollmann A. 2011. Nitrification in Inland Waters, p 385-403. In Ward B, Arp D, Klotz M (ed), Nitrification. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817145.ch15
Generic image for table

Biomass of the submerged macrophyte , seston weight, and community composition of aerobic AOB in microcosms incubated for 35 days at 20 to 23C and a 12-h dark-light cycle (light intensity, 225 µmol s m)

Citation: Laanbroek H, Bollmann A. 2011. Nitrification in Inland Waters, p 385-403. In Ward B, Arp D, Klotz M (ed), Nitrification. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817145.ch15

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error