Chapter 2 : An Introduction to the Medically Important Species

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

An Introduction to the Medically Important Species, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817176/9781555815394_Chap02-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817176/9781555815394_Chap02-2.gif


In recent years DNA sequence-based methods have helped to confirm taxonomic relationships within the genus and have been used to confirm that both sexual and nonsexual species are ascomycetes. Molecular methods have shown that many of the medically important species belong to a phylogenetic subgroup known as the CTG clade, a group of largely commensal yeast species that translate CTG as serine instead of leucine. Most women suffer from vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) at least once in life, with as many as 8% experiencing regular recurrent infections. VVC is primarily caused by , while is the second most common cause of this infection. species are an important component of the normal flora of the human oral cavity, and if given the opportunity, these can overgrow and cause oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC). The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the mid-1990s has led to a marked decrease in the incidence of OPC in HIV-infected individuals. In general, the majority of isolates are fully susceptible to all major classes of antifungal agents, including the azoles, echinocandins, and polyenes. is frequently isolated from physical surfaces in the hospital environment, making it unique among species. The remaining species associated with human disease are only rarely detected, and therefore relatively little is known about the etiology or the epidemiology of the diseases they cause.

Citation: Moran G, Coleman D, Sullivan D. 2012. An Introduction to the Medically Important Species, p 11-25. In Calderone R, Clancy C (ed), and Candidiasis, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817176.ch2
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of FIGURE 1

Phylogenetic tree showing the relationships between yeasts of the CTG clade and other pathogenic species. The tree is based on alignment of the amino acid sequences of the genes encoding enolase (Eno1p) from each species. Alignments were generated using MUSCLE using the default settings. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred with PHYML. Numbers at each node represent bootstrap values and indicate the number of times the arrangement shown occurred in 100 replicate trees. The bar under the tree represents a genetic distance of 5%. doi:10.1128/9781555817176.ch2.f1

Citation: Moran G, Coleman D, Sullivan D. 2012. An Introduction to the Medically Important Species, p 11-25. In Calderone R, Clancy C (ed), and Candidiasis, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817176.ch2
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2

Photomicrographs showing the different growth morphologies of yeast cells (A), pseudohyphae (B), hyphae (C), and chlamydospores (D; one example is indicated by an arrow). doi:10.1128/9781555817176.ch2.f2

Citation: Moran G, Coleman D, Sullivan D. 2012. An Introduction to the Medically Important Species, p 11-25. In Calderone R, Clancy C (ed), and Candidiasis, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817176.ch2
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Abbas, J.,, G. P. Bodey,, H. A. Hanna,, M. Mardani,, E. Girgawy,, D. Abi-Said,, E. Whimbey,, R. Hachem, and, I. Raad. 2000. Candida krusei fungemia: an escalating serious infection in immunocompromised hosts. Arch. Intern. Med. 160: 26592664.
2. Abi-Said, D.,, E. Anaissie,, O. Uzun,, I. Raad,, H. Pinzcowski, and, S. Vartivarian. 1997. The epidemiology of hematogenous candidiasis caused by different Candida species. Clin. Infect. Dis. 24: 11221128.
3. Akisada, T.,, K. Harada,, M. Niimi, and, A. Kamaguchi. 1983. Production of contiguously arranged chlamydospores in Candida albicans. J. Gen. Microbiol. 129: 23272330.
4. Almeida, R. S.,, S. Brunke,, A. Albrecht,, S. Thewes,, M. Laue,, J. E. Edwards,, S. G. Filler, and, B. Hube. 2008. The hyphal-associated adhesin and invasin Als3 of Candida albicans mediates iron acquisition from host ferritin. PLoS Pathog. 4: e1000217.
5. Al Mosaid, A.,, D. Sullivan,, I. F. Salkin,, D. Shanley, and, D. C. Coleman. 2001. Differentiation of Candida dubliniensis from Candida albicans on Staib agar and caffeic acid-ferric citrate agar. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39: 323327.
6. Al-Mosaid, A.,, D. J. Sullivan, and, D. C. Coleman. 2003. Differentiation of Candida dubliniensis from Candida albicans on Pal’s agar. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41: 47874789.
7. Alves, S. H.,, E. P. Milan,, P. de Laet Sant’Ana,, L. O. Oliveira,, J. M. Santurio, and, A. L. Colombo. 2002. Hypertonic Sabouraud broth as a simple and powerful test for Candida dubliniensis screening. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 43: 8586.
8. Anunnatsiri, S.,, P. Chetchotisakd, and, P. Mootsikapun. 2009. Fungemia in non-HIV-infected patients: a five-year review. Int. J. Infect. Dis. 13: 9096.
9. Arendrup, M.,, T. Horn, and, N. Frimodt-Møller. 2002. In vivo pathogenicity of eight medically relevant Candida species in an animal model. Infection 30: 286291.
10. Arribas, J. R.,, S. Hernández-Albujar,, J. J. González-García,, J. M. Peña,, A. Gonzalez,, T. Cañedo,, R. Madero,, J. J. Vazquez, and, W. G. Powderly. 2000. Impact of protease inhibitor therapy on HIV-related oropharyngeal candidiasis. AIDS 14: 979985.
11. Ásmundsdóttir, L. R.,, H. Erlendsdóttir,, G. Haraldsson,, H. Guo,, J. Xu, and, M. Gottfredsson. 2008. Molecular epidemiology of candidemia: evidence of clusters of smoldering nosocomial infections. Clin. Infect. Dis. 47: e17–e24.
12. Bagg, J.,, M. P. Sweeney,, M. A. Lewis,, M. S. Jackson,, D. Coleman,, A. Al Mosaid,, W. Baxter,, S. McEndrick, and, S. McHugh. 2003. High prevalence of non- albicans yeasts and detection of antifungal resistance in the oral flora of patients with advanced cancer. Palliat. Med. 17: 477481.
13. Bennett, J. E.,, K. Izumikawa, and, K. A. Marr. 2004. Mechanism of increased fluconazole resistance in Candida glabrata during prophylaxis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48: 17731777.
14. Blinkhorn, R. J.,, D. Adelstein, and, P. J. Spagnuolo. 1989. Emergence of a new opportunistic pathogen, Candida lusitaniae. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27: 236240.
15. Borg-von Zepelin, M.,, L. Kunz,, R. Ruchel,, U. Reichard,, M. Weig, and, U. Gross. 2007. Epidemiology and antifungal susceptibilities of Candida spp. to six antifungal agents: results from a surveillance study on fungaemia in Germany from July 2004 to August 2005. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 60: 424428.
16. Bougnoux, M. E.,, D. Diogo,, N. Francois,, B. Sendid,, S. Veirmeire,, J. F. Colombel,, C. Bouchier,, H. Van Kruiningen,, C. d’Enfert, and, D. Poulain. 2006. Multilocus sequence typing reveals intrafamilial transmission and microevolutions of Candida albicans isolates from the human digestive tract. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44: 18101820.
17. Bougnoux, M. E.,, C. Pujol,, D. Diogo,, C. Bouchier,, D. R. Soll, and, C. d’Enfert. 2008. Mating is rare within as well as between clades of the human pathogen Candida albicans. Fungal Genet. Biol. 45: 221231.
18. Brockert, P. J.,, S. A. Lachke,, T. Srikantha,, C. Pujol,, R. Galask, and, D. R. Soll. 2003. Phenotypic switching and mating type switching of Candida glabrata at sites of colonization. Infect. Immun. 71: 71097118.
19. Butler, G.,, M. D. Rasmussen,, M. F. Lin,, M. A. S. Santos,, S. Sakthikumar,, C. A. Munro,, E. Rheinbay,, M. Grabherr,, A. Forche,, J. L. Reedy,, I. Agrafioti,, M. B. Arnaud,, S. Bates,, A. J. P. Brown,, S. Brunke,, M. C. Costanzo,, D. A. Fitzpatrick,, P. W. J. de Groot,, D. Harris,, L. L. Hoyer,, B. Hube,, F. M. Klis,, C. Kodira,, N. Lennard,, M. E. Logue,, R. Martin,, A. M. Neiman,, E. Nikolaou,, M. A. Quail,, J. Quinn,, M. C. Santos,, F. F. Schmitzberger,, G. Sherlock,, P. Shah,, K. A. T. Silverstein,, M. S. Skrzypek,, D. Soll,, R. Staggs,, I. Stansfield,, M. P. H. Stumpf,, P. E. Sudbery,, T. Srikantha,, Q. Zeng,, J. Berman,, M. Berriman,, J. Heitman,, N. A. R. Gow,, M. C. Lorenz,, B. W. Birren,, M. Kellis, and, C. A. Cuomo. 2009. Evolution of pathogenicity and sexual reproduction in eight Candida genomes. Nature 459: 657662.
20. Calderone, R. A. 2002. Introduction and historical perspectives, p. 3–13. In R. A. Calderone (ed.), Candida and Candidiasis. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
21. Campbell, J. R.,, E. Zaccaria, and, C. J. Baker. 2000. Systemic candidiasis in extremely low birth weight infants receiving topical petrolatum ointment for skin care: a case-control study. Pediatrics 105: 10411045.
22. Cano, M. V.,, J. F. Perz,, A. S. Craig,, M. Liu,, G. M. Lyon,, M. E. Brandt,, T. J. Lott,, B. A. Lasker,, F. F. Barrett,, M. M. McNeil,, W. Schaffner, and, R. A. Hajjeh. 2005. Candidemia in pediatric outpatients receiving home total parenteral nutrition. Med. Mycol. 43: 219225.
23. Carruba, G.,, E. Pontieri,, F. De Bernardis,, P. Martino, and, A. Cassone. 1991. DNA fingerprinting and electrophoretic karyotypes of environmental and clinical isolates of Candida parapsilosis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29: 916922.
24. Cassone, A.,, F. De Bernardis,, E. Pontieri,, G. Carruba,, C. Girmenia,, P. Martino,, M. Fernandez-Rodriguez,, G. Quindos, and, J. Ponton. 1995. Biotype diversity of Candida parapsilosis and its relationship to the clinical source and experimental pathogenicity. J. Infect. Dis. 171: 967975.
25. Cassone, A.,, F. De Bernardis,, A. Torosantucci,, E. Tacconelli,, M. Tumbarello, and, R. Cauda. 1999. In vitro and in vivo anticandidal activity of human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitors. J. Infect. Dis. 180: 448453.
26. Cauda, R.,, E. Tacconelli,, M. Tumbarello,, G. Morace,, F. De Bernardis,, A. Torosantucci, and, A. Cassone. 1999. Role of protease inhibitors in preventing recurrent oral candidosis in patients with HIV infection: a prospective case-control study. J Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 21: 2025.
27. Chakrabarti, A.,, S. S. Chatterjee,, K. L. N. Rao,, M. M. Zameer,, M. R. Shivaprakash,, S. Singhi,, R. Singh, and, S. C. Varma. 2009. Recent experience with fungaemia: change in species distribution and azole resistance. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 41: 275284.
28. Chapeland-Leclerc, F.,, C. Hennequin,, N. Papon,, T. Noël,, A. Girard,, G. Socié,, P. Ribaud, and, C. Lacroix. 2010. Acquisition of flucytosine, azole, and caspofungin resistance in Candida glabrata bloodstream isolates serially obtained from a hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipient. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 54: 13601362.
29. Chen, S. C. A.,, D. Marriott,, E. G. Playford,, Q. Nguyen,, D. Ellis,, W. Meyer,, T. C. Sorrell, and, M. Slavin. 2009. Candidaemia with uncommon Candida species: predisposing factors, outcome, antifungal susceptibility, and implications for management. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 15: 662669.
30. Citiulo, F.,, G. P. Moran,, D. C. Coleman, and, D. J. Sullivan. 2009. Purification and germination of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis chlamydospores cultured in liquid media. FEMS Yeast Res. 9: 10511060.
31. Clayton, Y. M.,, and W. C. Noble. 1966. Observations on the epidemiology of Candida albicans. J. Clin. Pathol. 19: 7678.
32. Coleman, D. C.,, D. E. Bennett,, D. J. Sullivan,, P. J. Gallagher,, M. C. Henman,, D. B. Shanley, and, R. J. Russell. 1993. Oral Candida in HIV infection and AIDS: new perspectives/new approaches. Crit. Rev. Microbiol. 19: 6182.
33. Colombo, A. L.,, A. S. Azevedo Melo,, R. F. Crespo Rosas,, R. Salomão,, M. Briones,, R. J. Hollis,, S. A. Messer, and, M. A. Pfaller. 2003. Outbreak of Candida rugosa candidemia: an emerging pathogen that may be refractory to amphotericin B therapy. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 46: 253257.
34. Crawshaw, W. M.,, N. R. MacDonald, and, G. Duncan. 2005. Outbreak of Candida rugosa mastitis in a dairy herd after intramammary antibiotic treatment. Vet. Rec. 156: 812813.
35. Cuenca-Estrella, M.,, D. Rodriguez,, B. Almirante,, J. Morgan,, A. M. Planes,, M. Almela,, J. Mensa,, F. Sanchez,, J. Ayats,, M. Gimenez,, M. Salvado,, D. W. Warnock,, A. Pahissa, and, J. L. Rodriguez-Tudela. 2005. In vitro susceptibilities of bloodstream isolates of Candida species to six antifungal agents: results from a population-based active surveillance programme, Barcelona, Spain, 2002–2003. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 55: 194199.
36. da Costa, K. R.,, J. C. Ferreira,, M. C. Komesu, and, R. C. Candido. 2009. Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis in oral candidosis: quantitative analysis, exoenzyme activity, and antifungal drug sensitivity. Mycopathologia 167: 7379.
37. da Silva, C. L.,, R. M. dos Santos, and, A. L. Colombo. 2001. Cluster of Candida parapsilosis primary bloodstream infections in neonatal intensive care unit. Brazil. J. Infect. Dis. 171: 3236.
38. Davies, A. N.,, S. Brailsford,, K. Broadley, and, D. Beighton. 2002. Oral yeast carriage in patients with advanced cancer. Oral Microbiol. Immunol. 17: 7984.
39. de Hoog, G. S.,, and J. Guarro. 1995. Candida krusei, p. 228. In G. S. de Hoog and, J. Guarro (ed.), Atlas of Clinical Fungi. Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures/Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
40. de Repentigny, L.,, F. Aumont,, K. Bernard, and, P. Belhumeur. 2000. Characterization of binding of Candida albicans to small intestinal mucin and its role in adherence to mucosal epithelial cells. Infect. Immun. 68: 31723179.
41. Diekema, D. J.,, S. A. Messer,, A. B. Brueggemann,, S. L. Coffman,, G. V. Doern,, L. A. Herwaldt, and, M. A. Pfaller. 2002. Epidemiology of candidemia: 3-year results from the Emerging Infections and the Epidemiology of Iowa Organisms study. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40: 12981302.
42. Diezmann, S.,, C. J. Cox,, G. Schonian,, R. J. Vilgalys, and, T. G. Mitchell. 2004. Phylogeny and evolution of medical species of Candida and related taxa: a multigenic analysis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42: 56245635.
43. Dodgson, A. R.,, K. J. Dodgson,, C. Pujol,, M. A. Pfaller, and, D. R. Soll. 2004. Clade-specific flucytosine resistance is due to a single nucleotide change in the FUR1 gene of Candida albicans. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48: 22232227.
44. Domergue, R.,, I. Castaño,, A. De Las Peñas,, M. Zupancic,, V. Lockatell,, J. R. Hebel,, D. Johnson, and, B. P. Cormack. 2005. Nicotinic acid limitation regulates silencing of Candida adhesins during UTI. Science 308: 866870.
45. Dongari-Bagtzoglou, A.,, P. Dwivedi,, E. Ioannidou,, M. Shaqman,, D. Hull, and, J. Burleson. 2009. Oral Candida infection and colonization in solid organ transplant recipients. Oral Microbiol. Immunol. 24: 249254.
46. Donnelly, S. A.,, D. J. Sullivan,, D. B. Shanley, and, D. C. Coleman. 1999. Phylogenetic analysis and rapid identification of Candida dubliniensis based on analysis of ACT1 intron and exon sequences. Microbiology 145: 18711882.
47. Dube, M. P.,, P. N. Heseltine,, M. G. Rinaldi,, S. Evans, and, B. Zawacki. 1994. Fungemia and colonization with nystatin-resistant Candida rugosa in a burn unit. Clin. Infect. Dis. 18: 7782.
48. Felk, A.,, M. Kretschmar,, A. Albrecht,, M. Schaller,, S. Beinhauer,, T. Nichterlein,, D. Sanglard,, H. C. Korting,, W. Schafer, and, B. Hube. 2002. Candida albicans hyphal formation and the expression of the Efg1-regulated protein-ases Sap4 to Sap6 are required for the invasion of parenchymal organs. Infect. Immun. 70: 36893700.
49. Fidel, P. L.,, J. A. Vazquez, and, J. D. Sobel. 1999. Candida glabrata: review of epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical disease with comparison to C. albicans. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 12: 8096.
50. Fitzpatrick, D.,, M. Logue,, J. Stajich, and, G. Butler. 2006. A fungal phylogeny based on 42 complete genomes derived from supertree and combined gene analysis. BMC Evol. Biol. 6: 99.
51. Forche, A.,, K. Alby,, D. Schaefer,, A. D. Johnson,, J. Berman, and, R. J. Bennett. 2008. The parasexual cycle in Candida albicans provides an alternative pathway to meiosis for the formation of recombinant strains. PLoS Biol. 6: e110.
52. Gadanho, M.,, and J. Sampaio. 2005. Occurrence and diversity of yeasts in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge hydrothermal fields near the Azores archipelago. Microb. Ecol. 50: 408417.
53. Garcia-Effron, G.,, S. Lee,, S. Park,, J. D. Cleary, and, D. S. Perlin. 2009. Effect of Candida glabrata FKS1 and FKS2 mutations on echinocandin sensitivity and kinetics of 1,3-β- d-glucan synthase: implication for the existing susceptibility breakpoint. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53: 36903699.
54. Ghannoum, M. A.,, R. A. Hajjeh,, R. Scher,, N. Konnikov,, A. K. Gupta,, R. Summerbell,, S. Sullivan,, R. Daniel,, P. Krusinski,, P. Fleckman,, P. Rich,, R. Odom,, R. Aly,, D. Pariser,, M. Zaiac,, G. Rebell,, J. Lesher,, B. Gerlach,, G. F. Ponce de Leon,, A. Ghannoum,, J. Warner,, N. Isham, and, B. Elewski. 2000. A large-scale North American study of fungal isolates from nails: the frequency of onychomycosis, fungal distribution, and antifungal susceptibility patterns. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 43: 641648.
55. Gruber, A.,, C. Speth,, E. Lukasser-Vogl,, R. Zangerle,, M. Borg-von Zepelin,, M. P. Dierich, and, R. Würzner. 1999. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease inhibitor attenuates Candida albicans virulence properties in vitro. Immunopharmacology 41: 227234.
56. Gudlaugsson, O.,, S. Gillespie,, K. Lee,, J. Vande Berg,, J. Hu,, S. Messer,, L. Herwaldt,, M. Pfaller, and, D. Diekema. 2003. Attributable mortality of nosocomial candidemia, revisited. Clin. Infect. Dis. 37: 11721177.
57. Hachem, R.,, H. Hanna,, D. Kontoyiannis,, Y. Jiang, and, I. Raad. 2008. The changing epidemiology of invasive candidiasis: Candida glabrata and Candida krusei as the leading causes of candidemia in hematologic malignancy. Cancer 112: 24932499.
58. Henry, K. W.,, J. T. Nickels, and, T. D. Edlind. 2000. Up-regulation of ERG genes in Candida species by azoles and other sterol biosynthesis inhibitors. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44: 26932700.
59. Hoyer, L. L.,, T. L. Payne,, M. Bell,, A. M. Myers, and, S. Scherer. 1998. Candida albicans ALS3 and insights into the nature of the ALS gene family. Curr. Genet. 33: 451459.
60. Huang, Y. C.,, C. C. Li,, T. Y. Lin,, R. I. Lien,, Y. H. Chou,, J. L. Wu, and, C. Hsueh. 1998. Association of fungal colonization and invasive disease in very low birth weight infants. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 17: 819822.
61. Huang, Y. C.,, T. Y. Lin,, H. S. Leu,, H. L. Peng,, J. H. Wu, and, H. Y. Chang. 1999. Outbreak of Candida parapsilosis fungemia in neonatal intensive care units: clinical implications and genotyping analysis. Infection 27: 97102.
62. Hull, C. M.,, and A. D. Johnson. 1999. Identification of a mating type-like locus in the asexual pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Science 285: 12711275.
63. Hull, C. M.,, R. M. Raisner, and, A. D. Johnson. 2000. Evidence for mating of the “asexual” yeast Candida albicans in a mammalian host. Science 289: 307310.
64. Jackson, A. P.,, J. A. Gamble,, T. Yeomans,, G. P. Moran,, D. Saunders,, D. Harris,, M. Aslett,, J. F. Barrell,, G. Butler,, F. Citiulo,, D. C. Coleman,, P. W. de Groot,, T. J. Goodwin,, M. A. Quail,, J. McQuillan,, C. A. Munro,, A. Pain,, R. T. Poulter,, M. A. Rajandream,, H. Renauld,, M. J. Spiering,, A. Tivey,, N. A. Gow,, B. Barrell,, D. J. Sullivan, and, M. Berriman. 2009. Comparative genomics of the fungal pathogens Candida dubliniensis and C. albicans. Genome Res. 10: 10.
65. Kadir, T.,, R. Pisiriciler,, S. Akyüz,, A. Yarat,, N. Emekli, and, A. Ipbüker. 2002. Mycological and cytological examination of oral candidal carriage in diabetic patients and non-diabetic control subjects: thorough analysis of local aetiologic and systemic factors. J. Oral Rehabil. 29: 452457.
66. Kaur, R.,, I. Castaño, and, B. P. Cormack. 2004. Functional genomic analysis of fluconazole susceptibility in the pathogenic yeast Candida glabrata: roles of calcium signaling and mitochondria. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48: 16001613.
67. Kent, H. L. 1991. Epidemiology of vaginitis. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 165: 11681176.
68. Khan, Z. U.,, S. Ahmad,, I. Al-Obaid,, N. A. Al-Sweih,, L. Joseph, and, D. Farhat. 2008. Emergence of resistance to amphotericin B and triazoles in Candida glabrata vaginal isolates in a case of recurrent vaginitis. J. Chemother. 20: 488491.
69. Kibbler, C. C.,, S. Ainscough,, R. A. Barnes,, W. R. Gransden,, R. E. Holliman,, E. M. Johnson,, J. D. Perry,, D. J. Sullivan, and, J. A. Wilson. 2003. Management and outcome of blood stream infections due to Candida species in England and Wales. J. Hosp. Infect. 54: 1824.
70. King, R. D.,, J. C. Lee, and, A. L. Morris. 1980. Adherence of Candida albicans and other Candida species to mucosal epithelial cells. Infect. Immun. 27: 667674.
71. Kofteridis, D. P.,, R. E. Lewis, and, D. P. Kontoyiannis. 2010. Caspofungin-non-susceptible Candida isolates in cancer patients. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 65: 293295.
72. Koh, A. Y.,, J. R. Köhler,, K. T. Coggshall,, N. Van Rooijen, and, G. B. Pier. 2008. Mucosal damage and neutropenia are required for Candida albicans dissemination. PLoS Pathog. 4: e35.
73. Krcmery, V.,, and A. J. Barnes. 2002. Non- albicans Candida spp. causing fungaemia: pathogenicity and antifungal resistance. J. Hosp. Infect. 50: 243260.
74. Kurtzman, C. P.,, and C. J. Robnett. 1997. Identification of clinically important ascomycetous yeasts based on nucleotide divergence in the 5’ end of the large-subunit (26S) ribosomal DNA gene. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35: 12161223.
75. Lass-Flörl, C. 2009. The changing face of epidemiology of invasive fungal disease in Europe. Mycoses 52: 197205.
76. Lee, I.,, N. O. Fishman,, T. E. Zaoutis,, K. H. Morales,, M. G. Weiner,, M. Synnestvedt,, I. Nachamkin, and, E. Lautenbach. 2009. Risk factors for fluconazole-resistant Candida glabrata bloodstream infections. Arch. Intern. Med. 169: 379383.
77. Lermann, U.,, and J. Morschhaüser. 2008. Secreted aspartic proteases are not required for invasion of reconstituted human epithelia by Candida albicans. Microbiology 154: 32813295.
78. Leroy, O.,, J. P. Gangneux,, P. Montravers,, J. P. Mira,, F. Gouin,, J. P. Sollet,, J. Carlet,, J. Reynes,, M. Rosenheim,, B. Regnier, and, O. Lortholary. 2009. Epidemiology, management, and risk factors for death of invasive Candida infections in critical care: a multicenter, prospective, observational study in France (2005–2006). Crit. Care Med. 37: 16121618.
79. Leung, A. Y.,, C. S. Chim,, P. L. Ho,, V. C. Cheng,, K. Y. Yuen,, A. K. Lie,, W. Y. Au,, R. Liang, and, Y. L. Kwong. 2002. Candida tropicalis fungaemia in adult patients with haematological malignancies: clinical features and risk factors. J. Hosp. Infect. 50: 316319.
80. Levin, A. S.,, S. F. Costa,, N. S. Mussi,, M. Basso,, S. I. Sinto,, C. Machado,, D. C. Geiger,, M. C. Villares,, A. Z. Schreiber,, A. A. Barone, and, M. L. Branchini. 1998. Candida parapsilosis fungemia associated with implantable and semi-implantable central venous catheters and the hands of healthcare workers. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 30: 243249.
81. Levy, I.,, L. G. Rubin,, S. Vasishtha,, V. Tucci, and, S. K. Sood. 1998. Emergence of Candida parapsilosis as the predominant species causing candidemia in children. Clin. Infect. Dis. 26: 10861088.
82. Li, L.,, S. Redding, and, A. Dongari-Bagtzoglou. 2007. Candida glabrata: an emerging oral opportunistic pathogen. J. Dent. Res. 86: 204215.
83. Li, S. Y.,, Y. L. Yang,, Y. H. Lin,, H. C. Ho,, A. H. Wang,, K. W. Chen,, C. W. Wang,, H. Chi, and, H. J. Lo. 2009. Two closely related fluconazole-resistant Candida tropicalis clones circulating in Taiwan from 1999 to 2006. Microb. Drug Resist. 15: 205210.
84. Lischewski, A.,, M. Rhunke,, I. Tennagen,, G. Schönian,, J. Morschhäuser, and, J. Hacker. 1995. Molecular epidemiology of Candida isolates from AIDS patients showing different fluconazole resistance profiles. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 769771.
85. Lo, H. J.,, J. R. Kohler,, B. DiDomenico,, D. Loebenberg,, A. Cacciapuoti, and, G. R. Fink. 1997. Nonfilamentous C. albicans mutants are avirulent. Cell 90: 939949.
86. Lockhart, S. R.,, S. Joly,, K. Vargas,, J. Swails-Wenger,, L. Enger, and, D. R. Soll. 1999. Natural defenses against Candida colonization breakdown in the oral cavities of the elderly. J. Dent. Res. 78: 857868.
87. Lockhart, S. R.,, S. A. Messer,, M. A. Pfaller, and, D. J. Diekema. 2008. Lodderomyces elongisporus masquerading as Candida parapsilosis as a cause of bloodstream infections. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46: 374376.
88. Lockhart, S. R.,, B. D. Reed,, C. L. Pierson, and, D. R. Soll. 1996. Most frequent scenario for recurrent Candida vaginitis is strain maintenance with “substrain shuffling”: demonstration by sequential DNA fingerprinting with probes Ca3, C1, and CARE2. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34: 767777.
89. Lott, T. J.,, R. J. Kuykendall,, S. F. Welbel,, A. Pramanik, and, B. A. Lasker. 1993. Genetic heterogeneity in the yeast Candida parapsilosis. Curr. Genet. 23: 463467.
90. Luo, G.,, and L. P. Samaranayake. 2002. Candida glabrata, an emerging fungal pathogen, exhibits superior relative cell surface hydrophobicity and adhesion to denture acrylic surfaces compared with Candida albicans. APMIS 110: 601610.
91. Magee, B. B.,, and P. T. Magee. 2000. Induction of mating in Candida albicans by construction of MTLa and MTLα strains. Science 289: 310313.
92. Marais, E.,, R. Stewart,, A. G. Duse,, I. C. Rosekilly,, G. de Jong, and, N. Aithma. 2004. Candida parapsilosis detected in TPN using the BacT/Alert system and characterized by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA. J. Hosp. Infect. 56: 291296.
93. Masala, L.,, R. Luzzati,, L. Maccacaro,, L. Antozzi,, E. Concia, and, R. Fontana. 2003. Nosocomial cluster of Candida guillermondii fungemia in surgical patients. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 22: 686688.
94. Medeiros, A. O.,, L. M. Kohler,, J. S. Hamdan,, B. S. Missagia,, F. A. Barbosa, and, C. A. Rosa. 2008. Diversity and antifungal susceptibility of yeasts from tropical freshwater environments in Southeastern Brazil. Water Res. 42: 39213929.
95. Minces, L. R.,, K. S. Ho,, P. J. Veldkamp, and, C. J. Clancy. 2009. Candida rugosa: a distinctive emerging cause of candidaemia. A case report and review of the literature. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 41: 892897.
96. Moran, G. P.,, D. J. Sullivan,, M. C. Henman,, C. E. McCreary,, B. J. Harrington,, D. B. Shanley, and, D. C. Coleman. 1997. Antifungal drug susceptibilities of oral Candida dubliniensis isolates from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and non-HIV-infected subjects and generation of stable fluconazole-resistant derivatives in vitro. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41: 617623.
97. Morschhäuser, J. 2010. Regulation of multidrug resistance in pathogenic fungi. Fungal Genet. Biol. 94: 94106.
98. Naglik, J. R.,, S. J. Challacombe, and, B. Hube. 2003. Candida albicans secreted aspartyl proteinases in virulence and pathogenesis. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 67: 400428.
99. Nosek, J.,, Z. Holesova,, P. Kosa,, A. Gacser, and, L. Tomaska. 2009. Biology and genetics of the pathogenic yeast Candida parapsilosis. Curr. Genet. 55: 497509.
100. Odds, F. C. 1988. Candida and Candidosis: a Review and Bibliography. Bailliere Tindall, London, United Kingdom.
101. Odds, F. C.,, A. D. Davidson,, M. D. Jacobsen,, A. Tavanti,, J. A. Whyte,, C. C. Kibbler,, D. H. Ellis,, M. C. J. Maiden,, D. J. Shaw, and, N. A. R. Gow. 2006. Candida albicans strain maintenance, replacement, and microvariation demonstrated by multilocus sequence typing. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44: 36473658.
102. Odds, F. C.,, N. A. R. Gow, and, A. J. P. Brown. 2001. Fungal virulence studies come of age. Genome Biol. 2: reviews1009.1–reviews1009.4.
103. Odds, F. C.,, M. F. Hanson,, A. D. Davidson,, M. D. Jacobsen,, P. Wright,, J. A. Whyte,, N. A. R. Gow, and, B. L. Jones. 2007. One year prospective survey of Candida bloodstream infections in Scotland. J. Med. Microbiol. 56: 10661075.
104. Ostrosky-Zeichner, L.,, B. D. Alexander,, D. H. Kett,, J. Vazquez,, P. G. Pappas,, F. Saeki,, P. A. Ketchum,, J. Wingard,, R. Schiff,, H. Tamura,, M. A. Finkelman, and, J. H. Rex. 2005. Multicenter clinical evaluation of the (1→3) β- d-glucan assay as an aid to diagnosis of fungal infections in humans. Clin. Infect. Dis. 41: 654659.
105. Pappagianis, D.,, M. S. Collins,, R. Hector, and, J. Remington. 1979. Development of resistance to amphotericin B in Candida lusitaniae infecting a human. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 16: 123126.
106. Park, S.,, R. Kelly,, J. N. Kahn,, J. Robles,, M. J. Hsu,, E. Register,, W. Li,, V. Vyas,, H. Fan,, G. Abruzzo,, A. Flattery,, C. Gill,, G. Chrebet,, S. A. Parent,, M. Kurtz,, H. Teppler,, C. M. Douglas, and, D. S. Perlin. 2005. Specific substitutions in the echinocandin target Fks1p account for reduced susceptibility of rare laboratory and clinical Candida sp. isolates. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 49: 32643273.
107. Pasquale, T.,, J. R. Tomada,, M. Ghannoun,, J. Dipersio, and, H. Bonilla. 2008. Emergence of Candida tropicalis resistant to caspofungin. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 61: 219.
108. Pelletier, R.,, I. Alarie,, R. Lagace, and, T. J. Walsh. 2005. Emergence of disseminated candidiasis caused by Candida krusei during treatment with caspofungin: case report and review of literature. Med. Mycol. 43: 559564.
109. Perlroth, J.,, B. Choi, and, B. Spellberg. 2007. Nosocomial fungal infections: epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Med. Mycol. 45: 321346.
110. Pfaller, M.,, and D. J. Diekema. 2004. Twelve years of fluconazole in clinical practice: global trends in species distribution and fluconazole susceptibility of bloodstream isolates of Candida. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 10( Suppl. 1) : 1123.
111. Pfaller, M. A.,, L. Boyken,, R. J. Hollis,, J. Kroeger,, S. A. Messer,, S. Tendolkar, and, D. J. Diekema. 2008. In vitro susceptibility of invasive isolates of Candida spp. to anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin: six years of global surveillance. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46: 150156.
112. Pfaller, M. A.,, and D. J. Diekema. 2007. Epidemiology of invasive candidiasis: a persistent public health problem. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 20: 133163.
113. Pfaller, M. A.,, and D. J. Diekema. 2004. Rare and emerging opportunistic fungal pathogens: concern for resistance beyond Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42: 44194431.
114. Pfaller, M. A.,, D. J. Diekema,, A. L. Colombo,, C. Kibbler,, K. P. Ng,, D. L. Gibbs,, V. A. Newell, and the Global Antifungal Surveillance Group. 2006. Candida rugosa, an emerging fungal pathogen with resistance to azoles: geographic and temporal trends from the ARTEMIS DISK antifungal surveillance program. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44: 35783582.
115. Pfaller, M. A.,, D. J. Diekema,, M. Mendez,, C. Kibbler,, P. Erzsebet,, S. C. Chang,, D. L. Gibbs,, V. A. Newell, and the Global Antifungal Surveillance Group. 2006. Candida guilliermondii, an opportunistic fungal pathogen with decreased susceptibility to fluconazole: geographic and temporal trends from the ARTEMIS DISK Antifungal Surveillance Program. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44: 35513556.
116. Pfaller, M. A.,, D. J. Diekema,, M. G. Rinaldi,, R. Barnes,, B. Hu,, A. V. Veselov,, N. Tiraboschi,, E. Nagy,, D. L. Gibbs, and the Global Antifungal Surveillance Group. 2005. Results from the ARTEMIS DISK global antifungal surveillance study: a 6.5-year analysis of susceptibilities of Candida and other yeast species to fluconazole and voriconazole by standardized disk diffusion testing. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43: 58485859.
117. Pfaller, M. A.,, R. N. Jones,, G. V. Doern,, A. C. Fluit,, J. Verhoef,, H. S. Sader,, S. A. Messer,, A. Houston,, S. Coffman, and, R. J. Hollis. 1999. International surveillance of blood stream infections due to Candida species in the European SENTRY program: species distribution and antifungal susceptibility including the investigational triazole and echinocandin agents. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 35: 1925.
118. Pfaller, M. A.,, R. N. Jones,, G. V. Doern,, H. S. Sader,, S. A. Messer,, A. Houston,, S. Coffman, and, R. J. Hollis. 2000. Bloodstream infections due to Candida species: SENTRY antimicrobial surveillance program in North America and Latin America, 1997-1998. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44: 747751.
119. Phan, Q. T.,, C. L. Myers,, Y. Fu,, D. C. Sheppard,, M. R. Yeaman,, W. H. Welch,, A. S. Ibrahim,, J. E. Edwards, Jr., and, S. G. Filler. 2007. Als3 is a Candida albicans invasin that binds to cadherins and induces endocytosis by host cells. PLoS Biol. 5: 64.
120. Pinjon, E.,, D. Sullivan,, I. Salkin,, D. Shanley, and, D. Coleman. 1998. Simple, inexpensive, reliable method for differentiation of Candida dubliniensis from Candida albicans. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 20932095.
121. Rahman, D.,, M. Mistry,, S. Thavaraj,, S. J. Challacombe, and, J. R. Naglik. 2007. Murine model of concurrent oral and vaginal Candida albicans colonization to study epithelial host-pathogen interactions. Microbes Infect. 9: 615622.
122. Reichart, P. A.,, H. P. Philipsen,, A. Schmidt-Westhausen, and, L. P. Samaranayake. 1995. Pseudomembranous oral candidiasis in HIV infection: ultrastructural findings. J. Oral Pathol. Med. 24: 276281.
123. Reuß, O.,, A. Vik,, R. Kolter, and, J. Morschhäuser. 2004. The SAT1 flipper, an optimized tool for gene disruption in Candida albicans. Gene 341: 119127.
124. Richardson, M.,, and C. Lass-Flörl. 2008. Changing epidemiology of systemic fungal infections. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 14( Suppl. 4) : 524.
125. Roilides, E.,, E. Farmaki,, J. Evdoridou,, A. Francesconi,, M. Kasai,, J. Filioti,, M. Tsivitanidou,, D. Sofianou,, G. Kremenopoulos, and, T. J. Walsh. 2003. Candida tropicalis in a neonatal intensive care unit: epidemiologic and molecular analysis of an outbreak of infection with an uncommon neonatal pathogen. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41: 735741.
126. Romeo, O.,, C. Racco, and, G. Criseo. 2006. Amplification of the hyphal wall protein 1 gene to distinguish Candida albicans from Candida dubliniensis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44: 25902592.
127. Roy, B.,, and S. A. Meyer. 1998. Confirmation of the distinct genotype groups within the form species Candida parapsilosis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 216218.
128. Rycovska, A.,, M. Valach,, L. Tomaska,, M. Bolotin-Fukuhara, and, J. Nosek. 2004. Linear versus circular mitochondrial genomes: intraspecies variability of mitochondrial genome architecture in Candida parapsilosis. Microbiology 150: 15711580.
129. Sandven, P. 2000. Epidemiology of candidemia. Rev. Iberoam. Micol. 17: 7381.
130. Sanglard, D.,, F. Ischer, and, J. Bille. 2001. Role of ATP-binding-cassette transporter genes in high-frequency acquisition of resistance to azole antifungals in Candida glabrata. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45: 11741183.
131. Sarvikivi, E.,, O. Lyytikainen,, D. R. Soll,, C. Pujol,, M. A. Pfaller,, M. Richardson,, P. Koukila-Kahkola,, P. Luukkainen, and, H. Saxen. 2005. Emergence of fluconazole resistance in a Candida parapsilosis strain that caused infections in a neonatal intensive care unit. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43: 27292735.
132. Saville, S. P.,, A. L. Lazzell,, C. Monteagudo, and, J. L. Lopez-Ribot. 2003. Engineered control of cell morphology in vivo reveals distinct roles for yeast and filamentous forms of Candida albicans during infection. Eukaryot. Cell 2: 10531060.
133. Seidenfeld, S. M.,, B. H. Cooper,, J. W. Smith,, J. P. Luby, and, P. A. Mackowiak. 1983. Amphotericin B tolerance: a characteristic of Candida parapsilosis not shared by other Candida species. J. Infect. Dis. 147: 116119.
134. Sharkey, L. L.,, W. L. Liao,, A. K. Ghosh, and, W. A. Fonzi. 2005. Flanking direct repeats of hisG alter URA3 marker expression at the HWP1 locus of Candida albicans. Microbiology 151: 10611071.
135. Shivaprakasha, S.,, K. Radhakrishnan, and, P. M. Karim. 2007. Candida spp. other than Candida albicans: a major cause of fungaemia in a tertiary care centre. Indian J. Med. Microbiol. 25: 405407.
136. Sipsas, N. V.,, R. E. Lewis,, J. Tarrand,, R. Hachem,, K. V. Rolston,, I. I. Raad, and, D. P. Kontoyiannis. 2009. Candidemia in patients with hematologic malignancies in the era of new antifungal agents (2001–2007): stable incidence but changing epidemiology of a still frequently lethal infection. Cancer 115: 47454752.
137. Slutsky, B.,, J. Buffo, and, D. R. Soll. 1985. High- frequency switching of colony morphology in Candida albicans. Science 230: 666669.
138. Sobel, J. D. 1998. Vulvovaginitis due to Candida glabrata. An emerging problem. Mycoses 41( Suppl. 2) : 1822.
139. Sobel, J. D. 2007. Vulvovaginal candidosis. Lancet 369: 19611971.
140. Soll, D. R. 2009. Why does Candida albicans switch? FEMS Yeast Res. 9: 973989.
141. Song, J. W.,, J. H. Shin,, D. H. Shin,, S. I. Sung,, D. Cho,, S. J. Kee,, M. G. Shin,, S. P. Suh, and, D. W. Ryang. 2005. Differences in biofilm production by three genotypes of Candida parapsilosis from clinical sources. Med. Mycol. 43: 657661.
142. Spellberg, B. J.,, S. G. Filler, and, J. E. Edwards, Jr. 2006. Current treatment strategies for disseminated candidiasis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 42: 244251.
143. Spellberg, B. J.,, A. S. Ibrahim,, V. Avanesian,, Y. Fu,, C. Myers,, Q. T. Phan,, S. G. Filler,, M. R. Yeaman, and, J. J. E. Edwards. 2006. Efficacy of the anti- Candida rAls3p-N or rAls1p-N vaccines against disseminated and mucosal candidiasis. J. Infect. Dis. 194: 256260.
144. Srikantha, T.,, S. A. Lachke, and, D. R. Soll. 2003. Three mating type-like loci in Candida glabrata. Eukaryot. Cell 2: 328340.
145. Staab, J. F.,, S. D. Bradway,, P. L. Fidel, and, P. Sundstrom. 1999. Adhesive and mammalian transglutaminase substrate properties of Candida albicans Hwp1. Science 283: 15351538.
146. Staab, J. F.,, and P. Sundstrom. 2003. URA3 as a selectable marker for disruption and virulence assessment of Candida albicans genes. Trends Microbiol. 11: 6973.
147. Staib, P.,, and J. Morschhaüser. 1999. Chlamydospore formation on Staib agar as a species-specific characteristic of Candida dubliniensis. Mycoses 42: 521524.
148. Sterling, T. R.,, R. A. Gasser, Jr., and, A. Ziegler. 1996. Emergence of resistance to amphotericin B during therapy for Candida glabrata infection in an immunocompetent host. Clin. Infect. Dis. 23: 187188.
149. St-Germain, G.,, M. Laverdière,, R. Pelletier,, P. René,, A. M. Bourgault,, C. Lemieux, and, M. Libman. 2008. Epidemiology and antifungal susceptibility of bloodstream Candida isolates in Quebec: report on 453 cases between 2003 and 2005. Can. J. Infect. Dis. Med. Microbiol. 19: 5562.
150. Stokes, C.,, G. P. Moran,, M. J. Spiering,, G. T. Cole,, D. C. Coleman, and, D. J. Sullivan. 2007. Lower filamentation rates of Candida dubliniensis contribute to its lower virulence in comparison with Candida albicans. Fungal Genet. Biol. 44: 920931.
151. Suh, S. O.,, N. H. Nguyen, and, M. Blackwell. 2008. Yeasts isolated from plant-associated beetles and other insects: seven novel Candida species near Candida albicans. FEMS Yeast Res. 8: 88102.
152. Sullivan, D.,, and D. Coleman. 1997. Candida dubliniensis: an emerging opportunistic pathogen. Curr. Top. Med. Mycol. 8: 1525.
153. Sullivan, D.,, and D. Coleman. 1998. Candida dubliniensis: characteristics and identification. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 329334.
154. Sullivan, D.,, K. Haynes,, J. Bille,, P. Boerlin,, L. Rodero,, S. Lloyd,, M. Henman, and, D. Coleman. 1997. Widespread geographic distribution of oral Candida dubliniensis strains in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35: 960964.
155. Sullivan, D. J.,, and D. C. Coleman. 2002. Molecular approaches to identification and typing of Candida species, p. 427–441. In R. A. Caldeone (ed.), Candida and Candidiasis. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
156. Sullivan, D. J.,, G. P. Moran, and, D. C. Coleman. 2005. Candida dubliniensis: ten years on. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 253: 917.
157. Sullivan, D. J.,, T. J. Westerneng,, K. A. Haynes,, D. E. Bennett, and, D. C. Coleman. 1995. Candida dubliniensis sp. nov.: phenotypic and molecular characterization of a novel species associated with oral candidosis in HIV- infected individuals. Microbiology 141: 15071521.
158. Tan, T. Y.,, A. L. Tan,, N. W. Tee,, L. S. Ng, and, C. W. Chee. 2010. The increased role of non- albicans species in candidaemia: results from a 3-year surveillance study. Mycoses 53: 515521.
159. Tavanti, A.,, A. D. Davidson,, N. A. R. Gow,, M. C. J. Maiden, and, F. C. Odds. 2005. Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis spp. nov. to replace Candida parapsilosis groups II and III. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43: 284292.
160. Tavanti, A.,, L. A. Hensgens,, E. Ghelardi,, M. Campa, and, S. Senesi. 2007. Genotyping of Candida orthopsilosis clinical isolates by amplification fragment length polymorphism reveals genetic diversity among independent isolates and strain maintenance within patients. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45: 14551462.
161. Tortorano, A. M.,, J. Peman,, H. Bernhardt,, L. Klingspor,, C. C. Kibbler,, O. Faure,, E. Biraghi,, E. Canton,, K. Zimmermann,, S. Seaton, and, R. Grillot. 2004. Epidemiology of candidaemia in Europe: results of 28-month European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM) hospital-based surveillance study. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 23: 317322.
162. Trofa, D.,, A. Gácser, and, J. D. Nosanchuk. 2008. Candida parapsilosis, an emerging fungal pathogen. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 21: 606625.
163. Tsuchimori, N.,, L. L. Sharkey,, W. A. Fonzi,, S. W. French,, J. E. Edwards, and, S. G. Filler. 2000. Reduced virulence of HWP1-deficient mutants of Candida albicans and their interactions with host cells. Infect. Immun. 68: 19972002.
164. Tumbarello, M.,, G. Caldarola,, E. Tacconelli,, G. Mo-race,, B. Posteraro,, R. Cauda, and, L. Ortona. 1996. Analysis of risk factors associated with the emergence of azole resistant oral candidosis in the course of HIV infection. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 38: 691699.
165. van Asbeck, E.,, K. V. Clemons,, M. Martinez,, A. J. Tong, and, D. A. Stevens. 2008. Significant differences in drug susceptibility among species in the Candida parapsilosis group. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 62: 106109.
166. van Asbeck, E. C.,, K. V. Clemons, and, D. A. Stevens. 2009. Candida parapsilosis: a review of its epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical aspects, typing and antimicrobial susceptibility. Crit. Rev. Microbiol. 35: 283309.
167. Vanden Bossche, H.,, P. Marichal,, F. C. Odds,, L. Le Jeune, and, M.-C. Coene. 1992. Characterization of an azole-resistant Candida glabrata isolate. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 36: 26022610.
168. Vandeputte, P.,, G. Larcher,, T. Berges,, G. Renier,, D. Chabasse, and, J. P. Bouchara. 2005. Mechanisms of azole resistance in a clinical isolate of Candida tropicalis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 49: 46084615.
169. Vandeputte, P.,, G. Tronchin,, T. Bergès,, C. Hennequin,, D. Chabasse, and, J. P. Bouchara. 2007. Reduced susceptibility to polyenes associated with a missense mutation in the ERG6 gene in a clinical isolate of Candida glabrata with pseudohyphal growth. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51: 982990.
170. Vandeputte, P.,, G. Tronchin,, G. Larcher,, E. Ernoult,, T. Bergès,, D. Chabasse, and, J. P. Bouchara. 2008. A nonsense mutation in the ERG6 gene leads to reduced susceptibility to polyenes in a clinical isolate of Candida glabrata. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52: 37013709.
171. Vargas, K. G.,, and S. Joly. 2002. Carriage frequency, intensity of carriage, and strains of oral yeast species vary in the progression to oral candidiasis in human immunodeficiency virus-positive individuals. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40: 341350.
172. Verma, A. K.,, K. N. Prasad,, M. Singh,, A. K. Dixit, and, A. Ayyagari. 2003. Candidaemia in patients of a tertiary health care hospital from north India. Indian J. Med. Res. 117: 122128.
173. Viscoli, C.,, C. Girmenia,, A. Marinus,, L. Collette,, P. Martino,, B. Vandercam,, C. Doyen,, B. Lebeau,, D. Spence,, V. Krcmery,, F. De Pauw, and, F. Meunier. 1999. Candidemia in cancer patients: a prospective, multicentre surveillance study by the Invasive Fungal Infection Group (IFIG) of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC). Clin. Infect. Dis. 28: 10711079.
174. Viudes, A.,, J. Pemán,, E. Cantón,, M. Salavert,, P. Ubeda,, J. L. López-Ribot, and, M. Gobernado. 2002. Two cases of fungemia due to Candida lusitaniae and a literature review. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 21: 294299.
175. Voss, E. G. 1983. International Code of Botanical Nomenclature. Dr. W. Junk Publishers, The Hague, The Netherlands.
176. Walsh, T. J.,, and W. G. Merz. 1986. Pathologic features in the human alimentary tract associated with invasiveness of Candida tropicalis. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 85: 498502.
177. Wang, J. L.,, S. C. Chang,, P. R. Hsueh, and, Y. C. Chen. 2004. Species distribution and fluconazole susceptibility of Candida clinical isolates in a medical center in 2002. Microbiol. Immunol. Infect. 37: 236241.
178. Wilson, L. S.,, C. M. Reyes,, M. Stolpman,, J. Speckman,, K. Allen, and, J. Beney. 2002. The direct cost and incidence of systemic fungal infections. Value Health 5: 2634.
179. Wingard, J. R. 1995. Importance of Candida species other than C. albicans as pathogens in oncology patients. Clin. Infect. Dis. 20: 115125.
180. Wisplinghoff, H.,, T. Bischoff,, S. M. Tallent,, H. Seifert,, R. P. Wenzel, and, M. B. Edmond. 2004. Nosocomial bloodstream infections in US hospitals: analysis of 24,179 cases from a prospective nationwide surveillance study. Clin. Infect. Dis. 39: 309317.
181. Wong, S.,, M. A. Fares,, W. Zimmermann,, G. Butler, and, K. H. Wolfe. 2003. Evidence from comparative genomics for a complete sexual cycle in the ‘asexual’ pathogenic yeast Candida glabrata. Genome Biol. 4: R10.
182. Wu, W.,, C. Pujol,, S. R. Lockhart, and, D. R. Soll. 2005. Chromosome loss followed by duplication is the major mechanism of spontaneous mating-type locus homozygosis in Candida albicans. Genetics 169: 13111327.
183. Yarrow, D.,, and S. A. Meyer. 1978. Proposal for amendment of the diagnosis of the genus Candida Berkhout nom. cons. Int. J. Syst. Biol. 28: 611615.
184. Zaoutis, T. E.,, J. Argon,, J. Chu,, J. A. Berlin,, T. J. Walsh, and, C. Feudtner. 2005. The epidemiology and attributable outcomes of candidemia in adults and children hospitalized in the United States: a propensity analysis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 41: 12321239.


Generic image for table

Medically relevant species

Citation: Moran G, Coleman D, Sullivan D. 2012. An Introduction to the Medically Important Species, p 11-25. In Calderone R, Clancy C (ed), and Candidiasis, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817176.ch2
Generic image for table

Major risk factors for mucosal infections

Citation: Moran G, Coleman D, Sullivan D. 2012. An Introduction to the Medically Important Species, p 11-25. In Calderone R, Clancy C (ed), and Candidiasis, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817176.ch2
Generic image for table

Major risk factors for IC

Citation: Moran G, Coleman D, Sullivan D. 2012. An Introduction to the Medically Important Species, p 11-25. In Calderone R, Clancy C (ed), and Candidiasis, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817176.ch2

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error