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Chapter 10 : Polar Marine Microbiology

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Abstract:

At the highest taxonomic levels, microbial communities in the polar oceans are similar to those in temperate oceans, and contain diverse representatives from the three domains of life: (protists), , and . This chapter presents a brief overview of pelagic microbes and their diversity, vertical distribution, and influences on biogeochemistry and upper food webs. The focus is on recent advances following the application of molecular biological techniques to polar marine systems. A revolution has occurred with the application of molecular biological techniques, especially small-subunit rRNA gene surveys, and identification of , , and picoeukaryotes is now possible. The two most abundant archaeal phyla in the ocean belong to the and Marine Groups (MG) I, which were originally classified as part of another phylum, the . A microbial loop begins with organic matter in the ocean being taken up by bacteria; the bacteria are eaten by small flagellates that excrete organic matter, which is used by bacteria that are eaten by small flagellates. All higher trophic levels, including whales, seals, and birds at both poles and polar bears in the Arctic, ultimately depend on microbes to convert inorganic carbon and solar energy into organic carbon, maintain it in a biologically available form, and recycle nutrients.

Citation: Lovejoy C. 2012. Polar Marine Microbiology, p 201-217. In Miller R, Whyte L (ed), Polar Microbiology: Life in a Deep Freeze. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817183.ch10
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Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Epifluorescence micrograph of a mixotrophic haptophyte flagellate from the Beaufort Sea. 4′,6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole is used to stain nucleic acids, especially the nucleus. In this overexposed micrograph the flagella, haptonema, and organic scales can also be seen. The cell is ca. 10 × 5 microns.

Citation: Lovejoy C. 2012. Polar Marine Microbiology, p 201-217. In Miller R, Whyte L (ed), Polar Microbiology: Life in a Deep Freeze. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817183.ch10
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

(A) Water column profile taken 15 August 2007 from the Canada Basin, showing the distinct layering of different water masses. Temperature is indicated in light gray, sigma theta in dark gray, and practical salinity units in black. SML, summer mixed layer; WML, winter mixed layer; PSW, Pacific summer water; PWW, Pacific winter water; AHW, lower halocline water; AW, deep water from the Atlantic Ocean. (B) The upper 100 m of the same water column with the addition of the fluorescence trace (dark gray triangles), indicating the chlorophyll maximum layer within the PSW.

Citation: Lovejoy C. 2012. Polar Marine Microbiology, p 201-217. In Miller R, Whyte L (ed), Polar Microbiology: Life in a Deep Freeze. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817183.ch10
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FIGURE 3

Conceptual diagram of microbial food webs from polar seas including links to macrozooplankton and advective input of nitrate and inorganic carbon fixation. Arrows indicate pathways relevant to both nitrogen and carbon cycling. The POM triangle indicates aggregation of particles and zooplankton fecal pellets, which feed the benthos. DOM is released by active phototrophs and taken up by γ- (GammaP) and , the most abundant bacteria in polar surface waters. MASTs are the primary bacterial grazers, and the interactions between these two groups are a microbial loop. The upper portion shows names of organisms for a classic scenario, while the lower portion includes MGI and a nitrification component. In this case diatoms may be maintained for longer in the upper euphotic zone. The net effect would result in an additional pathway for inorganic carbon fixation via the . doi:10.1128/9781555817183.ch10.f3

Citation: Lovejoy C. 2012. Polar Marine Microbiology, p 201-217. In Miller R, Whyte L (ed), Polar Microbiology: Life in a Deep Freeze. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817183.ch10
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