Chapter 6 : Genome Plasticity in and Its Relevance to Host-Pathogen Interactions

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Genome plasticity in was first detected in serovar Typhi. It has been observed in a number of serovars since then. Mechanisms that can lead to alterations in the genome include changes at the single-nucleotide level, gene loss, and genome rearrangements. Genome rearrangements including inversions and translocations can lead to genome plasticity, contributing to the divergence of strains. pathogenicity islands (SPIs) are large regions of DNA, which are most likely acquired as a result of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) and are often associated with virulence. The virulence plasmids of strains contribute to the adaptation of the organism, and in some cases allow the transfer of genes. It appears that expansion of host range is linked to lateral gene transfer (LGT) of genes involved in host-pathogen interactions. A common theme for the variable regions between serovars was the diversity in sugar metabolism, highlighting the redundancy of these systems. The majority of coding regions unique to serovar Enteritidis encode prophage-related functions. Although the genome sequence of serovar Pullorum is found to be very similar to those of other serovars, the genetic arrangement was significantly different, with three major inversions and one translocation found between strains. Understanding the phenomenon of genome plasticity in this species is important to characterize the relationship between genetic variation and host adaptation, as well as the ability to cause a relatively minor gastrointestinal disease or a potentially life-threatening systemic fever.

Citation: Ferreira R, Buckner M, Finlay B. 2012. Genome Plasticity in and Its Relevance to Host-Pathogen Interactions, p 84-102. In Hacker J, Dobrindt U, Kurth R (ed), Genome Plasticity and Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817213.ch06
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Schematic distribution of serovars, their hosts, and their pathological manifestations.

Citation: Ferreira R, Buckner M, Finlay B. 2012. Genome Plasticity in and Its Relevance to Host-Pathogen Interactions, p 84-102. In Hacker J, Dobrindt U, Kurth R (ed), Genome Plasticity and Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817213.ch06
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Genetic regions found within genomes

Citation: Ferreira R, Buckner M, Finlay B. 2012. Genome Plasticity in and Its Relevance to Host-Pathogen Interactions, p 84-102. In Hacker J, Dobrindt U, Kurth R (ed), Genome Plasticity and Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817213.ch06

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