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Chapter 14 : Vaccine: Progress and Challenges

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Abstract:

The accumulated body of evidence has provided important guiding principles for vaccine development. They are: (i) whole-organism vaccine preparations may be efficacious, as animal studies and the trachoma trials have suggested; (ii) a multisub-unit component vaccine should likely include combinations of serovar/biovar-specific protective antigens; and (iii) the prevention of pathological sequelae and the reduction of the incidence of infection should be the driving forces in vaccine development. Live chlamydial infections induce the best protective immunity in both humans and mice when compared to immunization with either dead organisms or component antigens. In a gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting approach, chlamydial antigens derived from purified organisms or -infected cells are subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE) and then probed with sera from -seropositive humans. Chlamydial proteins are labeled during growth with radioactive amino acids, and individual antigens from lysed chlamydial organisms or -infected cells that are recognized by patient sera are first immunoprecipitated and then resolved using 2D-GE. A genome expression library screen for immunogenicity followed by DNA immunization has been used to identify four housekeeping genes that induced robust protective immunity against lung infection in mice. Collectively, contemporary technologies have enabled considerable progress in vaccine development in the recent past, but several issues remain to be addressed before advancing the identified antigens into human clinical trials.

Citation: Murthy A, Arulanandam B, Zhong G. 2012. Vaccine: Progress and Challenges, p 311-333. In Tan M, Bavoil P (ed), Intracellular Pathogens I: . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817329.ch14
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FIGURE 1

Scheme for vaccine candidate identification and evaluation. doi:10.1128/9781555817329.ch14.f1

Citation: Murthy A, Arulanandam B, Zhong G. 2012. Vaccine: Progress and Challenges, p 311-333. In Tan M, Bavoil P (ed), Intracellular Pathogens I: . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817329.ch14
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Image of FIGURE 2
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Classification scheme showing a -infected cell and four classes of chlamydial antigens that are potential vaccine candidates. doi:10.1128/9781555817329.ch14.f2

Citation: Murthy A, Arulanandam B, Zhong G. 2012. Vaccine: Progress and Challenges, p 311-333. In Tan M, Bavoil P (ed), Intracellular Pathogens I: . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817329.ch14
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