Chapter 6 : Initial Interactions of Chlamydiae with the Host Cell

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Chlamydiae are taken up by host cells so efficiently that the process has been termed "parasite-specified endocytosis" by Byrne and Moulder. This chapter focuses upon the active interactions of chlamydiae with the host cell and covers the stage of development up to the division of reticulate bodies (RBs). Surprisingly, different mutant cell lines displayed unique patterns of susceptibility or resistance to different serovars or to . Despite the difficulties of comparing studies between different chlamydial species or serovars, conditions, and cell types, there is sufficient evidence to suggest that individual chlamydiae are capable of utilizing different mechanisms for entry. Translocation of Tarp and its tyrosine phosphorylation appear to be one of the first means of communication with the host cell to actively subvert host processes for parasite purposes. Identification of the kinases mediating Tarp phosphorylation is an initial step in mapping the signal transduction networks initiated by to establish residence within an intracellular niche. Endocytosed elementary bodies (EBs) are rapidly transported to the peri-Golgi region of the host cell and become fusogenic with Golgi-derived vesicles. The Inc proteins do not share structural similarities to eukaryotic proteins, except for SNARE-like motifs, and homology searches do not provide substantial clues about their function. An improved understanding of the complex interactions of the important pathogens with the host cell should provide great potential for improved chemotherapeu-tic and immunoprophylactic interventions.

Citation: Hackstadt T. 2012. Initial Interactions of Chlamydiae with the Host Cell, p 126-148. In Tan M, Bavoil P (ed), Intracellular Pathogens I: . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817329.ch6
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Image of FIGURE 1

Model of cooperative cell signaling during the internalization of . Upon contact with the eukaryotic host cell, Tarp is translocated from EBs by the chlamydial T3S system and exposed to the cytosol. Tarp, but not that of other species, is tyrosine phosphorylated by host kinases. A variety of host proteins display affinity for tyrosine phosphorylated Tarp. These include those potentially acting as GEFs for activation of Rac as well as those functioning in cellular signaling pathways regulating apoptosis and other regulatory cascades. Tarp is believed to independently nucleate linear actin filament formation. Rac activation, and CDC42 for , is required for activation of the cellular actin nucleating complex, Arp2/3. Tarp and Arp2/3 are proposed to function synergistically to promote the actin cytoskeletal rearrangements promoting chlamydial internalization. The mechanisms of Rac and/or CDC42 activation by those species whose Tarp is not phosphorylated, or when Tarp phosphorylation is inhibited, are undefined. Tarp is not predicted to be a membrane protein but remains associated with the nascent inclusion membrane for several hours postinfection. The means for long-term retention at the inclusion membrane is unknown. doi:10.1128/9781555817329.ch6.f1

Citation: Hackstadt T. 2012. Initial Interactions of Chlamydiae with the Host Cell, p 126-148. In Tan M, Bavoil P (ed), Intracellular Pathogens I: . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817329.ch6
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Image of FIGURE 2

Model of the vesicular interactions of the mature chlamydial inclusion. Markers for the plasma membrane and fluid phase and early and late endosomal and lysosomal markers are absent from the inclusion membrane. Instead, chlamydiae intercept sphingolipids and cholesterol directly from the Golgi apparatus. All chlamydial species interact with cells similarly. These interactions require modification of the inclusion membrane by chlamydial protein(s) and are initiated by 2 h postinfection. doi:10.1128/9781555817329.ch6.f2

Citation: Hackstadt T. 2012. Initial Interactions of Chlamydiae with the Host Cell, p 126-148. In Tan M, Bavoil P (ed), Intracellular Pathogens I: . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817329.ch6
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Image of FIGURE 3

Sources of lipids for chlamydiae. Chlamydiae utilize multiple host sources for lipid acquisition. doi:10.1128/9781555817329.ch6.f3

Citation: Hackstadt T. 2012. Initial Interactions of Chlamydiae with the Host Cell, p 126-148. In Tan M, Bavoil P (ed), Intracellular Pathogens I: . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817329.ch6
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