Chapter 103 : Adenoviruses

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Adenoviruses are large, nonenveloped, icosahedral viruses with a worldwide distribution and a wide degree of genetic heterogeneity. They are responsible for a spectrum of diseases, both end-organ and systemic, affecting both immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts. Signs and symptoms vary in severity as well, from mild upper respiratory tract infection to life-threatening pulmonary involvement. Rates of infection, morbidity, and mortality are especially high in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients. Diagnostic challenges reflect both the diversity of this agent and its myriad effects and sites of involvement. Methodologies historically have included phenotypic methods, such as cell culture, electron microscopy, antigen detection, and tissue pathology. These have been supplemented more recently by both qualitative and quantitative molecular amplification assays that may be applied both diagnostically and as screening modalities (particularly in high-risk populations). As more-effective therapeutics become available, the early recognition of such infections becomes more critical to optimal patient care.

Citation: Echavarria M, Robinson C, Hayden R. 2015. Adenoviruses, p 1769-1782. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch103
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Image of FIGURE 1

Model of an adenovirus particle. (Top) Exterior; (bottom) interior. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch103.f1

Citation: Echavarria M, Robinson C, Hayden R. 2015. Adenoviruses, p 1769-1782. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch103
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Image of FIGURE 2

Ultrastructure of adenovirus particles. (A) Transmission EM of a hepatocyte nucleus containing complete (dark) and empty (clear) adenovirus particles; (B) direct EM of a cluster of adenovirus particles in stool from a child with diarrhea. Bar = 100 nm. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch103.f2

Citation: Echavarria M, Robinson C, Hayden R. 2015. Adenoviruses, p 1769-1782. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch103
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Image of FIGURE 3

Adenovirus antigen demonstrated in two cells of a nasopharyngeal aspirate by direct IF using a rhodamine-conjugated antibody (yellow). Bar, 40 μm. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch103.f3

Citation: Echavarria M, Robinson C, Hayden R. 2015. Adenoviruses, p 1769-1782. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch103
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Image of FIGURE 4

Adenovirus CPE in A549 cells. (A) Uninfected cells; (B) advanced adenovirus CPE. Magnification, ×100. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch103.f4

Citation: Echavarria M, Robinson C, Hayden R. 2015. Adenoviruses, p 1769-1782. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch103
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Properties of the 51 human adenovirus serotypes by species characteristics

Citation: Echavarria M, Robinson C, Hayden R. 2015. Adenoviruses, p 1769-1782. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch103
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Adenovirus diseases, associated serotypes, hosts, and suitable specimens

Citation: Echavarria M, Robinson C, Hayden R. 2015. Adenoviruses, p 1769-1782. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch103
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Commercial products available in the United States for diagnostic use in the detection of adenovirus infections

Citation: Echavarria M, Robinson C, Hayden R. 2015. Adenoviruses, p 1769-1782. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch103

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