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The taxonomy of the melanized fungi and the most relevant epidemiological and clinical aspects, and the laboratory procedures for the diagnosis of infections caused by these agents, are discussed in this chapter. This chapter covers most of the agents of phaeohyphomycosis, chromoblastomycosis, and sporotrichosis, as well as a number of agents of superficial and cutaneous disease. The genera discussed in this chapter belong to the ascomycetous orders Botryosphaeriales ( and ), Chaetothyriales (, , , , , , and ), Calosphaeriales (), Diaporthales (), Dothideales ( and ), Microascales (), Ophiostomatales (), Pleosporales (, , and ), and Venturiales (). The most recent data on the and experimental antifungal susceptibility of melanized fungi to the available antifungal drugs are also provided.

Citation: Guarro J, de Hoog S. 2015. , , , , p 2153-2172. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch124
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(a and b) ; (c to e) ; (f) ; (g and h) ; (i to l) . Reproduced from . doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch124.f1

Citation: Guarro J, de Hoog S. 2015. , , , , p 2153-2172. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch124
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(a and b) ; (c) ; (d) ; (e to g) ; (h and i) ; (j) ; (k) various pictures of . Reproduced from . doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch124.f2

Citation: Guarro J, de Hoog S. 2015. , , , , p 2153-2172. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch124
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Image of FIGURE 3

(a and b) ; (c and d) ; (e and f) (g) (h and i) ; (j) ; (k) . Reproduced from . doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch124.f3

Citation: Guarro J, de Hoog S. 2015. , , , , p 2153-2172. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch124
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Image of FIGURE 4

(a to c) ; (d) ; (e to h) ; (i) ; (j) ; (k to m) . Reproduced from . doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch124.f4

Citation: Guarro J, de Hoog S. 2015. , , , , p 2153-2172. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch124
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Image of FIGURE 5

(a) Hematoxylin and eosin stain of subcutaneous nodule biopsy sample showing branching hyphae of ; (b to d) brain tissue showing irregular, branching, and septate hyphae of , stained with hematoxylin and eosin stain (b), GMS stain (c), and PAS stain (d). Magnifications, ×250 (a) and ×400 (b to d). (Courtesy of E. Mayayo, Universitat Rovira i Virgili.) doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch124.f5

Citation: Guarro J, de Hoog S. 2015. , , , , p 2153-2172. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch124
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Image of FIGURE 6

(a and b) Lung tissue with numerous conidia and hyphae of stained with PAS (a) and GMS (b); (c) PAS stain of a subcutaneous nodule biopsy sample showing sclerotic cells of within a giant cell; (d) PAS stain of a fine-needle aspirate of a subcutaneous nodule showing sclerotic cells of ; (e) PAS stain of a hepatic vessel showing a massive embolization by showing characteristic elongate cells. Magnifications, ×400. (Courtesy of E. Mayayo, Universitat Rovira i Virgili.) doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch124.f6

Citation: Guarro J, de Hoog S. 2015. , , , , p 2153-2172. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch124
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Overview of the clinically most relevant species and their attribution to the ordinal level

Citation: Guarro J, de Hoog S. 2015. , , , , p 2153-2172. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch124

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