Chapter 126 : Mycotoxins*

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Current knowledge of mycotoxins is reviewed in light of the developments of the last decade. We present information on common chemical classes of mycotoxins, including aflatoxins, citrinin, cyclopiazonic acid, ergot alkaloids, fumonisins, ochratoxins, patulin, trichothecenes, and zearalenone, with mention that the genes involved in their synthesis are clustered. Mycotoxins are discussed in the context of relevance to human and veterinary health concerns and food safety. Detection, biological and environmental contributing factors, prevention, and prospects for amelioration of contamination of feed and food products are addressed. We speak to potential and historical application of mycotoxins to biological warfare and bioterrorism. Finally, sick-building syndrome (SBS) and the case for its explanation as being caused by mycotoxins and mold are considered.

Citation: Throckmorton K, Isham N, Ghannoum M, Keller N. 2015. Mycotoxins*, p 2188-2195. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch126
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Classes of mycotoxins, the central enzyme in their biosyntheses, and the structures of examples of each. PKS, polyketide synthase; NRPS, nonribosomal peptide synthetase; DMAT, dimethylallyltryptophan synthase; TC, terpene cyclase; DON, deoxynivalenol ( ). doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch126.f1

Citation: Throckmorton K, Isham N, Ghannoum M, Keller N. 2015. Mycotoxins*, p 2188-2195. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch126
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Generic image for table

Simplified taxonomy of mycotoxin-producing fungi

Citation: Throckmorton K, Isham N, Ghannoum M, Keller N. 2015. Mycotoxins*, p 2188-2195. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch126
Generic image for table

Mycotoxins and their common food substrates

Citation: Throckmorton K, Isham N, Ghannoum M, Keller N. 2015. Mycotoxins*, p 2188-2195. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch126

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