Chapter 13 : Decontamination, Disinfection, and Sterilization

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Antisepsis of living tissue and decontamination, disinfection, and sterilization of the environment and medical devices are basic components of any infection control program. Patients expect to be treated in a clean environment and that any reusable instrument or device used for diagnosis or treatment has undergone a process to eliminate any risks for cross-infection. Due to the increasing frequency of multiresistant bacterial pathogens at a time when pharmaceutical companies have shifted from developing antimicrobial agents to designing drugs for chronic diseases, reprocessing techniques, disinfectants, and general infection control practice have garnered more attention recently than in the past.This chapter describes substances and procedures used for antisepsis, decontamination, disinfection, and sterilization and highlights some special issues like decolonization of colonized patients, reprocessing of endoscopes or dental equipment, and reprocessing of medical devices contaminated with prions.

Citation: Wendt C, Frei R, Widmer A. 2015. Decontamination, Disinfection, and Sterilization, p 183-216. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch13
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Microorganisms’ resistance to disinfectants. HSV, herpes simplex virus; CMV, cytomegalovirus; RSV, respiratory syncytial virus. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch13.f1

Citation: Wendt C, Frei R, Widmer A. 2015. Decontamination, Disinfection, and Sterilization, p 183-216. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch13
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Overview of common antiseptic compounds

Citation: Wendt C, Frei R, Widmer A. 2015. Decontamination, Disinfection, and Sterilization, p 183-216. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch13
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Definitions and terms

Citation: Wendt C, Frei R, Widmer A. 2015. Decontamination, Disinfection, and Sterilization, p 183-216. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch13
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FDA and EPA definitions of important terms

Citation: Wendt C, Frei R, Widmer A. 2015. Decontamination, Disinfection, and Sterilization, p 183-216. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch13
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Spaulding classification of devices

Citation: Wendt C, Frei R, Widmer A. 2015. Decontamination, Disinfection, and Sterilization, p 183-216. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch13
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Principles of medical device classification

Citation: Wendt C, Frei R, Widmer A. 2015. Decontamination, Disinfection, and Sterilization, p 183-216. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch13
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Outbreaks and pseudo-outbreaks associated with contaminated endoscopes or instruments for minimally invasive procedures

Citation: Wendt C, Frei R, Widmer A. 2015. Decontamination, Disinfection, and Sterilization, p 183-216. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch13
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Checklist to avoid reprocessing errors of endoscopes

Citation: Wendt C, Frei R, Widmer A. 2015. Decontamination, Disinfection, and Sterilization, p 183-216. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch13
Generic image for table

Overview of common disinfectants

Citation: Wendt C, Frei R, Widmer A. 2015. Decontamination, Disinfection, and Sterilization, p 183-216. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch13

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