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Human leishmaniasis is caused by parasites transmitted primarily by sand fly bites. The parasite resides and multiplies within macrophages of the host. The infection is categorized into cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral leishmaniasis. Diagnosis can be made from the clinical presentation, microscopically, and by culture, real-time PCR, serology, and antigen detection, depending on the resources available. Clinicians may have to use many different diagnostic methods to detect the infection due to the low number of parasites in specimens. Some infections may self-cure, while others will need to be treated depending on the number of lesions and whether the leishmaniasis is mucocutaneous or visceral. Trypanosomiasis is limited to the Americas and Africa. African trypanosomiasis is caused by and , with 10,000 new cases each year. The infection is acquired from tsetse fly bites. Diagnosis is similar to that for infections. Individuals infected with may be asymptomatic, whereas infections with have greater pathogenicity, especially if the infection enters the central nervous system. Therapy can be successful if administered early in the disease, although the drugs can be quite toxic. American trypanosomiasis is caused by acquired from a reduviid bug, although the infection can be food or blood borne. There are three phases of disease: acute, indeterminate, and chronic. Diagnostic methods are similar to those for infections. The blood supply and organ donors are screened for the presence of antibody to prevent infections.

Citation: Bruckner D, Labarca J. 2015. and , p 2357-2372. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch137
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Image of FIGURE 1

Life cycle stages of spp. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch137.f1

Citation: Bruckner D, Labarca J. 2015. and , p 2357-2372. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch137
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(A) amastigotes from a splenic press preparation (Giemsa stain); (B) in liver (hematoxylin and eosin stain). doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch137.f2

Citation: Bruckner D, Labarca J. 2015. and , p 2357-2372. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch137
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promastigotes (Giemsa stain). doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch137.f3

Citation: Bruckner D, Labarca J. 2015. and , p 2357-2372. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch137
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Image of FIGURE 4

Life cycle stages of trypanosomes. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch137.f4

Citation: Bruckner D, Labarca J. 2015. and , p 2357-2372. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch137
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Image of FIGURE 5

(A and B) trypomastigotes; (C and D) trypomastigotes. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch137.f5

Citation: Bruckner D, Labarca J. 2015. and , p 2357-2372. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch137
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Image of FIGURE 6

epimastigotes (Giemsa stain). doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch137.f6

Citation: Bruckner D, Labarca J. 2015. and , p 2357-2372. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch137
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amastigotes in heart muscle (hematoxylin and eosin stain). doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch137.f7

Citation: Bruckner D, Labarca J. 2015. and , p 2357-2372. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch137
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Features of human leishmanial infections

Citation: Bruckner D, Labarca J. 2015. and , p 2357-2372. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch137
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Characteristics of trypanosomiasis

Citation: Bruckner D, Labarca J. 2015. and , p 2357-2372. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch137
Generic image for table

Diagnostic methods to detect Chagas’ infections

Citation: Bruckner D, Labarca J. 2015. and , p 2357-2372. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch137

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