Chapter 21 : , , and Other Catalase-Positive Cocci

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This chapter discusses mainly those Gram-positive cocci that were members of the former family prior to its redefinition. The genera have now been rearranged in different families: the , the redefined , and the newly established . The two last families comprise micrococci, clinically relevant species of which now belong to the genera , , and . Staphylococci and micrococci are part of the microbiota of human and animal skin and mucous membranes and/or are found in the environment or on food. Many of these species are opportunists that may become pathogenic in a host- as well as species- and strain-dependent manner following breaks in the cutaneous barrier. Their recovery requires assessment of clinical significance to determine whether an organism is a contaminant, colonizer, or pathogen. is the clinically most important species, causing a wide range of human and animal diseases with high medical and economic burden. The coagulase-negative and cause nosocomial infections mainly in patients with predisposing factors such as immunodeficiency and/or indwelling or implanted foreign polymer bodies. The fact that staphylococci have become resistant to many available therapeutic agents has had, particularly in the case of methicillin-resistant , profound impact on patient and hygiene management. In this chapter, the taxonomy, phylogeny, biology, and mechanisms of resistance of these pathogens and their infectious diseases are covered, and the consequences for identification, differentiation, genotyping, susceptibility determination, and antibiotic therapy are discussed.

Citation: Becker K, Skov R, von Eiff C. 2015. , , and Other Catalase-Positive Cocci, p 354-382. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch21
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Image of FIGURE 1

Columbia blood agar plate with 5% sheep blood showing subsp. after 24 h of incubation. The normal phenotype is grayish colonies with a yellowish tint surrounded by a hemolysis zone (arrows), and the small-colony phenotype is characterized by tiny, nonhemolytic, and nonpigmented colonies (dashed arrows). doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch21.f1

Citation: Becker K, Skov R, von Eiff C. 2015. , , and Other Catalase-Positive Cocci, p 354-382. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch21
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Image of FIGURE 2

Sections of Columbia blood agar plates after 48 h of incubation showing yellow colonies of (A), cream-white colonies of (B), pastel-pink colonies of (C), and orange colonies of (D). doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch21.f2

Citation: Becker K, Skov R, von Eiff C. 2015. , , and Other Catalase-Positive Cocci, p 354-382. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch21
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Differentiation of members of the genus from other Gram-positive cocci

Citation: Becker K, Skov R, von Eiff C. 2015. , , and Other Catalase-Positive Cocci, p 354-382. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch21
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Differentiation of species

Citation: Becker K, Skov R, von Eiff C. 2015. , , and Other Catalase-Positive Cocci, p 354-382. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch21
Generic image for table

Key tests for identification of the most clinically significant species

Citation: Becker K, Skov R, von Eiff C. 2015. , , and Other Catalase-Positive Cocci, p 354-382. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch21
Generic image for table

Key tests for the identification of and found in clinical specimens

Citation: Becker K, Skov R, von Eiff C. 2015. , , and Other Catalase-Positive Cocci, p 354-382. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch21