Chapter 30 : Mycobacterium: General Characteristics, Laboratory Detection, and Staining Procedures*

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Many species within the genus are prominent pathogens, above all members of the complex, , and . In addition, there are, at present, more than 150 species of environmental mycobacteria (nontuberculous mycobacteria [NTM]) which exert various degrees of pathogenicity and virulence in humans. This chapter describes clinical, taxonomic, genetic, and epidemiologic aspects of these organisms and includes the characteristics and clinical significance of novel species. Emphasis is put on laboratory diagnosis of mycobacteria, which includes staining procedures, detection by microscopic procedures, protocols for collection and pretreatment of clinical specimens, culture, and quality assurance, as well as safety and transport issues. Furthermore, evaluation, interpretation, and reporting of results are addressed. The practical value and the current state of knowledge of the immunodiagnostic tests for tuberculosis (interferon gamma release assays [IGRAs]) are also discussed.

Citation: Pfyffer G. 2015. Mycobacterium: General Characteristics, Laboratory Detection, and Staining Procedures*, p 536-569. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch30
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Image of FIGURE 1

(Top left) on Middlebrook 7H10 agar. Note the dry and rough colonies, which sometimes have a nodular or wrinkled surface. doi:1128/9781555817381.ch30.f1

Citation: Pfyffer G. 2015. Mycobacterium: General Characteristics, Laboratory Detection, and Staining Procedures*, p 536-569. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch30
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Image of FIGURE 2

(Top right) BCG on Middlebrook 7H10 agar. Colonies may be flat as well as round with irregular edges. doi:1128/9781555817381.ch30.f2

Citation: Pfyffer G. 2015. Mycobacterium: General Characteristics, Laboratory Detection, and Staining Procedures*, p 536-569. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch30
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Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 3

(Bottom left) Acid-fast staining (Ziehl-Neelsen) of . Note the characteristic curved (“croissant-like”) microscopic morphology. doi:1128/9781555817381.ch30.f3

Citation: Pfyffer G. 2015. Mycobacterium: General Characteristics, Laboratory Detection, and Staining Procedures*, p 536-569. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch30
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Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 4

(Bottom right) on Middlebrook 7H10 agar. Note the heterogeneous colony morphology consisting of some flat and smooth but predominantly domed and glossy colonies (photograph kindly provided by D. van Soolingen). doi:1128/9781555817381.ch30.f4

Citation: Pfyffer G. 2015. Mycobacterium: General Characteristics, Laboratory Detection, and Staining Procedures*, p 536-569. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch30
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Generic image for table

Newer slowly growing NTM species associated with human disease

Citation: Pfyffer G. 2015. Mycobacterium: General Characteristics, Laboratory Detection, and Staining Procedures*, p 536-569. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch30
Generic image for table

Acid-fast smear evaluation and reporting

Citation: Pfyffer G. 2015. Mycobacterium: General Characteristics, Laboratory Detection, and Staining Procedures*, p 536-569. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch30

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