Chapter 34 : Neisseria

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Neisseria, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817381/9781555817381.ch34-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817381/9781555817381.ch34-2.gif


The genus currently consists of 28 species, most of which are commensals of mucous membranes of humans and animals. The two species most commonly associated with disease are and , also termed meningococcus, is spread by large-droplet oropharyngeal secretions and rarely causes invasive meningococcal disease (IMD), in the form of meningitis and sepsis. On the other hand, , which is also named gonococcus, is spread by sexual contact and is the causal agent of gonorrhea. In many industrialized countries the incidences of IMD and gonorrhea have decreased over the last decades, with present rates of around 1/100,000 and over 30/100,000, respectively. Microscopic examination of samples remains a cornerstone of laboratory diagnosis, as specificities of detection of Gram-negative diplococci from cerebrospinal fluid and genital swabs are high for the confirmation of meningococcal meningitis and gonorrhea, respectively. Both species are exquisitely susceptible to extreme temperatures and desiccation, necessitating rapid transport of specimens to the laboratory for culture-based detection. Culture remains the standard approach for verifying the presence of spp. in human specimens and is the only method allowing antibiotic resistance testing. Nevertheless, molecular assays, notably nucleic acid amplification tests, are frequently employed for the diagnosis of IMD and gonorrhea, due to less stringent sampling requirements. Moreover, DNA sequence-based single- and multilocus approaches, as well as matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry, are gaining acceptance as methods for species assignment within the genus .

Citation: Elias J, Frosch M, Vogel U. 2015. Neisseria, p 635-651. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch34
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of FIGURE 1

Gram stain of CSF from a patient with meningococcal meningitis. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch34.f1

Citation: Elias J, Frosch M, Vogel U. 2015. Neisseria, p 635-651. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch34
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2

Colony morphology (left) and Gram stain (right) of ( ). The strain was isolated from a human periodontal pocket. It was characterized by nearly complete sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The species is noteworthy due to its rod-like morphology. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch34.f2

Citation: Elias J, Frosch M, Vogel U. 2015. Neisseria, p 635-651. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch34
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Tønjum T,. 2005. Order IV. Neisseriales, p 774–862. In Brenner DJ,, Krieg NR,, Staley JT,, Garrity GM ( ed), Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2nd ed. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY.
2. Rossau R,, Vanmechelen E,, De Ley J,, Van Heuverswijn H. 1989. Specific Neisseria gonorrhoeae DNA-probes derived from ribosomal RNA. J Gen Microbiol 135: 17351745.
3. Harmsen D,, Singer C,, Rothgänger J,, Tønjum T,, de Hoog GS,, Shah H,, Albert J,, Frosch M. 2001. Diagnostics of Neisseriaceae and Moraxellaceae by ribosomal DNA sequencing: ribosomal differentiation of medical microorganisms. J Clin Microbiol 39: 936942.
4. Wolfgang WJ,, Carpenter AN,, Cole JA,, Gronow S,, Habura A,, Jose S,, Nazarian EJ,, Kohlerschmidt DJ,, Limberger R,, Schoonmaker-Bopp D,, Spröer C,, Musser KA. 2011. Neisseria wadsworthii sp. nov. and Neisseria shayeganii sp. nov., isolated from clinical specimens. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 61: 9198.
5. Harrison OB,, Claus H,, Jiang Y,, Bennett JS,, Bratcher HB,, Jolley KA,, Corton C,, Care R,, Poolman JT,, Zollinger WD,, Frasch CE,, Stephens DS,, Feavers I,, Frosch M,, Parkhill J,, Vogel U,, Quail MA,, Bentley SD,, Maiden MCJ. 2013. Description and nomenclature of Neisseria meningitidis capsule locus. Emerg Infect Dis 19: 566573.
6. Frosch M,, Vogel U,. 2006. Structure and genetics of the meningococcal capsule, p 145–162. In Frosch M,, Maiden MCJ ( ed), Handbook of Meningococcal Disease. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany.
7. Knapp JS,, Clark VL. 1984. Anaerobic growth of Neisseria gonorrhoeae coupled to nitrite reduction. Infect Immun 46: 176181.
8. Anjum MF,, Stevanin TM,, Read RC,, Moir JWB. 2002. Nitric oxide metabolism in Neisseria meningitidis. J Bacteriol 184: 29872993.
9. Grant PE,, Brenner DJ,, Steigerwalt AG,, Hollis DG,, Weaver RE. 1990. Neisseria elongata subsp. nitroreducens subsp. nov., formerly CDC group M-6, a gram-negative bacterium associated with endocarditis. J Clin Microbiol 28: 25912596.
10. Han XY,, Hong T,, Falsen E. 2006. Neisseria bacilliformis sp. nov. isolated from human infections. J Clin Microbiol 44: 474479.
11. Stein DC,. 2006. Neisseria, p 602–647. In Dworkin M,, Falkow S,, Rosenberg E,, Schleifer KH,, Stackebrandt ET ( ed), The Prokaryotes, 3rd ed. Springer, Singapore.
12. Smith NH,, Holmes EC,, Donovan GM,, Carpenter GA,, Spratt BG. 1999. Networks and groups within the genus Neisseria: analysis of argF, recA, rho, and 16S rRNA sequences from human Neisseria species. Mol Biol Evol 16: 773783.
13. Bennett JS,, Jolley KA,, Earle SG,, Corton C,, Bentley SD,, Parkhill J,, Maiden MCJ. 2012. A genomic approach to bacterial taxonomy: an examination and proposed reclassification of species within the genus Neisseria. Microbiology 158: 15701580.
14. Warner L,, Stone KM,, Macaluso M,, Buehler JW,, Austin HD. 2006. Condom use and risk of gonorrhea and chlamydia: a systematic review of design and measurement factors assessed in epidemiologic studies. Sex Transm Dis 33: 3651.
15. Claus H,, Maiden MCJ,, Wilson DJ,, McCarthy ND,, Jolley KA,, Urwin R,, Hessler F,, Frosch M,, Vogel U. 2005. Genetic analysis of meningococci carried by children and young adults. J Infect Dis 191: 12631271.
16. Elias J,, Harmsen D,, Claus H,, Hellenbrand W,, Frosch M,, Vogel U. 2006. Spatiotemporal analysis of invasive meningococcal disease, Germany. Emerg Infect Dis 12: 16891695.
17. Brouwer MC,, de Gans J,, Heckenberg SGB,, Zwinderman AH,, van der Poll T,, van de Beek D. 2009. Host genetic susceptibility to pneumococcal and meningococcal disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis 9: 3144.
18. Fijen CA,, Kuijper EJ,, te Bulte MT,, Daha MR,, Dankert J. 1999. Assessment of complement deficiency in patients with meningococcal disease in The Netherlands. Clin Infect Dis 28: 98105.
19. Hansen K,, Singer DB. 2001. Asplenic-hyposplenic overwhelming sepsis: postsplenectomy sepsis revisited. Pediatr Dev Pathol 4: 105121.
20. Coen PG,, Tully J,, Stuart JM,, Ashby D,, Viner RM,, Booy R. 2006. Is it exposure to cigarette smoke or to smokers which increases the risk of meningococcal disease in teenagers? Int J Epidemiol 35: 330336.
21. Tully J,, Viner RM,, Coen PG,, Stuart JM,, Zambon M,, Peckham C,, Booth C,, Klein N,, Kaczmarski E,, Booy R. 2006. Risk and protective factors for meningococcal disease in adolescents: matched cohort study. Br Med J 332: 445450.
22. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2012. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance (ABCs) Report, Emerging Infections Program Network, Neisseria meningitidis, 2011. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.
23. Robert Koch Institut. 2013. [email protected]. Robert Koch Institut, Berlin, Germany.
24. Campagne G,, Schuchat A,, Djibo S,, Ousséini A,, Cissé L,, Chippaux JP. 1999. Epidemiology of bacterial meningitis in Niamey, Niger, 1981–96. Bull World Health Organ 77: 499508.
25. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2007. Revised recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices to vaccinate all persons aged 11–18 years with meningococcal conjugate vaccine. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 56: 794795.
26. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2011. Updated recommendations for use of meningococcal conjugate vaccines—Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2010. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 60: 7276.
27. Trotter CL,, Ramsay ME. 2007. Vaccination against meningococcal disease in Europe: review and recommendations for the use of conjugate vaccines. FEMS Microbiol Rev 31: 101107.
28. Oster P,, Lennon D,, O’Hallahan J,, Mulholland K,, Reid S,, Martin D. 2005. MeNZB: a safe and highly immunogenic tailor-made vaccine against the New Zealand Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B disease epidemic strain. Vaccine 23: 21912196.
29. Vesikari T,, Esposito S,, Prymula R,, Ypma E,, Kohl I,, Toneatto D,, Dull P,, Kimura A. 2013. Immunogenicity and safety of an investigational multicomponent, recombinant, meningococcal serogroup B vaccine (4CMenB) administered concomitantly with routine infant and child vaccinations: results of two randomised trials. Lancet 381: 825835.
30. Ganière JP,, Escande F,, André-Fontaine G,, Larrat M,, Filloneau C. 1995. Characterization of group EF-4 bacteria from the oral cavity of dogs. Vet Microbiol 44: 19.
31. Heydecke A,, Andersson B,, Holmdahl T,, Melhus A. 2013. Human wound infections caused by Neisseria animaloris and Neisseria zoodegmatis, former CDC group EF-4a and EF-4b. Infect Ecol Epidemiol 3: 20312.
32. Chacko MR,, Wiemann CM,, Smith PB. 2004. Chlamydia and gonorrhea screening in asymptomatic young women. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 17: 169178.
33. Balmelli C,, Günthard HF. 2003. Gonococcal tonsillar infection—a case report and literature review. Infection 31: 362365.
34. Holmes KK,, Counts GW,, Beaty HN. 1971. Disseminated gonococcal infection. Ann Intern Med 74: 979993.
35. Jain S,, Win HN,, Chalam V,, Yee L. 2007. Disseminated gonococcal infection presenting as vasculitis: a case report. J Clin Pathol 60: 9091.
36. Cartwright KAV,, Ala’Aldeen DAA. 1997. Neisseria meningitidis: clinical aspects. J Infect 34: 1519.
37. Robert Koch Institut. 2008. Invasive Meningokokken-Erkrankungen im Jahr 2007. Epidemiol Bull 32: 331335.
38. Jadavji T,, Biggar WD,, Gold R,, Prober CG. 1986. Sequelae of acute bacterial meningitis in children treated for seven days. Pediatrics 78: 2125.
39. van Deuren M,, Brandtzaeg P,, van der Meer JWM. 2000. Update on meningococcal disease with emphasis on pathogenesis and clinical management. Clin Microbiol Rev 13: 144166.
40. Brandtzaeg P,, Kierulf P,, Gaustad P,, Skulberg A,, Bruun JN,, Halvorsen S,, Sørensen E. 1989. Plasma endotoxin as a predictor of multiple organ failure and death in systemic meningococcal disease. J Infect Dis 159: 195204.
41. Borg J,, Christie D,, Coen PG,, Booy R,, Viner RM. 2009. Outcomes of meningococcal disease in adolescence: prospective, matched-cohort study. Pediatrics 123: e502e509.
42. Parmentier L,, Garzoni C,, Antille C,, Kaiser L,, Ninet B,, Borradori L. 2008. Value of a novel Neisseria meningitidis-specific polymerase chain reaction assay in skin biopsy specimens as a diagnostic tool in chronic meningococcemia. Arch Dermatol 144: 770773.
43. Jacobitz. 1907. Der Diplococcus meningitidis cerebrospinalis als Erreger von Erkrankungen der Lunge und Bronchien. Z Hyg Infektionskr 56: 175192.
44. Winstead JM,, McKinsey DS,, Tasker S,, De Groote MA,, Baddour LM. 2000. Meningococcal pneumonia: characterization and review of cases seen over the past 25 years. Clin Infect Dis 30: 8794.
45. Fletcher W. 1919. Meningococcus broncho-pneumonia in influenza. Lancet 193: 104105.
46. Lauer BA,, Masters HB. 1988. Toxic effect of calcium alginate swabs on Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J Clin Microbiol 26: 5456.
47. Graver MA,, Wade JJ. 2004. Survival of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates of different auxotypes in six commercial transport systems. J Clin Microbiol 42: 48034804.
48. Cloud JL,, Hymas W,, Carroll KC. 2002. Impact of nasopharyngeal swab types on detection of Bordetella pertussis by PCR and culture. J Clin Microbiol 40: 38383840.
49. Roberts J,, Greenwood B,, Stuart J. 2009. Sampling methods to detect carriage of Neisseria meningitidis; literature review. J Infect 58: 103107.
50. Rintala L,, Pollock HM. 1978. Effects of two blood culture anticoagulants on growth of Neisseria meningitidis. J Clin Microbiol 7: 332336.
51. Sejvar JJ,, Johnson D,, Popovic T,, Miller JM,, Downes F,, Somsel P,, Weyant R,, Stephens DS,, Perkins BA,, Rosenstein NE. 2005. Assessing the risk of laboratory-acquired meningococcal disease. J Clin Microbiol 43: 48114814.
52. Manavi K,, Young H,, Clutterbuck D. 2003. Sensitivity of microscopy for the rapid diagnosis of gonorrhoea in men and women and the role of gonorrhoea serovars. Int J STD AIDS 14: 390394.
53. Perkins MD,, Mirrett S,, Reller LB. 1995. Rapid bacterial antigen detection is not clinically useful. J Clin Microbiol 33: 14861491.
54. Djibo S,, Njanpop Lafourcade B-M,, Boisier P,, Moussa A,, Kobo G,, Sidikou F,, Hien A,, Bieboure G,, Aguilera J-F,, Parent du Chatelet I,, Gessner BD,, Chanteau S. 2006. Evaluation of the Pastorex meningitis kit for the rapid identification of Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A and W135. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 100: 573578.
55. van der Ende A,, Schuurman IG,, Hopman CT,, Fijen CA,, Dankert J. 1995. Comparison of commercial diagnostic tests for identification of serogroup antigens of Neisseria meningitidis. J Clin Microbiol 33: 33263327.
56. Darwin LH,, Cullen AP,, Arthur PM,, Long CD,, Smith KR,, Girdner JL,, Hook EW, III,, Quinn TC,, Lorincz AT. 2002. Comparison of Digene Hybrid Capture 2 and conventional culture for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in cervical specimens. J Clin Microbiol 40: 641644.
57. Iwen PC,, Walker RA,, Warren KL,, Kelly DM,, Hinrichs SH,, Linder J. 1995. Evaluation of nucleic acid-based test (PACE 2C) for simultaneous detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in endocervical specimens. J Clin Microbiol 33: 25872591.
58. Whiley DM,, Tapsall JW,, Sloots TP. 2006. Nucleic acid amplification testing for Neisseria gonorrhoeae: an ongoing challenge. J Mol Diagn 8: 315.
59. Whiley DM,, Buda PJ,, Bayliss J,, Cover L,, Bates J,, Sloots TP. 2004. A new confirmatory Neisseria gonorrhoeae real-time PCR assay targeting the porA pseudogene. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 23: 705710.
60. Chui L,, Chiu T,, Kakulphimp J,, Tyrrell GJ. 2008. A comparison of three real-time PCR assays for the confirmation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae following detection of N. gonorrhoeae using Roche COBAS AMPLICOR. Clin Microbiol Infect 14: 473479.
61. Mangold KA,, Regner M,, Tajuddin M,, Tajuddin AM,, Jennings L,, Du H,, Kaul KL. 2007. Neisseria species identification assay for the confirmation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae-positive results of the COBAS Amplicor PCR. J Clin Microbiol 45: 14031409.
62. Bruisten SM,, Noordhoek GT,, van den Brule AJ,, Duim B,, Boel CHE,, El-Faouzi K,, du Maine R,, Mulder S,, Luijt D,, Schirm J. 2004. Multicenter validation of the cppB gene as a PCR target for detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J Clin Microbiol 42: 43324334.
63. Little MC,, Andrews J,, Moore R,, Bustos S,, Jones L,, Embres C,, Durmowicz G,, Harris J,, Berger D,, Yanson K,, Rostkowski C,, Yursis D,, Price J,, Fort T,, Walters A,, Collis M,, Llorin O,, Wood J,, Failing F,, O’Keefe C,, Scrivens B,, Pope B,, Hansen T,, Marino K,, Williams K. 1999. Strand displacement amplification and homogeneous real-time detection incorporated in a second-generation DNA probe system, BDProbeTecET. Clin Chem 45: 777784.
64. Palmer HM,, Mallinson H,, Wood RL,, Herring AJ. 2003. Evaluation of the specificities of five DNA amplification methods for the detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J Clin Microbiol 41: 835837.
65. McNally LP,, Templeton DJ,, Jin F,, Grulich AE,, Donovan B,, Whiley DM,, Cunningham PH. 2008. Low positive predictive value of a nucleic acid amplification test for nongenital Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection in homosexual men. Clin Infect Dis 47: e25e27.
66. Koenig MG,, Kosha SL,, Doty BL,, Heath DG. 2004. Direct comparison of the BD ProbeTec ET system with in-house LightCycler PCR assays for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae from clinical specimens. J Clin Microbiol 42: 57515756.
67. Pope CF,, Hay P,, Alexander S,, Capaldi K,, Dave J,, Sadiq ST,, Ison CA,, Planche T. 2010. Positive predictive value of the Becton Dickinson VIPER system and the ProbeTec GC Qx assay, in extracted mode, for detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Sex Transm Infect 86: 465469.
68. Hardwick R,, Gopal Rao G,, Mallinson H. 2009. Confirmation of BD ProbeTec Neisseria gonorrhoeae reactive samples by Gen-Probe APTIMA assays and culture. Sex Transm Infect 85: 2426.
69. Chernesky MA,, Martin DH,, Hook EW,, Willis D,, Jordan J,, Wang S,, Lane JR,, Fuller D,, Schachter J. 2005. Ability of New Aptima CT and Aptima GC assays to detect Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in male urine and urethral swabs. J Clin Microbiol 43: 127131.
70. Lowe P,, O’Loughlin P,, Evans K,, White M,, Bartley PB,, Vohra R. 2006. Comparison of the Gen-Probe Aptima Combo 2 assay to the Amplicor CT/NG assay for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in urine samples from Australian men and women. J Clin Microbiol 44: 26192621.
71. Golden MR,, Hughes JP,, Cles LE,, Crouse K,, Gudgel K,, Hu J,, Swenson PD,, Stamm WE,, Handsfield HH. 2004. Positive predictive value of Gen-Probe APTIMA Combo 2 testing for Neisseria gonorrhoeae in a population of women with low prevalence of N. gonorrhoeae infection. Clin Infect Dis 39: 13871390.
72. Levett PN,, Brandt K,, Olenius K,, Brown C,, Montgomery K,, Horsman GB. 2008. Evaluation of three automated nucleic acid amplification systems for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in first-void urine specimens. J Clin Microbiol 46: 21092111.
73. Masek BJ,, Arora N,, Quinn N,, Aumakhan B,, Holden J,, Hardick A,, Agreda P,, Barnes M,, Gaydos CA. 2009. Performance of three nucleic acid amplification tests for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae by use of self-collected vaginal swabs obtained via an Internet-based screening program. J Clin Microbiol 47: 16631667.
74. Moncada J,, Schachter J,, Liska S,, Shayevich C,, Klausner JD. 2009. Evaluation of self-collected glans and rectal swabs from men who have sex with men for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae by use of nucleic acid amplification tests. J Clin Microbiol 47: 16571662.
75. Schachter J,, Moncada J,, Liska S,, Shayevich C,, Klausner JD. 2008. Nucleic acid amplification tests in the diagnosis of chlamydial and gonococcal infections of the oropharynx and rectum in men who have sex with men. Sex Transm Dis 35: 637642.
76. Bachmann LH,, Johnson RE,, Cheng H,, Markowitz LE,, Papp JR,, Hook EW. 2009. Nucleic acid amplification tests for diagnosis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae oropharyngeal infections. J Clin Microbiol 47: 902907.
77. Marshall R,, Chernesky M,, Jang D,, Hook EW,, Cartwright CP,, Howell-Adams B,, Ho S,, Welk J,, Lai-Zhang J,, Brashear J,, Diedrich B,, Otis K,, Webb E,, Robinson J,, Yu H. 2007. Characteristics of the m2000 automated sample preparation and multiplex real-time PCR system for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J Clin Microbiol 45: 747751.
78. Rockett R,, Goire N,, Limnios A,, Turra M,, Higgens G,, Lambert SB,, Bletchly C,, Nissen MD,, Sloots TP,, Whiley DM. 2010. Evaluation of the Cobas 4800 CT/NG test for detecting Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Sex Transm Infect 86: 470473.
79. Gaydos CA,, Cartwright CP,, Colaninno P,, Welsch J,, Holden J,, Ho SY,, Webb EM,, Anderson C,, Bertuzis R,, Zhang L,, Miller T,, Leckie G,, Abravaya K,, Robinson J. 2010. Performance of the Abbott RealTime CT/NG for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J Clin Microbiol 48: 32363243.
80. Bromhead C,, Miller A,, Jones M,, Whiley D. 2013. Comparison of the Cobas 4800 CT/NG test with culture for detecting Neisseria gonorrhoeae in genital and nongenital specimens in a low-prevalence population in New Zealand. J Clin Microbiol 51: 15051509.
81. Gaydos CA,, Pol BVD,, Jett-Goheen M,, Barnes M,, Quinn N,, Clark C,, Daniel GE,, Dixon PB,, Hook EW. 2013. Performance of the Cepheid CT/NG Xpert Rapid PCR test for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J Clin Microbiol 51: 16661672.
82. Dyck EV,, Ieven M,, Pattyn S,, Damme LV,, Laga M. 2001. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae by enzyme immunoassay, culture, and three nucleic acid amplification tests. J Clin Microbiol 39: 17511756.
83. Tabrizi SN,, Unemo M,, Limnios AE,, Hogan TR,, Hjelmevoll S-O,, Garland SM,, Tapsall J. 2011. Evaluation of six commercial nucleic acid amplification tests for detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and other Neisseria species. J Clin Microbiol 49: 36103615.
84. Johnson RE,, Newhall WJ,, Papp JR,, Knapp JS,, Black CM,, Gift TL,, Steece R,, Markowitz LE,, Devine OJ,, Walsh CM,, Wang S,, Gunter DC,, Irwin KL,, DeLisle S,, Berman SM. 2002. Screening tests to detect Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections—2002. MMWR Recomm Rep 51: 138.
85. Bignell C,, Unemo M. 2013. 2012 European guideline on the diagnosis and treatment of gonorrhoea in adults. Int J STD AIDS 24: 8592.
86. Ison C. 2006. GC NAATs: is the time right? Sex Transm Infect 82: 515.
87. Mahony J,, Chong S,, Jang D,, Luinstra K,, Faught M,, Dalby D,, Sellors J,, Chernesky M. 1998. Urine specimens from pregnant and nonpregnant women inhibitory to amplification of Chlamydia trachomatis nucleic acid by PCR, ligase chain reaction, and transcription-mediated amplification: identification of urinary substances associated with inhibition and removal of inhibitory activity. J Clin Microbiol 36: 31223126.
88. Frosch M,, Müller D,, Bousset K,, Müller A. 1992. Conserved outer membrane protein of Neisseria meningitidis involved in capsule expression. Infect Immun 60: 798803.
89. Borrow R,, Guiver M,, Sadler F,, Kaczmarski EB,, Fox AJ. 1998. False positive diagnosis of meningococcal infection by the IS1106 PCR ELISA. FEMS Microbiol Lett 162: 215218.
90. Borrow R,, Claus H,, Chaudhry U,, Guiver M,, Kaczmarski EB,, Frosch M,, Fox AJ. 1998. siaD PCR ELISA for confirmation and identification of serogroup Y and W135 meningococcal infections. FEMS Microbiol Lett 159: 209214.
91. Borrow R,, Claus H,, Guiver M,, Smart L,, Jones DM,, Kaczmarski EB,, Frosch M,, Fox AJ. 1997. Non-culture diagnosis and serogroup determination of meningococcal B and C infection by a sialyltransferase (siaD) PCR ELISA. Epidemiol Infect 118: 111117.
92. Russell JE,, Jolley KA,, Feavers IM,, Maiden MCJ,, Suker J. 2004. PorA variable regions of Neisseria meningitidis. Emerg Infect Dis 10: 674678.
93. Urwin R,, Kaczmarski EB,, Guiver M,, Fox AJ,, Maiden MC. 1998. Amplification of the meningococcal porB gene for non-culture serotype characterization. Epidemiol Infect 120: 257262.
94. Thompson EAL,, Feavers IM,, Maiden MCJ. 2003. Antigenic diversity of meningococcal enterobactin receptor FetA, a vaccine component. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) 149: 18491858.
95. Corless CE,, Guiver M,, Borrow R,, Edwards-Jones V,, Fox AJ,, Kaczmarski EB. 2001. Simultaneous detection of Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae in suspected cases of meningitis and septicemia using real-time PCR. J Clin Microbiol 39: 15531558.
96. Findlow H,, Vogel U,, Mueller JE,, Curry A,, Njanpop-Lafourcade B-M,, Claus H,, Gray SJ,, Yaro S,, Traoré Y,, Sangaré L,, Nicolas P,, Gessner BD,, Borrow R. 2007. Three cases of invasive meningococcal disease caused by a capsule null locus strain circulating among healthy carriers in Burkina Faso. J Infect Dis 195: 10711077.
97. Thayer JD,, Martin JE. 1964. A selective medium for the cultivation of N. gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis. Public Health Rep 79: 4957.
98. Zaia A,, Griffith JM,, Hogan TR,, Tapsall JW,, Bainbridge P,, Neill R,, Tribe D. 2005. Molecular tests can allow confirmation of invasive meningococcal disease when isolates yield atypical maltose, glucose or gamma-glutamyl peptidase test results. Pathology 37: 378379.
99. Valenza G,, Ruoff C,, Vogel U,, Frosch M,, Abele-Horn M. 2007. Microbiological evaluation of the new Vitek 2 Neisseria-Haemophilus identification card. J Clin Microbiol 45: 34933497.
100. Alexander S,, Ison C. 2005. Evaluation of commercial kits for the identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J Med Microbiol 54: 827831.
101. Alexander S,, Martin IMC,, Fenton K,, Ison CA. 2006. The prevalence of proline iminopeptidase negative Neisseria gonorrhoeae throughout England and Wales. Sex Transm Infect 82: 280282.
102. Boehm DM,, Bernhardt M,, Kurzynski TA,, Pennell DR,, Schell RF. 1990. Evaluation of two commercial procedures for rapid identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae using a reference panel of antigenically diverse gonococci. J Clin Microbiol 28: 20992100.
103. Janda WM,, Wilcoski LM,, Mandel KL,, Ruther P,, Stevens JM. 1993. Comparison of monoclonal antibody methods and a ribosomal ribonucleic acid probe test for Neisseria gonorrhoeae culture confirmation. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 12: 177184.
104. Rennie RP,, Brosnikoff C,, Shokoples S,, Reller LB,, Mirrett S,, Janda W,, Ristow K,, Krilcich A. 2008. Multicenter evaluation of the new Vitek 2 Neisseria-Haemophilus identification card. J Clin Microbiol 46: 26812685.
105. Ilina EN,, Borovskaya AD,, Malakhova MM,, Vereshchagin VA,, Kubanova AA,, Kruglov AN,, Svistunova TS,, Gazarian AO,, Maier T,, Kostrzewa M,, Govorun VM. 2009. Direct bacterial profiling by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for identification of pathogenic Neisseria. J Mol Diagn 11: 7586.
106. Ford BA,, Burnham C-AD. 2013. Optimization of routine identification of clinically relevant Gram-negative bacteria by use of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry and the Bruker biotyper. J Clin Microbiol 51: 14121420.
107. Dubois D,, Grare M,, Prere M-F,, Segonds C,, Marty N,, Oswald E. 2012. Performances of the Vitek MS matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry system for rapid identification of bacteria in routine clinical microbiology. J Clin Microbiol 50: 25682576.
108. Suarez S,, Ferroni A,, Lotz A,, Jolley KA,, Guérin P,, Leto J,, Dauphin B,, Jamet A,, Maiden MCJ,, Nassif X,, Armengaud J. 2013. Ribosomal proteins as biomarkers for bacterial identification by mass spectrometry in the clinical microbiology laboratory. J Microbiol Methods 94: 390396.
109. Young H,, Moyes A. 1993. Comparative evaluation of AccuProbe culture identification test for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and other rapid methods. J Clin Microbiol 31: 19961999.
110. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. 2008. Interpretive Criteria for Identification of Bacteria and Fungi by DNA Target Sequencing; Approved Guideline. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, PA.
111. Bennett JS,, Watkins ER,, Jolley KA,, Harrison OB,, Maiden MCJ. 2014. Identifying Neisseria species by use of the 50S ribosomal protein L6 (rplF) gene. J Clin Microbiol 52: 13751381.
112. Bennett JS,, Jolley KA,, Sparling PF,, Saunders NJ,, Hart CA,, Feavers IM,, Maiden MCJ. 2007. Species status of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: evolutionary and epidemiological inferences from multilocus sequence typing. BMC Biol 5: 35.
113. Martin IMC,, Ison CA,, Aanensen DM,, Fenton KA,, Spratt BG. 2004. Rapid sequence-based identification of gonococcal transmission clusters in a large metropolitan area. J Infect Dis 189: 14971505.
114. Maiden MC,, Bygraves JA,, Feil E,, Morelli G,, Russell JE,, Urwin R,, Zhang Q,, Zhou J,, Zurth K,, Caugant DA,, Feavers IM,, Achtman M,, Spratt BG. 1998. Multilocus sequence typing: a portable approach to the identification of clones within populations of pathogenic microorganisms. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95: 31403145.
115. Vogel U. 2011. European efforts to harmonize typing of meningococci. Int J Med Microbiol 301: 659662.
116. Schouls LM,, van der Ende A,, Damen M,, van de Pol I. 2006. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis of Neisseria meningitidis yields groupings similar to those obtained by multilocus sequence typing. J Clin Microbiol 44: 15091518.
117. Vogel U,, Szczepanowski R,, Claus H,, Jünemann S,, Prior K,, Harmsen D. 2012. Ion torrent personal genome machine sequencing for genomic typing of Neisseria meningitidis for rapid determination of multiple layers of typing information. J Clin Microbiol 50: 18891894.
118. Jolley KA,, Hill DMC,, Bratcher HB,, Harrison OB,, Feavers IM,, Parkhill J,, Maiden MCJ. 2012. Resolution of a meningococcal disease outbreak from whole-genome sequence data with rapid Web-based analysis methods. J Clin Microbiol 50: 30463053.
119. Borrow R,, Balmer P,, Miller E. 2005. Meningococcal surrogates of protection—serum bactericidal antibody activity. Vaccine 23: 22222227.
120. Lal G,, Balmer P,, Joseph H,, Dawson M,, Borrow R. 2004. Development and evaluation of a tetraplex flow cytometric assay for quantitation of serum antibodies to Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, C, Y, and W-135. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 11: 272279.
121. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. 2012. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing; 22nd Informational Supplement. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne , PA.
122. World Health Organization. 1976. Neisseria gonorrhoeae producing beta-lactamase (penicillinase). Wkly Epidemiol Rec 51: 385386.
123. Tapsall JW. 2009. Neisseria gonorrhoeae and emerging resistance to extended spectrum cephalosporins. Curr Opin Infect Dis 22: 8791.
124. Fox KK,, Knapp JS,, Holmes KK,, Hook EW,, Judson FN,, Thompson SE,, Washington JA,, Whittington WL. 1997. Antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the United States, 1988–1994: the emergence of decreased susceptibility to the fluoroquinolones. J Infect Dis 175: 13961403.
125. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2007. Update to CDC’s sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2006: fluoroquinolones no longer recommended for treatment of gonococcal infections. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 56: 332336.
126. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2012. STD Surveillance, 2011—Gonorrhea. CDC, Atlanta , GA.
127. Lahra M. 2011. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the WHO Western Pacific and South East Asian Regions, 2009. Commun Dis Intell Q Rep 35: 27.
128. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. 2012. Gonococcal Antimicrobial Susceptibility Surveillance in Europe—2010. ECDC, Stockholm , Sweden.
129. Chisholm SA,, Dave J,, Ison CA. 2010. High-level azithromycin resistance occurs in Neisseria gonorrhoeae as a result of a single point mutation in the 23S rRNA genes. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54: 38123816.
130. Ohnishi M,, Golparian D,, Shimuta K,, Saika T,, Hoshina S,, Iwasaku K,, Nakayama S,, Kitawaki J,, Unemo M. 2011. Is Neisseria gonorrhoeae initiating a future era of untreatable gonorrhea?: detailed characterization of the first strain with high-level resistance to ceftriaxone. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55: 35383545.
131. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2012. Update to CDC’s sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2010: oral cephalosporins no longer a recommended treatment for gonococcal infections. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 61: 590594.
132. Vázquez JA,, Enriquez AM,, De la Fuente L,, Berrón S,, Baquero M. 1996. Isolation of a strain of beta-lactamase-producing Neisseria meningitidis in Spain. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 15: 181182.
133. Vázquez JA,, Enriquez R,, Abad R,, Alcalá B,, Salcedo C,, Arreaza L. 2007. Antibiotic resistant meningococci in Europe: any need to act? FEMS Microbiol Rev 31: 6470.
134. Bertrand S,, Carion F,, Wintjens R,, Mathys V,, Vanhoof R. 2012. Evolutionary changes in antimicrobial resistance of invasive Neisseria meningitidis isolates in Belgium from 2000 to 2010: increasing prevalence of penicillin nonsusceptibility. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 56: 22682272.
135. Taha M-K,, Vázquez JA,, Hong E,, Bennett DE,, Bertrand S,, Bukovski S,, Cafferkey MT,, Carion F,, Christensen JJ,, Diggle M,, Edwards G,, Enríquez R,, Fazio C,, Frosch M,, Heuberger S,, Hoffmann S,, Jolley KA,, Kadlubowski M,, Kechrid A,, Kesanopoulos K,, Kriz P,, Lambertsen L,, Levenet I,, Musilek M,, Paragi M,, Saguer A,, Skoczynska A,, Stefanelli P,, Thulin S,, Tzanakaki G,, Unemo M,, Vogel U,, Zarantonelli ML. 2007. Target gene sequencing to characterize the penicillin G susceptibility of Neisseria meningitidis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51: 27842792.
136. Antignac A,, Ducos-Galand M,, Guiyoule A,, Pirès R,, Alonso JM,, Taha MK. 2003. Neisseria meningitidis strains isolated from invasive infections in France (1999-2002): phenotypes and antibiotic susceptibility patterns. Clin Infect Dis 37: 912920.
137. Manchanda V,, Bhalla P. 2006. Emergence of non-ceftriaxone-susceptible Neisseria meningitidis in India. J Clin Microbiol 44: 42904291.
138. Rainbow J,, Cebelinski E,, Bartkus J,, Glennen A,, Boxrud D,, Lynfield R. 2005. Rifampin-resistant meningococcal disease. Emerg Infect Dis 11: 977979.
139. Taha M-K,, Zarantonelli ML,, Ruckly C,, Giorgini D,, Alonso J-M. 2006. Rifampin-resistant Neisseria meningitidis. Emerg Infect Dis 12: 859860.
140. Wu HM,, Harcourt BH,, Hatcher CP,, Wei SC,, Novak RT,, Wang X,, Juni BA,, Glennen A,, Boxrud DJ,, Rainbow J,, Schmink S,, Mair RD,, Theodore MJ,, Sander MA,, Miller TK,, Kruger K,, Cohn AC,, Clark TA,, Messonnier NE,, Mayer LW,, Lynfield R. 2009. Emergence of ciprofloxacin-resistant Neisseria meningitidis in North America. N Engl J Med 360: 886892.
141. Nair D,, Dawar R,, Deb M,, Capoor MR,, Singal S,, Upadhayay DJ,, Aggarwal P,, Das B,, Samantaray JC. 2009. Outbreak of meningococcal disease in and around New Delhi, India, 2005–2006: a report from a tertiary care hospital. Epidemiol Infect 137: 570576.
142. Claus H,, Stummeyer K,, Batzilla J,, Mühlenhoff M,, Vogel U. 2009. Amino acid 310 determines the donor substrate specificity of serogroup W-135 and Y capsule polymerases of Neisseria meningitidis. Mol Microbiol 71: 960971.
143. Jorgensen JH,, Crawford SA,, Fulcher LC,, Glennen A,, Harrington SM,, Swenson J,, Lynfield R,, Murray PR,, Tenover FC. 2006. Multilaboratory evaluation of disk diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Neisseria meningitidis isolates. J Clin Microbiol 44: 17441754.
144. Barquet N,, Gasser I,, Domingo P,, Moraga FA,, Macaya A,, Elcuaz R. 1990. Primary meningococcal conjunctivitis: report of 21 patients and review. Rev Infect Dis 12: 838847.
145. Bigham JM,, Hutcheon ME,, Patrick DM,, Pollard AJ. 2001. Death from invasive meningococcal disease following close contact with a case of primary meningococcal conjunctivitis—Langley, British Columbia, 1999. Can Commun Dis Rep 27: 1318.
146. Vandamme P,, Holmes B,, Bercovier H,, Coenye T. 2006. Classification of Centers for Disease Control group eugonic fermenter (EF)-4a and EF-4b as Neisseria animaloris sp. nov. and Neisseria zoodegmatis sp. nov., respectively. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 56: 18011805.
147. Masliah-Planchon J,, Breton G,, Jarlier V,, Simon A,, Benveniste O,, Herson S,, Drieux L. 2009. Endocarditis due to Neisseria bacilliformis in a patient with a bicuspid aortic valve. J Clin Microbiol 47: 19731975.
148. Knapp JS,, Totten PA,, Mulks MH,, Minshew BH. 1984. Characterization of Neisseria cinerea, a nonpathogenic species isolated on Martin-Lewis medium selective for pathogenic Neisseria spp. J Clin Microbiol 19: 6367.
149. Knapp JS,, Hook EW. 1988. Prevalence and persistence of Neisseria cinerea and other Neisseria spp. in adults. J Clin Microbiol 26: 896900.
150. Dolter J,, Wong J,, Janda JM. 1998. Association of Neisseria cinerea with ocular infections in paediatric patients. J Infect 36: 4952.
151. Hsiao J-F,, Lee M-H,, Chia J-H,, Ho W-J,, Chu J-J,, Chu P-H. 2008. Neisseria elongata endocarditis complicated by brain embolism and abscess. J Med Microbiol 57: 376381.
152. Sinave CP,, Ratzan KR. 1987. Infective endocarditis caused by Neisseria flavescens. Am J Med 82: 163164.
153. Bennett JS,, Griffiths DT,, McCarthy ND,, Sleeman KL,, Jolley KA,, Crook DW,, Maiden MCJ. 2005. Genetic diversity and carriage dynamics of Neisseria lactamica in infants. Infect Immun 73: 24242432.
154. Tronel H,, Chaudemanche H,, Pechier N,, Doutrelant L,, Hoen B. 2001. Endocarditis due to Neisseria mucosa after tongue piercing. Clin Microbiol Infect 7: 275276.
155. Mechergui A,, Achour W,, Baaboura R,, Ouertani H,, Lakhal A,, Torjemane L,, Othman TB,, Hassen AB. 2014. Case report of bacteremia due to Neisseria mucosa. APMIS 122: 359361.
156. Jeurissen A,, Stroy JP,, Wielenga RP,, Andriesse GI. 2006. Severe infective endocarditis due to Neisseria sicca: case report and review of literature. Acta Clin Belg 61: 256258.
157. Baraldès MA,, Domingo P,, Barrio JL,, Pericas R,, Gurguí M,, Vazquez G. 2000. Meningitis due to Neisseria subflava: case report and review. Clin Infect Dis 30: 615617.
158. Furuya R,, Onoye Y,, Kanayama A,, Saika T,, Iyoda T,, Tatewaki M,, Matsuzaki K,, Kobayashi I,, Tanaka M. 2007. Antimicrobial resistance in clinical isolates of Neisseria subflava from the oral cavities of a Japanese population. J Infect Chemother 13: 302304.
159. Holmes B,, Costas M,, On SLW,, Vandamme P,, Falsen E,, Kersters K. 1993. Neisseria weaveri sp. nov. (formerly CDC group M-5), from dog bite wounds of humans. Int J Syst Bacteriol 43: 687693.
160. Carlson P,, Kontiainen S,, Anttila P,, Eerola E. 1997. Septicemia caused by Neisseria weaveri. Clin Infect Dis 24: 739.
161. Chan EL,, Brandt K,, Olienus K,, Antonishyn N,, Horsman GB. 2000. Performance characteristics of the Becton Dickinson ProbeTec system for direct detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in male and female urine specimens in comparison with the Roche Cobas system. Arch Pathol Lab Med 124: 16491652.


Generic image for table

Commercially available NAATs for detection of

Citation: Elias J, Frosch M, Vogel U. 2015. Neisseria, p 635-651. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch34
Generic image for table

Characteristics of medically relevant species

Citation: Elias J, Frosch M, Vogel U. 2015. Neisseria, p 635-651. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch34
Generic image for table

Molecular typing methods for

Citation: Elias J, Frosch M, Vogel U. 2015. Neisseria, p 635-651. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch34

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error