Chapter 42 :

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817381/9781555817381.ch42-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817381/9781555817381.ch42-2.gif


may be associated with colonization or clinically significant infections. Interpretation of the Gram stain often directs the further workup of this organism. The presence of small clusters of Gram-negative organisms surrounded by amorphous material is indicative of biofilm formation compatible with a chronic infection. This finding should be reported to physicians, and incubation should be prolonged, as these isolates usually exhibit slower growth characteristics. Isolation of from sterile body sites should always be interpreted as indicative of probable infection. Isolation in mixed culture requires correlation with the direct smear, other organisms isolated, and clinical history. Isolates from sites of chronic infection, such as cystic fibrosis respiratory sites, often exhibit multiple morphotypes that can make identification difficult. Molecular methods increasingly are finding a role in the identification of this organism, especially for epidemiological studies. Susceptibility testing of this organism is difficult, especially for mucoid isolates, due to increasing resistance, lack of reproducibility of results, and lack of clinical correlation. Piperacillin and piperacillin-tazobactam results obtained from automated systems may be unreliable for spp., and in particular for mucoid isolates, and results should be confirmed by disk diffusion or Etest systems. A basic understanding of the multiple mechanisms of resistance, both intrinsic and acquired, is essential to interpret susceptibility testing results and give therapeutic recommendations to physicians. Other species are infrequently isolated in the laboratory and are usually not clinically significant. Clinical correlation and correlation with the Gram stain are essential before further workup is undertaken.

Citation: HØiby N, Ciofu O, Bjarnsholt T. 2015. , p 773-790. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch42
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of FIGURE 1

Different colony morphologies of from CF sputum cultivated on a modified Conradi-Drigalski agar selective for Gram-negative rods (“blue plate”; Statens Serum Institut). M, mucoid; NM_1, nonmucoid colony 1 (dark green); NM_2, nonmucoid colony 2 (light green); SCV, small colony variant. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch42.f1

Citation: HØiby N, Ciofu O, Bjarnsholt T. 2015. , p 773-790. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch42
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2

Diversity of biofilms in sputum ( ). Sputum samples from 77 CF patients chronically infected with were examined by Gram stain and PNA FISH. The exclusive presence of was verified by standard culturing and -specific PNA FISH (F). A great diversity in the organization of was detected; both compact biofilm-forming microcolonies (A, B, C, and F: blue arrows pointing at leukocytes in A and B, and black arrows pointing at bacterial aggregates in A, B, and C) and nonadhered planktonic bacteria (E, arrow) were observed. The organization of the polymorphonuclear leukocytes was also diverse, with these cells surrounding the biofilms (A), distant from the biofilms (B), and in a very few cases appearing inside the biofilms (C). The biofilm microcolonies were mostly very compact; however, some samples were perforated with “holes” mimicking water-filled channels visible in some mature biofilms (D, arrow pointing at hole). Magnification, ×1,000. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch42.f2

Citation: HØiby N, Ciofu O, Bjarnsholt T. 2015. , p 773-790. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch42
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Kersters K,, Ludwig P,, Vancanneyt P,, De Vos M,, Gillis M,, Schleifer KH. 1996. Recent changes in the classification of the pseudomonads: an overview. Syst Appl Microbiol 19: 465477.
2. Habe H,, Omori T. 2003. Genetics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism in diverse aerobic bacteria. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 67: 225243.
3. Nelson KE,, Weinel C,, Paulsen IT,, Dodson RJ,, Hilbert H,, Martins dos Santos VA,, Fouts DE,, Gill SR,, Pop M,, Holmes M,, Brinkac L,, Beanan M,, DeBoy RT,, Daugherty S,, Kolonay J,, Madupu R,, Nelson W,, White O,, Peterson J,, Khouri H,, Hance I,, Chris Lee P,, Holtzapple E,, Scanlan D,, Tran K,, Moazzez A,, Utterback T,, Rizzo M,, Lee K,, Kosack D,, Moestl D,, Wedler H,, Lauber J,, Stjepandic D,, Hoheisel J,, Straetz M,, Heim S,, Kiewitz C,, Eisen JA,, Timmis KN,, Düsterhöft A,, Tümmler B,, Fraser CM. 2002. Complete genome sequence and comparative analysis of the metabolically versatile Pseudomonas putida KT2440. Environ Microbiol 4: 799808.
4. Paulsen IT,, Press CM,, Ravel J,, Kobayashi DY,, Myers GS,, Mavrodi DV,, DeBoy RT,, Seshadri R,, Ren Q,, Madupu R,, Dodson RJ,, Durkin AS,, Brinkac LM,, Daugherty SC,, Sullivan SA,, Rosovitz MJ,, Gwinn ML,, Zhou L,, Schneider DJ,, Cartinhour SW,, Nelson WC,, Weidman J,, Watkins K,, Tran K,, Khouri H,, Pierson EA,, Pierson LS, III,, Thomashow LS,, Loper JE. 2005. Complete genome sequence of the plant commensal Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5. Nat Biotechnol 23: 873878.
5. Migula W. 1894. Uber ein neues System der Bakterien. Arb Bakteriol Inst Karlsruhe 1: 235238.
6. Stanier RY,, Palleroni NJ,, Doudoroff M. 1966. The aerobic pseudomonads: a taxonomic study. J Gen Microbiol 43: 159271.
7. Palleroni NJ,. 2008 . The road to the taxonomy of Pseudomonas, p 118. In Cornelis P ( ed), Pseudomonas: Genomics and Molecular Biology. Caister Academic Press, Norwich, United Kingdom.
8. De Vos P,, De Ley J. 1983. Intra- and intergeneric similarities of Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas ribosomal ribonucleic acid cistrons. Int J Syst Bacteriol 33: 487509.
9. Stackebrandt E,, Murray RGE,, Trüper HG. 1988. Proteobacteria classis nov., a name for the phylogenetic taxon that includes the “purple bacteria and their relatives.” Int J Syst Bacteriol 38: 321325.
10. Guasp C,, Moore ER,, Lalucat J,, Bennasar A. 2000. Utility of internally transcribed 16S-23S rDNA spacer regions for the definition of Pseudomonas stutzeri genomovars and other Pseudomonas species. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 50: 16291639.
11. Rius N,, Fuste MC,, Guasp C,, Lalucat J,, Loren JG. 2001. Clonal population structure of Pseudomonas stutzeri, a species with exceptional genetic diversity. J Bacteriol 183: 736744.
12. Elomari M,, Izard D,, Vincent P,, Coroler L,, Leclerc H. 1994. Comparison of ribotyping analysis and numerical taxonomy studies of Pseudomonas putida biovar A. Syst Appl Microbiol 17: 361369.
13. Hoboth C,, Hoffmann R,, Eichner A,, Henke C,, Schmoldt S,, Imhof A,, Heesemann J,, Hogardt M. 2009. Dynamics of adaptive microevolution of hypermutable Pseudomonas aeruginosa during chronic pulmonary infection in patients with cystic fibrosis. J Infect Dis 200: 118130.
14. Aanaes K,, Rickelt LF,, Johansen HK,, von BC,, Pressler T,, Høiby N,, Jensen . 2011. Decreased mucosal oxygen tension in the maxillary sinuses in patients with cystic fibrosis. J Cyst Fibros 10: 114120.
15. Kolpen M,, Hansen CR,, Bjarnsholt T,, Moser C,, Christensen LD,, van Gennip M,, Ciofu O,, Mandsberg L,, Kharazmi A,, Döring G,, Givskov M,, Høiby N,, Jensen . 2010. Polymorphonuclear leucocytes consume oxygen in sputum from chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia in cystic fibrosis. Thorax 65: 5762.
16. Worlitzsch D,, Tarran R,, Ulrich M,, Schwab U,, Cekici A,, Meyer KC,, Birrer P,, Bellon G,, Berger J,, Weiss T,, Botzenhart K,, Yankaskas JR,, Randell S,, Boucher RC,, Döring G. 2002. Effects of reduced mucus oxygen concentration in airway Pseudomonas infections of cystic fibrosis patients. J Clin Invest 109: 317325.
17. Morehead RS,, Pinto SJ. 2000. Ventilator-associated pneumonia. Arch Intern Med 160: 19261936.
18. Döring G,, Flume P,, Heijerman H,, Elborn JS, Consensus Study Group . 2012. Treatment of lung infection in patients with cystic fibrosis: current and future strategies. J Cyst Fibros 11: 461479.
19. Johansen HK,, Moskowitz SM,, Ciofu O,, Pressler T,, Høiby N. 2008. Spread of colistin resistant non-mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa among chronically infected Danish cystic fibrosis patients. J Cyst Fibros 7: 391397.
20. Jones AM,, Webb AK,, Govan JR,, Hart CA,, Walshaw MJ. 2002. Pseudomonas aeruginosa cross-infection in cystic fibrosis. Lancet 359: 527528.
21. Saiman L,, Siegel J, Cystic Fibrosis Foundation . 2003. Infection control recommendations for patients with cystic fibrosis: microbiology, important pathogens, and infection control practices to prevent patient-to-patient transmission. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 24( 5 Suppl) : S6S52.
22. Miller AK,, Brannon MK,, Stevens L,, Johansen HK,, Selgrade SE,, Miller SI,, Høiby N,, Moskowitz SM. 2011. PhoQ mutations promote lipid A modification and polymyxin resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa found in colistin-treated cystic fibrosis patients. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55: 57615769.
23. Ciofu O,, Johansen HK,, Aanaes K,, Wassermann T,, Alhede M,, von Buchwald C,, Høiby N. 2013. P. aeruginosa in the paranasal sinuses and transplanted lungs have similar adaptive mutations as isolates from chronically infected CF lungs. J Cyst Fibros 12: 729736.
24. Hansen SK,, Rau MH,, Johansen HK,, Ciofu O,, Jelsbak L,, Yang L,, Folkesson A,, Jarmer ,, Aanaes K,, von Buchwald C,, Høiby N,, Molin S. 2012. Evolution and diversification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the paranasal sinuses of cystic fibrosis children have implications for chronic lung infection. ISME J 6: 3145.
25. Ciofu O,, Mandsberg LF,, Bjarnsholt T,, Wassermann T,, Høiby N. 2010. Genetic adaptation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa during chronic lung infection of patients with cystic fibrosis: strong and weak mutators with heterogeneous genetic backgrounds emerge in mucA and/or lasR mutants. Microbiology 156: 11081119.
26. Haas D,, Keel C. 2003. Regulation of antibiotic production in root-colonizing Pseudomonas spp. and relevance for biological control of plant disease. Annu Rev Phytopathol 41: 117153.
27. Holmes A,, Govan J,, Goldstein R. 1998. Agricultural use of Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) cepacia: a threat to human health? Emerg Infect Dis 4: 221227.
28. Young LS,, Armstrong D. 1972. Human immunity to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. I. In-vitro interaction of bacteria, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and serum factors. J Infect Dis 126: 257276.
29. Emmerson AM. 2001. Emerging waterborne infections in health-care settings. Emerg Infect Dis 7: 272276.
30. Bodey GP. 2001. Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in cancer patients: have they gone away? Curr Opin Infect Dis 14: 403407.
31. Fishman JA. 2007. Infection in solid-organ transplant recipients. N Engl J Med 357: 26012614.
32. Gudiol C,, Bodro M,, Simonetti A,, Tubau F,, González-Barca E,, Cisnal M,, Domingo-Domenech E,, Jiménez L,, Carratalà J. 2013. Changing aetiology, clinical features, antimicrobial resistance, and outcomes of bloodstream infection in neutropenic cancer patients. Clin Microbiol Infect 19: 474479.
33. Safdar A,, Armstrong D. 2011. Infections in patients with hematologic neoplasms and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: neutropenia, humoral, and splenic defects. Clin Infect Dis 53: 798806.
34. Boucher RC. 2004. New concepts of the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis lung disease. Eur Respir J 23: 146158.
35. Sader HS,, Jones RN. 2005. Antimicrobial susceptibility of uncommonly isolated non-enteric Gram-negative bacilli. Int J Antimicrob Agents 25: 95109.
36. Bjarnsholt T,, Jensen ,, Fiandaca MJ,, Pedersen J,, Hansen CR,, Andersen CB,, Pressler T,, Givskov M,, Høiby N. 2009. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in the respiratory tract of cystic fibrosis patients. Pediatr Pulmonol 44: 547558.
37. Hancock RE,, Mutharia LM,, Chan L,, Darveau RP,, Speert DP,, Pier GB. 1983. Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from patients with cystic fibrosis: a class of serum-sensitive, nontypable strains deficient in lipopolysaccharide O side chains. Infect Immun 42: 170177.
38. Ciofu O,, Lee B,, Johannesson M,, Hermansen NO,, Meyer P,, Høiby N,, Scandinavian Cystic Fibrosis Study Consortium. 2008. Investigation of the algT operon sequence in mucoid and non-mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from 115 Scandinavian patients with cystic fibrosis and in 88 in vitro non-mucoid revertants. Microbiology 154: 103113.
39. Jensen ,, Bjarnsholt T,, Phipps R,, Rasmussen TB,, Calum H,, Christoffersen L,, Moser C,, Williams P,, Pressler T,, Givskov M,, Høiby N. 2007. Rapid necrotic killing of polymorphonuclear leukocytes is caused by quorum-sensing-controlled production of rhamnolipid by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Microbiology 153: 13291338.
40. Yang L,, Jelsbak L,, Marvig RL,, Damkiaer S,, Workman CT,, Rau MH,, Hansen SK,, Folkesson A,, Johansen HK,, Ciofu O,, Høiby N,, Sommer MO,, Molin S. 2011. Evolutionary dynamics of bacteria in a human host environment. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108: 74817486.
41. Farrell PM,, Collins J,, Broderick LS,, Rock MJ,, Li Z,, Kosorok MR,, Laxova A,, Gershan WM,, Brody AS. 2009. Association between mucoid Pseudomonas infection and bronchiectasis in children with cystic fibrosis. Radiology 252: 534543.
42. Speert DP,, Campbell ME,, Davidson AG,, Wong LT. 1993. Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization of the gastrointestinal tract in patients with cystic fibrosis. J Infect Dis 167: 226229.
43. Flume PA,, O’Sullivan BP,, Robinson KA,, Goss CH,, Mogayzel PJ, Jr,, Willey-Courand DB,, Bujan J,, Finder J,, Lester M,, Quittell L,, Rosenblatt R,, Vender RL,, Hazle L,, Sabadosa K,, Marshall B; Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, Pulmonary Therapies Committee . 2007. Cystic fibrosis pulmonary guidelines: chronic medications for maintenance of lung health. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 176: 957969.
44. Häussler S,, Ziegler I,, Löttel A,, von Götz F,, Rohde M,, Wehmhöhner D,, Saravanamuthu S,, Tümmler B,, Steinmetz I. 2003. Highly adherent small-colony variants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis lung infection. J Med Microbiol 52: 295301.
45. Høiby N,, Bjarnsholt T,, Givskov M,, Molin S,, Ciofu O. 2010. Antibiotic resistance of bacterial biofilms. Int J Antimicrob Agents 35: 322332.
46. Chastre J,, Fagon JY. 2002. Ventilator-associated pneumonia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 165: 867903.
47. Klompas M,, Kleinman K,, Khan Y,, Evans RS,, Lloyd JF,, Stevenson K,, Samore M,, Platt R, CDC Prevention Epicenters Program . 2012. Rapid and reproducible surveillance for ventilator-associated pneumonia. Clin Infect Dis 54: 370377.
48. Labeau SO,, Van de Vyver K,, Brusselaers N,, Vogelaers D,, Blot SI. 2011. Prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia with oral antiseptics: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis 11: 845854.
49. Mayhall CG. 2003. The epidemiology of burn wound infections: then and now. Clin Infect Dis 37: 543550.
50. Kirketerp-Møller K,, Jensen ,, Fazli M,, Madsen KG,, Pedersen J,, Moser C,, Tolker-Nielsen T,, Høiby N,, Givskov M,, Bjarnsholt T. 2008. Distribution, organization, and ecology of bacteria in chronic wounds. J Clin Microbiol 46: 27172722.
51. Citron DM,, Goldstein EJ,, Merriam CV,, Lipsky BA,, Abramson MA. 2007. Bacteriology of moderate-to-severe diabetic foot infections and in vitro activity of antimicrobial agents. J Clin Microbiol 45: 28192828.
52. Oates A,, Bowling FL,, Boulton AJ,, McBain AJ. 2012. Molecular and culture-based assessment of the microbial diversity of diabetic chronic foot wounds and contralateral skin sites. J Clin Microbiol 50: 22632271.
53. Lipsky BA,, Berendt AR,, Cornia PB,, Pile JC,, Peters EJ,, Armstrong DG,, Deery HG,, Embil JM,, Joseph WS,, Karchmer AW,, Pinzur MS,, Senneville E,, Infectious Diseases Society of America. 2012. 2012 Infectious Diseases Society of America clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of diabetic foot infections. Clin Infect Dis 54: e132e173.
54. Gregory DW,, Schaffner W. 1987. Pseudomonas infections associated with hot tubs and other environments. Infect Dis Clin North Am 1: 635648.
55. Beers SL,, Abramo TJ. 2004. Otitis externa review. Pediatr Emerg Care 20: 250256.
56. Sankaridurg PR,, Sharma S,, Willcox M,, Naduvilath TJ,, Sweeney DF,, Holden BA,, Rao GN. 2000. Bacterial colonization of disposable soft contact lenses is greater during corneal infiltrative events than during asymptomatic extended lens wear. J Clin Microbiol 38: 44204424.
57. Rubin GJ,, Branstetter BF,, Yu VL. 2004. The changing face of malignant (necrotising) external otitis: clinical, radiological, and anatomic correlations. Lancet Infect Dis 4: 3439.
58. Stoll BJ,, Hansen N,, Fanaroff AA,, Wright LL,, Carlo WA,, Ehrenkranz RA,, Lemons JA,, Donovan EF,, Stark AR,, Tyson JE,, Oh W,, Bauer CR,, Korones SB,, Shankaran S,, Laptook AR,, Stevenson DK,, Papile LA,, Poole WK. 2002. Late-onset sepsis in very low birth weight neonates: the experience of the NICHD Neonatal Research Network. Pediatrics 110: 285291.
59. Sapico FL,, Montgomerie JZ. 1980. Vertebral osteomyelitis in intravenous drug abusers: report of three cases and review of the literature. Rev Infect Dis 2: 196206.
60. Garau J,, Gomez L. 2003. Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. Curr Opin Infect Dis 16: 135143.
61. Nakamoto H,, Hashikita Y,, Itabashi A,, Kobayashi T,, Suzuki H. 2004. Changes in the organisms of resistant peritonitis in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Adv Perit Dial 20: 5257.
62. Ronald A. 2002. The etiology of urinary tract infection: traditional and emerging pathogens. Am J Med 113( Suppl 1A) : 14S19S.
63. Lin RD,, Hsueh PR,, Chang JC,, Teng LJ,, Chang SC,, Ho SW,, Hsieh WC,, Luh KT. 1997. Flavimonas oryzihabitans bacteremia: clinical features and microbiological characteristics of isolates. Clin Infect Dis 24: 867873.
64. Lucas KG,, Kiehn TE,, Sobeck KA,, Armstrong D,, Brown AE. 1994. Sepsis caused by Flavimonas oryzihabitans. Medicine (Baltimore) 73: 209214.
65. Marín M,, García de Viedma D,, Martín-Rabadán P,, Rodríguez-Créixems M,, Bouza E. 2000. Infection of Hickman catheter by Pseudomonas (formerly Flavimonas) oryzihabitans traced to a synthetic bath sponge. J Clin Microbiol 38: 45774579.
66. Rahav G,, Simhon A,, Mattan Y,, Moses AE,, Sacks T. 1995. Infections with Chryseomonas luteola (CDC group Ve-1) and Flavimonas oryzihabitans (CDC group Ve-2). Medicine (Baltimore) 74: 8388.
67. Scott J,, Boulton FE,, Govan JR,, Miles RS,, McClelland DB,, Prowse CV. 1988. A fatal transfusion reaction associated with blood contaminated with Pseudomonas fluorescens. Vox Sang 54: 201204.
68. Keys TF,, Melton LJ, III,, Maker MD,, Ilstrup DM. 1983. A suspected hospital outbreak of pseudobacteremia due to Pseudomonas stutzeri. J Infect Dis 147: 489493.
69. Simor AE,, Ricci J,, Lau A,, Bannatyne RM,, Ford-Jones L. 1985. Pseudobacteremia due to Pseudomonas fluorescens. Pediatr Infect Dis 4: 508512.
70. Potvliege C,, Jonckheer J,, Lenclud C,, Hansen W. 1987. Pseudomonas stutzeri pneumonia and septicemia in a patient with multiple myeloma. J Clin Microbiol 25: 458459.
71. Roig P,, Orti A,, Navarro V. 1996. Meningitis due to Pseudomonas stutzeri in a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Clin Infect Dis 22: 587588.
72. Carratala J,, Salazar A,, Mascaro J,, Santin M. 1992. Community-acquired pneumonia due to Pseudomonas stutzeri. Clin Infect Dis 14: 792.
73. Reisler RB,, Blumberg H. 1999. Community-acquired Pseudomonas stutzeri vertebral osteomyelitis in a previously healthy patient: case report and review. Clin Infect Dis 29: 667669.
74. Jirásková N,, Rozsíval P. 1998. Delayed-onset Pseudomonas stutzeri endophthalmitis after uncomplicated cataract surgery. J Cataract Refract Surg 24: 866867.
75. Goetz A,, Yu VL,, Hanchett JE,, Rihs JD. 1983. Pseudomonas stutzeri bacteremia associated with hemodialysis. Arch Intern Med 143: 19091912.
76. Noble RC,, Overman SB. 1994. Pseudomonas stutzeri infection. A review of hospital isolates and a review of the literature. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 19: 5156.
77. Rastogi S,, Sperber SJ. 1998. Facial cellulitis and Pseudomonas luteola bacteremia in an otherwise healthy patient. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 32: 303305.
78. Martino P,, Micozzi A,, Venditti M,, Gentile G,, Girmenia C,, Raccah R,, Santilli S,, Alessandri N,, Mandelli F. 1990. Catheter-related right-sided endocarditis in bone marrow transplant recipients. Rev Infect Dis 12: 250257.
79. Johansen HK,, Kjeldsen K,, Høiby N. 2001. Pseudomonas mendocina as a cause of chronic infective endocarditis in a patient with situs inversus. Clin Microbiol Infect 7: 650652.
80. Cheuk W,, Woo PC,, Yuen KY,, Yu PH,, Chan JK. 2000. Intestinal inflammatory pseudotumour with regional lymph node involvement: identification of a new bacterium as the aetiological agent. J Pathol 192: 289292.
81. Elomari M,, Coroler L,, Izard D,, Leclerc H. 1995. A numerical taxonomic study of fluorescent Pseudomonas strains isolated from natural mineral waters. J Appl Bacteriol 78: 7181.
82. Elomari M,, Coroler L,, Verhille S,, Izard D,, Leclerc H. 1997. Pseudomonas monteilii sp. nov., isolated from clinical specimens. Int J Syst Bacteriol 47: 846852.
83. Dabboussi F,, Hamze M,, Singer E,, Geoffroy V,, Meyer JM,, Izard D. 2002. Pseudomonas mosselii sp. nov., a novel species isolated from clinical specimens. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52: 363376.
84. Yang L,, Haagensen JA,, Jelsbak L,, Johansen HK,, Sternberg C,, Høiby N,, Molin S. 2008. In situ growth rates and biofilm development of Pseudomonas aeruginosa populations in chronic lung infections. J Bacteriol 190: 27672776.
85. Ciofu O,, Riis B,, Pressler T,, Poulsen HE,, Høiby N. 2005. Occurrence of hypermutable Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patients is associated with the oxidative stress caused by chronic lung inflammation. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49: 22762282.
86. Oliver A,, Cantón R,, Campo P,, Baquero F,, Blázquez J. 2000. High frequency of hypermutable Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis lung infection. Science 288: 12511254.
87. Hancock RE,, Speert DP. 2000. Antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: mechanisms and impact on treatment. Drug Resist Updat 3: 247255.
88. Livermore DM. 2002. Multiple mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: our worst nightmare? Clin Infect Dis 34: 634640.
89. Clarke L,, Moore JE,, Millar BC,, Garske L,, Xu J,, Heuzenroeder MW,, Crowe M,, Elborn JS. 2003. Development of a diagnostic PCR assay that targets a heat-shock protein gene ( groES) for detection of Pseudomonas spp. in cystic fibrosis patients. J Med Microbiol 52: 759763.
90. Jeng K,, Gaydos CA,, Blyn LB,, Yang S,, Won H,, Matthews H,, Toleno D,, Hsieh YH,, Carroll KC,, Hardick J,, Masek B,, Kecojevic A,, Sampath R,, Peterson S,, Rothman RE. 2012. Comparative analysis of two broad-range PCR assays for pathogen detection in positive-blood-culture bottles: PCR-high-resolution melting analysis versus PCR-mass spectrometry. J Clin Microbiol 50: 32873292.
91. Spilker T,, Coenye T,, Vandamme P,, LiPuma JJ. 2004. PCR-based assay for differentiation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from other Pseudomonas species recovered from cystic fibrosis patients. J Clin Microbiol 42: 20742079.
92. Xu J,, Moore JE,, Murphy PG,, Millar BC,, Elborn JS. 2004. Early detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa—comparison of conventional versus molecular (PCR) detection directly from adult patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 3: 21. 10.1186/1476-0711-3-21.
93. Pattison SH,, Rogers GB,, Crockard M,, Elborn JS,, Tunney MM. 2013. Molecular detection of CF lung pathogens: current status and future potential. J Cyst Fibros 12: 194205.
94. Buchan BW,, Riebe KM,, Ledeboer NA. 2012. Comparison of the MALDI Biotyper system using Sepsityper specimen processing to routine microbiological methods for identification of bacteria from positive blood culture bottles. J Clin Microbiol 50: 346352.
95. Lagacé-Wiens PR,, Adam HJ,, Karlowsky JA,, Nichol KA,, Pang PF,, Guenther J,, Webb AA,, Miller C,, Alfa MJ. 2012. Identification of blood culture isolates directly from positive blood cultures by use of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry and a commercial extraction system: analysis of performance, cost, and turnaround time. J Clin Microbiol 50: 33243328.
96. King EO,, Ward MK,, Raney DE. 1954. Two simple media for the demonstration of pyocyanin and fluorescin. J Lab Clin Med 44: 301307.
97. Zierdt CH. 1971. Autolytic nature of iridescent lysis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 37: 319337.
98. Häussler S,, Tümmler B,, Weissbrodt H,, Rohde M,, Steinmetz I. 1999. Small-colony variants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis. Clin Infect Dis 29: 621625.
99. von Götz F,, Häussler S,, Jordan D,, Saravanamuthu SS,, Wehmhöner D,, Strüssmann A,, Lauber J,, Attree I,, Buer J,, Tümmler B,, Steinmetz I. 2004. Expression analysis of a highly adherent and cytotoxic small colony variant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from a lung of a patient with cystic fibrosis. J Bacteriol 186: 38373847.
100. Pressler T,, Frederiksen B,, Skov M,, Garred P,, Koch C,, Høiby N. 2006. Early rise of anti- Pseudomonas antibodies and a mucoid phenotype of Pseudomonas aeruginosa are risk factors for development of chronic lung infection—a case control study. J Cyst Fibros 5: 915.
101. Funke G,, Funke-Kissling P. 2004. Use of the BD PHOENIX Automated Microbiology System for direct identification and susceptibility testing of gram-negative rods from positive blood cultures in a three-phase trial. J Clin Microbiol 42: 14661470.
102. O’Hara CM,, Miller JM. 2003. Evaluation of the Vitek 2 ID-GNB assay for identification of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and other nonenteric gram-negative bacilli and comparison with the Vitek GNI+ card. J Clin Microbiol 41: 20962101.
103. O’Hara CM,, Miller JM. 2002. Ability of the MicroScan rapid gram-negative ID type 3 panel to identify nonenteric glucose-fermenting and nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli. J Clin Microbiol 40: 37503752.
104. Sung LL,, Yang DI,, Hung CC,, Ho HT. 2000. Evaluation of autoSCAN-W/A and the Vitek GNI+ AutoMicrobic system for identification of non-glucose-fermenting gram-negative bacilli. J Clin Microbiol 38: 11271130.
105. Funke G,, Funke-Kissling P. 2004. Evaluation of the new VITEK 2 card for identification of clinically relevant gram-negative rods. J Clin Microbiol 42: 40674071.
106. Stefaniuk E,, Baraniak A,, Gniadkowski M,, Hryniewicz W. 2003. Evaluation of the BD Phoenix automated identification and susceptibility testing system in clinical microbiology laboratory practice. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 22: 479485.
107. Saiman L,, Burns JL,, Larone D,, Chen Y,, Garber E,, Whittier S. 2003. Evaluation of MicroScan Autoscan for identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from cystic fibrosis patients. J Clin Microbiol 41: 492494.
108. Lam MY,, McGroarty EJ,, Kropinski AM,, MacDonald LA,, Pedersen SS,, Høiby N,, Lam JS. 1989. Occurrence of a common lipopolysaccharide antigen in standard and clinical strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Clin Microbiol 27: 962967.
109. Salomonsen CM,, Themudo GE,, Jelsbak L,, Molin S,, Høiby N,, Hammer AS. 2013. Typing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink ( Neovison vison). Vet Microbiol 163: 103109.
110. Speert DP. 2002. Molecular epidemiology of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Front Biosci 7: e354e361.
111. Fluge G,, Ojeniyi B,, Høiby N,, Digranes A,, Ciofu O,, Hunstad E,, Haanaes OC,, Storrøsten OT. 2001. Typing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains in Norwegian cystic fibrosis patients. Clin Microbiol Infect 7: 238243.
112. Kidd TJ,, Grimwood K,, Ramsay KA,, Rainey PB,, Bell SC. 2011. Comparison of three molecular techniques for typing Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates in sputum samples from patients with cystic fibrosis. J Clin Microbiol 49: 263268.
113. Morales G,, Wiehlmann L,, Gudowius P,, van Delden C,, Tümmler B,, Martínez JL,, Rojo F. 2004. Structure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa populations analyzed by single nucleotide polymorphism and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis genotyping. J Bacteriol 186: 42284237.
114. Cramer N,, Wiehlmann L,, Ciofu O,, Tamm S,, Høiby N,, Tümmler B. 2012. Molecular epidemiology of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa airway infections in cystic fibrosis. PLoS One 7: e50731. 10.1371/journal.pone.0050731.
115. Jelsbak L,, Johansen HK,, Frost AL,, Thøgersen R,, Thomsen LE,, Ciofu O,, Yang L,, Haagensen JA,, Høiby N,, Molin S. 2007. Molecular epidemiology and dynamics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa populations in lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. Infect Immun 75: 22142224.
116. Wiehlmann L,, Wagner G,, Cramer N,, Siebert B,, Gudowius P,, Morales G,, Köhler T,, van Delden C,, Weinel C,, Slickers P,, Tümmler B. 2007. Population structure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104: 81018106.
117. Anstead M,, Heltshe SL,, Khan U,, Barbieri JT,, Langkamp M,, Döring G,, Dharia S,, Gibson RL,, Treggiari MM,, Lymp J,, Rosenfeld M,, Ramsey B. 2013. Pseudomonas aeruginosa serology and risk for re-isolation in the EPIC trial. J Cyst Fibros 12: 147153.
118. Kappler M,, Kraxner A,, Reinhardt D,, Ganster B,, Griese M,, Lang T. 2006. Diagnostic and prognostic value of serum antibodies against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis. Thorax 61: 684688.
119. Pressler T,, Karpati F,, Granström M,, Knudsen PK,, Lindblad A,, Hjelte L,, Olesen HV,, Meyer P,, Høiby N,, Scandinavian CF Study Consortium. 2009. Diagnostic significance of measurements of specific IgG antibodies to Pseudomonas aeruginosa by three different serological methods. J Cyst Fibros 8: 3742.
120. Aanaes K,, Johansen HK,, Poulsen SS,, Pressler T,, Buchwald C,, Høiby N. 2013. Secretory IgA as a diagnostic tool for Pseudomonas aeruginosa respiratory colonization. J Cyst Fibros 12: 8187.
121. Ratjen F,, Rietschel E,, Kasel D,, Schwiertz R,, Starke K,, Beier H,, van Koningsbruggen S,, Grasemann H. 2006. Pharmacokinetics of inhaled colistin in patients with cystic fibrosis. J Antimicrob Chemother 57: 306311.
122. Hengzhuang W,, Ciofu O,, Yang L,, Wu H,, Song Z,, Oliver A,, Høiby N. 2013. High β-lactamase levels change the pharmacodynamics of β-lactam antibiotics in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 57: 196204.
123. Hengzhuang W,, Wu H,, Ciofu O,, Song Z,, Høiby N. 2012. In vivo pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of colistin and imipenem in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infection. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 56: 26832690.
124. Fernandez L,, Hancock RE. 2012. Adaptive and mutational resistance: role of porins and efflux pumps in drug resistance. Clin Microbiol Rev 25: 661681.
125. Bagge N,, Hentzer M,, Andersen JB,, Ciofu O,, Givskov M,, Høiby N. 2004. Dynamics and spatial distribution of β-lactamase expression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48: 11681174.
126. Gillis RJ,, White KG,, Choi KH,, Wagner VE,, Schweizer HP,, Iglewski BH. 2005. Molecular basis of azithromycin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49: 38583867.
127. Pamp SJ,, Gjermansen M,, Johansen HK,, Tolker-Nielsen T. 2008. Tolerance to the antimicrobial peptide colistin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms is linked to metabolically active cells, and depends on the pmr and mexAB-oprM genes. Mol Microbiol 68: 223240.
128. Poole K. 2012. Bacterial stress responses as determinants of antimicrobial resistance. J Antimicrob Chemother 67: 20692089.
129. Kvist M,, Hancock V,, Klemm P. 2008. Inactivation of efflux pumps abolishes bacterial biofilm formation. Appl Environ Microbiol 74: 73767382.
130. Islam S,, Oh H,, Jalal S,, Karpati F,, Ciofu O,, Høiby N,, Wretlind B. 2009. Chromosomal mechanisms of aminoglycoside resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from cystic fibrosis patients. Clin Microbiol Infect 15: 6066.
131. Jalal S,, Ciofu O,, Høiby N,, Gotoh N,, Wretlind B. 2000. Molecular mechanisms of fluoroquinolone resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from cystic fibrosis patients. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 44: 710712.
132. Moya B,, Dötsch A,, Juan C,, Blázquez J,, Zamorano L,, Haussler S,, Oliver A. 2009. β-Lactam resistance response triggered by inactivation of a nonessential penicillin-binding protein. PLoS Pathog 5: e1000353. 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000353.
133. Walsh C,, Fanning S. 2008. Antimicrobial resistance in foodborne pathogens—a cause for concern? Curr Drug Targets 9: 808815.
134. Crespo MP,, Woodford N,, Sinclair A,, Kaufmann ME,, Turton J,, Glover J,, Velez JD,, Castañeda CR,, Recalde M,, Livermore DM. 2004. Outbreak of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa producing VIM-8, a novel metallo-β-lactamase, in a tertiary care center in Cali, Colombia. J Clin Microbiol 42: 50945101.
135. Lagatolla C,, Tonin EA,, Monti-Bragadin C,, Dolzani L,, Gombac F,, Bearzi C,, Edalucci E,, Gionechetti F,, Rossolini GM. 2004. Endemic carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa with acquired metallo-β-lactamase determinants in European hospital. Emerg Infect Dis 10: 535538.
136. Lee K,, Lee WG,, Uh Y,, Ha GY,, Cho J,, Chong Y. 2003. VIM- and IMP-type metallo-β-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp. in Korean hospitals. Emerg Infect Dis 9: 868871.
137. Poirel L,, Naas T,, Nicolas D,, Collet L,, Bellais S,, Cavallo JD,, Nordmann P. 2000. Characterization of VIM-2, a carbapenem-hydrolyzing metallo-β-lactamase and its plasmid- and integron-borne gene from a Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolate in France. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 44: 891897.
138. Pournaras S,, Köck R,, Mossialos D,, Mellmann A,, Sakellaris V,, Stathopoulos C,, Friedrich AW,, Tsakris A. 2013. Detection of a phylogenetically distinct IMP-type metallo-β-lactamase, IMP-35, in a CC235 Pseudomonas aeruginosa from the Dutch–German border region (Euregio). J Antimicrob Chemother 68: 12711276.
139. Sader HS,, Castanheira M,, Mendes RE,, Toleman M,, Walsh TR,, Jones RN. 2005. Dissemination and diversity of metallo-β-lactamases in Latin America: report from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program. Int J Antimicrob Agents 25: 5761.
140. Jacoby GA,, Munoz-Price LS. 2005. The new β-lactamases. N Engl J Med 352: 380391.
141. Nordmann P,, Poirel L. 2013. Strategies for identification of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. J Antimicrob Chemother 68: 487489.
142. Janvier F,, Jeannot K,, Tessé S,, Robert-Nicoud M,, Delacour H,, Rapp C,, Mérens A. 2013. Molecular characterization of bla NDM-1 in a sequence type 235 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate from France. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 57: 34083411.
143. Poole K. 2005. Aminoglycoside resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49: 479487.
144. Yokoyama K,, Doi Y,, Yamane K,, Kurokawa H,, Shibata N,, Shibayama K,, Yagi T,, Kato H,, Arakawa Y. 2003. Acquisition of 16S rRNA methylase gene in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Lancet 362: 18881893.
145. Kohanski MA,, Dwyer DJ,, Hayete B,, Lawrence CA,, Collins JJ. 2007. A common mechanism of cellular death induced by bactericidal antibiotics. Cell 130: 797810.
146. Gutu AD,, Sgambati N,, Strasbourger P,, Brannon MK,, Jacobs MA,, Haugen E,, Kaul RK,, Johansen HK,, Høiby N,, Moskowitz SM. 2013. Polymyxin resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa phoQ mutants is dependent on additional two-component regulatory systems. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 57: 22042215.
147. Moskowitz SM,, Brannon MK,, Dasgupta N,, Pier M,, Sgambati N,, Miller AK,, Selgrade SE,, Miller SI,, Denton M,, Conway SP,, Johansen HK,, Høiby N. 2012. PmrB mutations promote polymyxin resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from colistin-treated cystic fibrosis patients. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 56: 10191030.
148. Giamarellou H,, Poulakou G. 2009. Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections: what are the treatment options? Drugs 69: 18791901.
149. Lister PD,, Wolter DJ,, Hanson ND. 2009. Antibacterial-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa: clinical impact and complex regulation of chromosomally encoded resistance mechanisms. Clin Microbiol Rev 22: 582610.
150. Cabot G,, Ocampo-Sosa AA,, Domínguez MA,, Gago JF,, Juan C,, Tubau F,, Rodríguez C,, Moyà B,, Peña C,, Martínez-Martínez L,, Oliver A,, Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases (REIPI). 2012. Genetic markers of widespread extensively drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa high-risk clones. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 56: 63496357.
151. Giani T,, Morosini MI,, D’Andrea MM,, García-Castillo M,, Rossolini GM,, Cantón R. 2012. Assessment of the Phoenix™ automated system and EUCAST breakpoints for antimicrobial susceptibility testing against isolates expressing clinically relevant resistance mechanisms. Clin Microbiol Infect 18: E452E458.
152. Burns JL,, Saiman L,, Whittier S,, Larone D,, Krzewinski J,, Liu Z,, Marshall SA,, Jones RN. 2000. Comparison of agar diffusion methodologies for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from cystic fibrosis patients. J Clin Microbiol 38: 18181822.
153. Burns JL,, Saiman L,, Whittier S,, Krzewinski J,, Liu Z,, Larone D,, Marshall SA,, Jones RN. 2001. Comparison of two commercial systems (Vitek and MicroScan-WalkAway) for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from cystic fibrosis patients. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 39: 257260.
154. Marley EF,, Mohla C,, Campos JM. 1995. Evaluation of E-Test for determination of antimicrobial MICs for Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from cystic fibrosis patients. J Clin Microbiol 33: 31913193.
155. Di Bonaventura G,, Ricci E,, Della Loggia N,, Catamo G,, Piccolomini R. 1998. Evaluation of the E test for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from patients with long-term bladder catheterization. J Clin Microbiol 36: 824826.
156. Häussler S,, Ziesing S,, Rademacher G,, Hoy L,, Weissbrodt H. 2003. Evaluation of the Merlin, Micronaut system for automated antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia species isolated from cystic fibrosis patients. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 22: 496500.
157. Joyanes P,, del Carmen Conejo M,, Martínez-Martínez L,, Perea EJ. 2001. Evaluation of the VITEK 2 system for the identification and susceptibility testing of three species of nonfermenting gram-negative rods frequently isolated from clinical samples. J Clin Microbiol 39: 32473253.
158. Donay JL,, Mathieu D,, Fernandes P,, Prégermain C,, Bruel P,, Wargnier A,, Casin I,, Weill FX,, Lagrange PH,, Herrmann JL. 2004. Evaluation of the automated Phoenix system for potential routine use in the clinical microbiology laboratory. J Clin Microbiol 42: 15421546.
159. Steward CD,, Mohammed JM,, Swenson JM,, Stocker SA,, Williams PP,, Gaynes RP,, McGowan JE, Jr,, Tenover FC. 2003. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of carbapenems: multicenter validity testing and accuracy levels of five antimicrobial test methods for detecting resistance in Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. J Clin Microbiol 41: 351358.
160. Tijet N,, Boyd D,, Patel SN,, Mulvey MR,, Melano RG. 2013. Evaluation of the Carba NP test for rapid detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 57: 45784580.
161. Nordmann P,, Poirel L. 2002. Emerging carbapenemases in Gram-negative aerobes. Clin Microbiol Infect 8: 321331.
162. Weldhagen GF,, Prinsloo A. 2004. Molecular detection of GES-2 extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Pretoria, South Africa. Int J Antimicrob Agents 24: 3538.
163. Landman D,, Georgescu C,, Martin DA,, Quale J. 2008. Polymyxins revisited. Clin Microbiol Rev 21: 449465.
164. Hogardt M,, Schmoldt S,, Götzfried M,, Adler K,, Heesemann J. 2004. Pitfalls of polymyxin antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from cystic fibrosis patients. J Antimicrob Chemother 54: 10571061.
165. Smith AL,, Fiel SB,, Mayer-Hamblett N,, Ramsey B,, Burns JL. 2003. Susceptibility testing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates and clinical response to parenteral antibiotic administration: lack of association in cystic fibrosis. Chest 123: 14951502.
166. Foweraker JE,, Laughton CR,, Brown DF,, Bilton D. 2005. Phenotypic variability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in sputa from patients with acute infective exacerbation of cystic fibrosis and its impact on the validity of antimicrobial susceptibility testing. J Antimicrob Chemother 55: 921927.
167. Ciofu O,, Fussing V,, Bagge N,, Koch C,, Høiby N. 2001. Characterization of paired mucoid/non-mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from Danish cystic fibrosis patients: antibiotic resistance, β-lactamase activity and RiboPrinting. J Antimicrob Chemother 48: 391396.
168. Alhede M,, Kragh KN,, Qvortrup K,, Allesen-Holm M,, van Gennip M,, Christensen LD,, Jensen ,, Nielsen AK,, Parsek M,, Wozniak D,, Molin S,, Tolker-Nielsen T,, Høiby N,, Givskov M,, Bjarnsholt T. 2011. Phenotypes of non-attached Pseudomonas aeruginosa aggregates resemble surface attached biofilm. PLoS One 6: e27943. 10.1371/journal.pone.0027943.
169. Delissalde F,, Amabile-Cuevas CF. 2004. Comparison of antibiotic susceptibility and plasmid content, between biofilm producing and non-producing clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Int J Antimicrob Agents 24: 405408.
170. Oliver A,, Levin BR,, Juan C,, Baquero F,, Blázquez J. 2004. Hypermutation and the preexistence of antibiotic-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutants: implications for susceptibility testing and treatment of chronic infections. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48: 42264233.
171. Moskowitz SM,, Foster JM,, Emerson J,, Burns JL. 2004. Clinically feasible biofilm susceptibility assay for isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from patients with cystic fibrosis. J Clin Microbiol 42: 19151922.
172. Macia MD,, Borrell N,, Perez JL,, Oliver A. 2004. Detection and susceptibility testing of hypermutable Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains with the Etest and disk diffusion. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48: 26652672.
173. Balke B,, Hoy L,, Weissbrodt H,, Häussler S. 2004. Comparison of the Micronaut Merlin automated broth microtiter system with the standard agar dilution method for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of mucoid and nonmucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from cystic fibrosis patients. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 23: 765771.
174. Serisier DJ,, Jones G,, Tuck A,, Connett G,, Carroll MP. 2003. Clinical application of direct sputum sensitivity testing in a severe infective exacerbation of cystic fibrosis. Pediatr Pulmonol 35: 463466.
175. Moskowitz SM,, Emerson JC,, McNamara S,, Shell RD,, Orenstein DM,, Rosenbluth D,, Katz MF,, Ahrens R,, Hornick D,, Joseph PM,, Gibson RL,, Aitken ML,, Benton WW,, Burns JL. 2011. Randomized trial of biofilm testing to select antibiotics for cystic fibrosis airway infection. Pediatr Pulmonol 46: 184192.
176. Bonapace CR,, Bosso JA,, Friedrich LV,, White RL. 2002. Comparison of methods of interpretation of checkerboard synergy testing. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 44: 363366.
177. White RL,, Burgess DS,, Manduru M,, Bosso JA. 1996. Comparison of three different in vitro methods of detecting synergy: time-kill, checkerboard, and E test. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 40: 19141918.


Generic image for table

Characteristics of species found in clinical specimens

Citation: HØiby N, Ciofu O, Bjarnsholt T. 2015. , p 773-790. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch42

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error