Chapter 58 : Leptospira

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is a genus of spiral-shaped bacteria that comprises two broad groups: a saprophytic group that inhabits fresh water and a pathogenic group that infects animals and may cause chronic renal infection, with intermittent urinary excretion. Infected animals become reservoirs of infection, either through contamination of the environment or by direct contact with other animals. Many animals can become reservoir hosts of but small mammals, especially rodents, are common hosts. Livestock animals can also become chronically infected, and economic losses due to loss of production and abortion are significant. Humans are dead-end hosts in whom a wide spectrum of symptoms may occur, from asymptomatic seroconversion to severe multisystemic disease with high mortality. Human infections are acquired through occupational activities, and increasingly through travel and sporting activities in countries with a warm climate. The genus is divided into 21 species. Several hundred serovars are defined by cross-agglutinin absorption. Major efforts to sequence several hundred genomes will make possible major advances in understanding the genus in the next few years.

Citation: Levett P. 2015. Leptospira, p 1028-1036. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch58
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Phylogenetic relationships between the genera of the based on (16S rRNA gene) sequences. The scale bar represents a 2% difference in sequence. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch58.f1

Citation: Levett P. 2015. Leptospira, p 1028-1036. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch58
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Scanning electron micrograph of leptospiral cells bound to a 0.2-μm filter. Magnification, approximately ×3,500. Source: Public Health Image Library. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch58.f2

Citation: Levett P. 2015. Leptospira, p 1028-1036. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch58
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Generic image for table

Serogroups and selected serovars of

Citation: Levett P. 2015. Leptospira, p 1028-1036. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch58
Generic image for table

Species of

Citation: Levett P. 2015. Leptospira, p 1028-1036. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch58
Generic image for table

Leptospiral serovars found in multiple species

Citation: Levett P. 2015. Leptospira, p 1028-1036. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch58

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