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Class , which includes organisms in the genera and , represents a unique group of cell wall-less prokaryotes that are obligate parasites of humans, animals, plants, or insects and represent the smallest known free-living microorganisms. There are at least 16 species that have been isolated from humans, several of which are proven causes of diseases that affect primarily the respiratory or urogenital tracts, where they reside on mucosal surfaces and sometimes invade deeper tissues. The most important pathogens of humans are , , , , and Diagnostic test methods include culture, serology, and molecular-based assays. The slow growth rates and the fastidious growth requirements for some species such as and limits the use of culture for patient management purposes. However, for rapidly growing species such as and spp., culture is used for detection in clinical specimens, but specialized media and techniques are required that are not widely used in many clinical laboratories. Molecular-based assays are becoming more commonly available for detection of and are gradually supplanting serology for primary diagnosis of respiratory infections with this organism. Various methods of molecular strain typing have been described for the most important mycoplasmas of humans, mainly for epidemiological purposes. Antimicrobial resistance to commonly used drugs can occur in all of the human mycoplasmas. Standardized methods and quality control parameters have now been described for antimicrobial susceptibility testing for human mycoplasmas, making it possible to identify clinically significant drug resistance.

Citation: Waites K, Taylor-Robinson D. 2015. and , p 1088-1105. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch62
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Image of FIGURE 1

Fried-egg-type colonies of up to 110 μm in diameter. Magnification, ×132.doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch62.f1

Citation: Waites K, Taylor-Robinson D. 2015. and , p 1088-1105. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch62
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Image of FIGURE 2

Spherical colonies of up to 100 μm in diameter. Magnification, ×126.doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch62.f2

Citation: Waites K, Taylor-Robinson D. 2015. and , p 1088-1105. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch62
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Image of FIGURE 3

Granular brown urease-positive colonies of species 15 to 60 μm in diameter from a vaginal specimen growing on A8 agar. Magnification, ×100. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch62.f3

Citation: Waites K, Taylor-Robinson D. 2015. and , p 1088-1105. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch62
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Classification and some distinguishing features of mycoplasmas (class )

Citation: Waites K, Taylor-Robinson D. 2015. and , p 1088-1105. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch62
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Primary sites of colonization, metabolism, and pathogenicity of mollicutes of human origin

Citation: Waites K, Taylor-Robinson D. 2015. and , p 1088-1105. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch62
Generic image for table

Examples of test kits for detection of serum antibodies to sold in the United States

Citation: Waites K, Taylor-Robinson D. 2015. and , p 1088-1105. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch62
Generic image for table

MIC ranges of various antimicrobials for , , , , and spp.

Citation: Waites K, Taylor-Robinson D. 2015. and , p 1088-1105. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch62

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