Chapter 85 : Parainfluenza and Mumps Viruses

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The human parainfluenza (HPIV) and mumps viruses share the family and are included within the subfamily in the genus (HPIV-1 and HPIV-3) and the genus (HPIV-2, HPIV-4, and mumps). The HPIVs are commonly encountered in the U.S. as the agent of upper and lower respiratory infections in children and in older adults and the immunocompromised. Virology laboratories routinely isolate the HPIVs in culture and detect their antigens and nucleic acids in clinical samples. New multiplex viral respiratory panels include detection of the HPIVs. Mumps, although sometimes seen in outbreaks in the U.S., is seldom encountered in the routine virology laboratory, and methods for mumps virus detection are not widely available. Serologic testing to determine mumps immune status is performed in most laboratories, but confirmation of acute infection, unless the virus can be isolated in culture, must be referred to reference laboratories that provide these services. Diagnosing acute mumps infection is especially challenging in individuals who have been immunized or have experienced the infection previously. This situation presents a challenge in diagnosis.

Citation: Leland D. 2015. Parainfluenza and Mumps Viruses, p 1487-1497. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch85
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Immunofluorescence staining of HPIV-infected R-Mix Too and mumps virus-infected R-Mix cell cultures. R-Mix Too cells were infected with HPIV-1 (A), HPIV-2 (B), or HPIV-3 (C). (D) R-Mix cells infected with mumps virus. Magnification, ×200 (all). (A to C) Courtesy of Indiana Pathology Images; (D) courtesy of Diagnostic Hybrids, Inc., Athens, OH. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch85.f1

Citation: Leland D. 2015. Parainfluenza and Mumps Viruses, p 1487-1497. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch85
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Diagnostic methods for parainfluenza and mumps virus detection

Citation: Leland D. 2015. Parainfluenza and Mumps Viruses, p 1487-1497. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch85
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FDA-cleared molecular viral respiratory panels that detect HPIVs

Citation: Leland D. 2015. Parainfluenza and Mumps Viruses, p 1487-1497. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch85

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