Chapter 95 : Arboviruses

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Arboviruses, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817381/9781555817381.ch95-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817381/9781555817381.ch95-2.gif


This chapter provides a comprehensive overview of clinical diagnostic testing for most arboviruses as a general guide for clinical laboratory professionals. Arboviruses are transmitted to their vertebrate host via an arthropod vector. These unique viruses span seven distinct families of viruses, encompassing more than 500 viruses. The primary methods for arbovirus laboratory diagnosis are discussed. For many arboviruses, direct detection of virus by nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) and/or virus isolation are the most specific and sensitive tests available. However not all patients present for diagnostic testing during their viremic phase and not all arboviruses are detectable by the current tests during the acute phase of infection. Detection of specific immunoglobulin M and G by various methodologies is sensitive but less specific than viral detection methods due to cross-reactive epitopes within some families of arboviruses, thus confirmatory testing is usually necessary. The most effective test for laboratory diagnosis of an arbovirus infection is determined by the days post onset of symptoms of the patient and can be simplified to a single algorithm for all arboviruses. Since many of these virus or immunoglobulin detection tests have been commercialized, an overview of current tests available is included. This chapter summarizes the current laboratory methods for the diagnosis of human-acquired arbovirus infections, their epidemiology and transmission, and clinical significance.

Citation: Hunsperger E. 2015. Arboviruses, p 1644-1659. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch95
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of FIGURE 1

General laboratory testing algorithm for human serum specimens from suspected arbovirus infection. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch95.f1

Citation: Hunsperger E. 2015. Arboviruses, p 1644-1659. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch95
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Coffey LL,, Forrester N,, Tsetsarkin K,, Vasilakis N,, Weaver SC. 2013. Factors shaping the adaptive landscape for arboviruses: implications for the emergence of disease. Future Microbiol 8: 155176.
2. Schuffenecker I,, Iteman I,, Michault A,, Murri S,, Frangeul L,, Vaney MC,, Lavenir R,, Pardigon N,, Reynes JM,, Pettinelli F,, Biscornet L,, Diancourt L,, Michel S,, Duquerroy S,, Guigon G,, Frenkiel MP,, Brehin AC,, Cubito N,, Despres P,, Kunst F,, Rey FA,, Zeller H,, Brisse S. 2006. Genome microevolution of chikungunya viruses causing the Indian Ocean outbreak. PLoS Med 3: e263.
3. de Lamballerie X,, Leroy E,, Charrel RN,, Ttsetsarkin K,, Higgs S,, Gould EA. 2008. Chikungunya virus adapts to tiger mosquito via evolutionary convergence: a sign of things to come? Virol J 5: 33.
4. Steele KE,, Linn MJ,, Schoepp RJ,, Komar N,, Geisbert TW,, Manduca RM,, Calle PP,, Raphael BL,, Clippinger TL,, Larsen T,, Smith J,, Lanciotti RS,, Panella NA,, McNamara TS. 2000. Pathology of fatal West Nile virus infections in native and exotic birds during the 1999 outbreak in New York City, New York. Vet Pathol 37: 208224.
5. Busch MP,, Caglioti S,, Robertson EF,, McAuley JD,, Tobler LH,, Kamel H,, Linnen JM,, Shyamala V,, Tomasulo P,, Kleinman SH. 2005. Screening the blood supply for West Nile virus RNA by nucleic acid amplification testing. N Engl J Med 353: 460467.
6. Mohammed H,, Linnen JM,, Muhoz-Jorddn JL,, Tomashek K,, Foster G,, Broulik AS,, Petersen L,, Stramer SL. 2008. Dengue virus in blood donations, Puerto Rico, 2005. Transfusion 48: 13481354.
7. Shepard DS,, Coudeville L,, Halasa YA,, Zambrano B,, Dayan GH. 2011. Economic impact of dengue illness in the Americas. Am J Trop Med Hyg 84: 200207.
8. Sejvar JJ,, Haddad MB,, Tierney BC,, Campbell GL,, Marfin AA,, Van Gerpen JA,, Fleischauer A,, Leis AA,, Stokic DS,, Petersen LR. 2003. Neurologic manifestations and outcome of West Nile virus infection. JAMA 290: 511515.
9. Sejvar JJ,, Bode AV,, Marfin AA,, Campbell GL,, Pape J,, Biggerstaff BJ,, Petersen LR. 2006. West Nile Virus-associated flaccid paralysis outcome. Emerg Infect Dis 12: 514516.
10. Beasley DW,, Barrett AD,, Tesh RB. 2013. Resurgence of West Nile neurologic disease in the United States in 2012: What happened? What needs to be done? Antiviral Res 99: 15.
11. Murray K,, Baraniuk S,, Resnick M,, Arafat R,, Kilborn C,, Cain K,, Shallenberger R,, York TL,, Martinez D,, Hellums JS,, Hellums D,, Malkoff M,, Elgawley N,, McNeely W,, Khuwaja SA,, Tesh RB. 2006. Risk factors for encephalitis and death from West Nile virus infection. Epidemiol Infect 134: 13251332.
12. Yong LS,, Koh KC. 2013. A case of mixed infections in a patient presenting with acute febrile illness in the tropics. Case Rep Infect Dis 2013: 562175.
13. Sharp TM,, Bracero J,, Rivera A,, Shieh WJ,, Bhatnagar J,, Rivera-Diez I,, Hunsperger E,, Munoz-Jordan J,, Zaki SR,, Tomashek KM. 2012. Fatal human co-infection with Leptospira spp. and dengue virus, Puerto Rico, 2010. Emerg Infect Dis 18: 878880.
14. Lopez Rodriguez E,, Tomashek KM,, Gregory CJ,, Munoz J,, Hunsperger E,, Lorenzi OD,, Irizarry JG,, Garcia-Gubern C. 2010. Co-infection with dengue virus and pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus. Emerg Infect Dis 16: 882884.
15. Epelboin L,, Hanf M,, Dussart P,, Ouar-Epelboin S,, Djossou F,, Nacher M,, Carme B. 2012. Is dengue and malaria co-infection more severe than single infections? A retrospective matched-pair study in French Guiana. Malaria J 11: 142.
16. Lanciotti RS,, Kerst AJ,, Nasci RS,, Godsey MS,, Mitchell CJ,, Savage HM,, Komar N,, Panella NA,, Allen BC,, Volpe KE,, Davis BS,, Roehrig JT. 2000. Rapid detection of West Nile virus from human clinical specimens, field-collected mosquitoes, and avian samples by a TaqMan reverse transcriptase-PCR assay. J Clin Microbiol 38: 40664071.
17. Oshiro LS,, Dondero DV,, Emmons RW,, Lennette EH. 1978. The development of Colorado tick fever virus within cells of the haemopoietic system. J Gen Virol 39: 7379.
18. Prince HE,, Tobler LH,, Yeh C,, Gefter N,, Custer B,, Busch MP. 2007. Persistence of West Nile virus-specific antibodies in viremic blood donors. Clin Vaccine Immunol 14: 12281230.
19. Tan CH,, Wong PS,, Li MZ,, Vythilingam I,, Ng LC. 2011. Evaluation of the Dengue NS1 Ag Strip(R) for detection of dengue virus antigen in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 11: 789792.
20. Sutherland GL,, Nasci RS. 2007. Detection of West Nile virus in large pools of mosquitoes. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 23: 389395.
21. Wanja E,, Parker Z,, Rowland T,, Turell MJ,, Clark JW,, Dave K,, Dave S,, Sang R. 2011. Field evaluation of a wicking assay for the rapid detection of Rift Valley fever viral antigens in mosquitoes. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 27: 370375.
22. Johnson RT,, Burke DS,, Elwell M,, Leake CJ,, Nisalak A,, Hoke CH,, Lorsomrudee W. 1985. Japanese encephalitis: immunocytochemical studies of viral antigen and inflammatory cells in fatal cases. Ann Neurol 18: 567573.
23. Burke DS,, Lorsomrudee W,, Leake CJ,, Hoke CH,, Nisalak A,, Chongswasdi V,, Laorakpongse T. 1985. Fatal outcome in Japanese encephalitis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 34: 12031210.
24. Basilio-de-Oliveira CA,, Aguiar GR,, Baldanza MS,, Barth OM,, Eyer-Silva WA,, Paes MV. 2005. Pathologic study of a fatal case of dengue-3 virus infection in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Braz J Infect Dis 9: 341347.
25. De Brito T,, Siqueira SA,, Santos RT,, Nassar ES,, Coimbra TL,, Alves VA. 1992. Human fatal yellow fever. Immunohistochemical detection of viral antigens in the liver, kidney and heart. Pathol Res Pract 188: 177181.
26. Deubel V,, Huerre M,, Cathomas G,, Drouet MT,, Wuscher N,, Le Guenno B,, Widmer AF. 1997. Molecular detection and characterization of yellow fever virus in blood and liver specimens of a non-vaccinated fatal human case. J Med Virol 53: 212217.
27. Bhatnagar J,, Guarner J,, Paddock CD,, Shieh WJ,, Lanciotti RS,, Marfin AA,, Campbell GL,, Zaki SR. 2007. Detection of West Nile virus in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human tissues by RT-PCR: a useful adjunct to conventional tissue-based diagnostic methods. J Clin Virol 38: 106111.
28. Young PR,, Hilditch PA,, Bletchly C,, Halloran W. 2000. An antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay reveals high levels of the dengue virus protein NS1 in the sera of infected patients. J Clin Microbiol 38: 10531057.
29. Alcon S,, Talarmin A,, Debruyne M,, Falconar A,, Deubel V,, Flamand M. 2002. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay specific to dengue virus type 1 nonstructural protein NS1 reveals circulation of the antigen in the blood during the acute phase of disease in patients experiencing primary or secondary infections. J Clin Microbiol 40: 376381.
30. Libraty DH,, Young PR,, Pickering D,, Endy TP,, Kalayanarooj S,, Green S,, Vaughn DW,, Nisalak A,, Ennis FA,, Rothman AL. 2002. High circulating levels of the dengue virus nonstructural protein NS1 early in dengue illness correlate with the development of dengue hemorrhagic fever. J Infect Dis 186: 11651168.
31. Xu H,, Di B,, Pan Y-S,, Qiu L-W,, Wang Y-D,, Hao W,, He L-J,, Yuen K-Y,, Che X-Y. 2006. Serotype 1-specific monoclonal antibody-based antigen capture immunoassay for detection of circulating nonstructural protein NS1: implications for early diagnosis and serotyping of dengue virus infections. J Clin Microbiol 44: 28722878.
32. Bessoff K,, Delorey M,, Sun W,, Hunsperger E. 2008. Comparison of two commercially available dengue virus (DENV) NS1 capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using a single clinical sample for diagnosis of acute DENV infection. Clin Vaccine Immunol 15: 15131518.
33. Blacksell SD,, Mammen MP Jr,, Thongpaseuth S,, Gibbons RV,, Jarman RG,, Jenjaroen K,, Nisalak A,, Phetsouvanh R,, Newton PN,, Day NPJ. 2008. Evaluation of the Panbio dengue virus nonstructural 1 antigen detection and immunoglobulin M antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the diagnosis of acute dengue infections in Laos. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 60: 4349.
34. Dussart P,, Labeau B,, Lagathu G,, Louis P,, Nunes MRT,, Rodrigues SG,, Storck-Herrmann C,, Cesaire R,, Morvan J,, Flamand M,, Baril L. 2006. Evaluation of an enzyme immunoassay for detection of dengue virus NS1 antigen in human serum. Clin Vaccine Immunol 13: 11851189.
35. Kumarasamy V,, Wahab AHA,, Chua SK,, Hassan Z,, Chem YK,, Mohamad M,, Chua KB. 2007. Evaluation of a commercial dengue NS1 antigen-capture ELISA for laboratory diagnosis of acute dengue virus infection. J Virol Methods 140: 7579.
36. Patel P,, Landt O,, Kaiser M,, Faye O,, Koppe T,, Lass U,, Sall AA,, Niedrig M. 2013. Development of one-step quantitative reverse transcription PCR for the rapid detection of flaviviruses. Virol J 10: 58.
37. Lambert AJ,, Lanciotti RS. 2009. Consensus amplification and novel multiplex sequencing method for S segment species identification of 47 viruses of the Orthobunyavirus, Phlebovirus, and Nairovirus genera of the family Bunyaviridae. J Clin Microbiol 47: 23982404.
38. Toriniwa H,, Komiya T. 2006. Rapid detection and quantification of Japanese encephalitis virus by real-time reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification. Microbiol Immunol 50: 379387.
39. Parida M,, Horioke K,, Ishida H,, Dash PK,, Saxena P,, Jana AM,, Islam MA,, Inoue S,, Hosaka N,, Morita K. 2005. Rapid detection and differentiation of dengue virus serotypes by a real-time reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay. J Clin Microbiol 43: 28952903.
40. Parida MM,, Santhosh SR,, Dash PK,, Tripathi NK,, Saxena P,, Ambuj S,, Sahni AK,, Lakshmana Rao PV,, Morita K. 2006. Development and evaluation of reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid and real-time detection of Japanese encephalitis virus. J Clin Microbiol 44: 41724178.
41. Lu X,, Li X,, Mo Z,, Jin F,, Wang B,, Zhao H,, Shan X,, Shi L. 2012. Rapid identification of Chikungunya and Dengue virus by a real-time reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification method. Am J Trop Med Hyg 87: 947953.
42. Busch MP,, Caglioti S,, Robertson EF,, McAuley JD,, Tobler LH,, Kamel H,, Linnen JM,, Shyamala V,, Tomasulo P,, Kleinman SH. 2005. Screening the blood supply for West Nile virus RNA by nucleic acid amplification testing. N Engl J Med 353: 460467.
43. Jenkins GM,, Rambaut A,, Pybus OG,, Holmes EC. 2002. Rates of molecular evolution in RNA viruses: a quantitative phylogenetic analysis. J Mol Evol 54: 156165.
44. Tabachnick WJ. 2013. Nature, nurture and evolution of intra-species variation in mosquito arbovirus transmission competence. Int J Environ Res Public Health 10: 249277.
45. Igarashi A. 1978. Isolation of a Singh’s Aedes albopictus cell clone sensitive to Dengue and Chikungunya viruses. J Gen Virol 40: 531544.
46. Varma MG,, Pudney M,, Leake CJ. 1974. Cell lines from larvae of Aedes (Stegomyia) malayensis Colless and Aedes (S) pseudoscutellaris (Theobald) and their infection with some arboviruses. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 68: 374382.
47. Weaver SC,, Reisen WK. 2010. Present and future arboviral threats. Antiviral Res 85: 328345.
48. Swei A,, Russell BJ,, Naccache SN,, Kabre B,, Veeraraghavan N,, Pilgard MA,, Johnson BJ,, Chiu CY. 2013. The genome sequence of Lone Star virus, a highly divergent bunyavirus found in the Amblyomma americanum tick. PLoS One 8: e62083.
49. Clarke DH,, Casals J. 1958. Techniques for hemagglutination and hemagglutination-inhibition with arthropod-borne viruses. Am J Trop Med Hyg 7: 561573.
50. Innis BL,, Nisalak A,, Nimmannitya S,, Kusalerdchariya S,, Chongswasdi V,, Suntayakorn S,, Puttisri P,, Hoke CH. 1989. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to characterize dengue infections where dengue and Japanese encephalitis co-circulate. Am J Trop Med Hyg 40: 418427.
51. Miagostovich MP,, Nogueira RMR,, Dos Santos FB,, Schatzmayr HG,, Araujo ESM,, Vorndam V. 1999. Evaluation of an IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for dengue diagnosis. J Clin Virol 14: 183189.
52. Prince HE,, Tobler LH,, Lape-Nixon M,, Foster GA,, Stramer SL,, Busch MP. 2005. Development and persistence of West Nile virus-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgA, and IgG in viremic blood donors. J Clin Microbiol 43: 43164320.
53. Edelman R,, Schneider RJ,, Vejjajiva A,, Pornpibul R,, Voodhikul P. 1976. Persistence of virus-specific IgM and clinical recovery after Japanese encephalitis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 25: 733738.
54. Kapoor H,, Signs K,, Somsel P,, Downes FP,, Clark PA,, Massey JP. 2004. Persistence of West Nile Virus (WNV) IgM antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with CNS disease. J Clin Virol 31: 289291.
55. Levett PN,, Sonnenberg K,, Sidaway F,, Shead S,, Niedrig M,, Steinhagen K,, Horsman GB,, Drebot MA. 2005. Use of immunoglobulin G avidity assays for differentiation of primary from previous infections with West Nile virus. J Clin Microbiol 43: 58735875.
56. Chanama S,, Sukprasert W,, Sa-ngasang A,, A An,, Sangkitporn S,, Kurane I,, Anantapreecha S. 2005. Detection of Japanese Encephalitis (JE) virus-specific IgM in cerebrospinal fluid and serum samples from JE patients. Jpn J Infect Dis 58: 294296.
57. Burke DS,, Nisalak A,, Ussery MA,, Laorakpongse T,, Chantavibul S. 1985. Kinetics of IgM and IgG responses to Japanese encephalitis virus in human serum and cerebrospinal fluid. J Infect Dis 151: 10931099.
58. Ravi V,, Desai AS,, Shenoy PK,, Satishchandra P,, Chandramuki A,, Gourie-Devi M. 1993. Persistence of Japanese encephalitis virus in the human nervous system. J Med Virol 40: 326329.
59. Hunsperger EA,, Yoksan S,, Buchy P,, Nguyen VC,, Sekaran SD,, Enria DA,, Pelegrino JL,, Vazquez S,, Artsob H,, Drebot M,, Gubler DJ,, Halstead SB,, Guzman MG,, Margolis HS,, Nathanson CM,, Lic NRR,, Bessoff KE,, Kliks S,, Peeling RW. 2009. Evaluation of commercially available anti-dengue virus immunoglobulin M tests. Emerg Infect Dis 15: 436440.
60. Blacksell SD,, Bell D,, Kelley J,, Mammen MP Jr,, Gibbons RV,, Jarman RG,, Vaughn DW,, Jenjaroen K,, Nisalak A,, Thongpaseuth S,, Vongsouvath M,, Davong V,, Phouminh P,, Phetsouvanh R,, Day NPJ,, Newton PN. 2007. Prospective study to determine accuracy of rapid serological assays for diagnosis of acute dengue virus infection in Laos. Clin Vaccine Immunol 14: 14581464.
61. Ravi V,, Robinson JS,, Russell BJ,, Desai A,, Ramamurty N,, Featherstone D,, Johnson BW. 2009. Evaluation of IgM antibody capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits for detection of IgM against Japanese encephalitis virus in cerebrospinal fluid samples. Am J Trop Med Hyg 81: 11441150.
62. World Health Organization. 2009. Evaluation of commercially available anti-dengue virus immunoglobulin M test. World Health Organ Eval Rep Ser 3: 152.
63. Imrie A,, Meeks J,, Gurary A,, Sukhbaatar M,, Truong TT,, Cropp CB,, Effler P. 2007. Antibody to dengue 1 detected more than 60 years after infection. Viral Immunol 20: 672675.
64. Johnson AJ,, Martin DA,, Karabatsos N,, Roehrig JT. 2000. Detection of anti-arboviral immunoglobulin G by using a monoclonal antibody-based capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J Clin Microbiol 38: 18271831.
65. Cardosa MJ,, Wang SM,, Sum MSH,, Tio PH. 2002. Antibodies against prM protein distinguish between previous infection with dengue and Japanese encephalitis viruses. BMC Microbiol 2: 9.
66. Dos Santos FB,, Miagostovich MP,, Nogueira RMR,, Schatzmayr HG,, Riley LW,, Harris E. 2004. Analysis of recombinant dengue virus polypeptides for dengue diagnosis and evaluation of the humoral immune response. Am J Trop Med Hyg 71: 144152.
67. Matheus S,, Deparis X,, Labeau B,, Lelarge J,, Morvan J,, Dussart P. 2005. Discrimination between primary and secondary dengue virus infection by an immunoglobulin G avidity test using a single acute-phase serum sample. J Clin Microbiol 43: 27932797.
68. Cordeiro MT,, Braga-Neto U,, Nogueira RMR,, Marques ETA Jr. 2009. Reliable classifier to differentiate primary and secondary acute dengue infection based on IgG ELISA. PLoS One 4: e4945.
69. De Souza VAUF,, Fernandes S,, Araujo ES,, Tateno AF,, Oliveira OMNPF,, Dos Reis Oliveira R,, Pannuti CS. 2004. Use of an immunoglobulin G avidity test to discriminate between primary and secondary dengue virus infections. J Clin Microbiol 42: 17821784.
70. Thakare JP,, Gore MM,, Risbud AR,, Banerjee K,, Ghosh SN. 1991. Detection of virus specific IgG subclasses in Japanese encephalitis patients. Indian J Med Res 93: 271276.
71. Koraka P,, Suharti C,, Setiati TE,, Mairuhu ATA,, Van Gorp E,, Hach CE,, Juffrie M,, Sutaryo J,, Van Der Meer GM,, Groen J,, Osterhaus ADME. 2001. Kinetics of dengue virus-specific serum immunoglobulin classes and subclasses correlate with clinical outcome of infection. J Clin Microbiol 39: 43324338.
72. Thein S,, Aaskov J,, Myint TT,, Shwe TN,, Saw TT,, Zaw A. 1993. Changes in levels of anti-dengue virus IgG subclasses in patients with disease of varying severity. J Med Virol 40: 102106.
73. TDR Diagnostics Expert Evaluation Panel, Banoo S,, Bell D,, Bossuyt P,, Herring A,, Mabey D,, Poole F,, Smith PG,, Sriram N,, Wongsrichanalai C,, Linke R,, O’Brien R,, Perkins M,, Cunningham J,, Matsoso P,, Nathanson CM,, Olliaro P,, Peeling RW,, Ramsay A. 2010. Evaluation of diagnostic tests for infectious diseases: general principles. Nat Rev Microbiol 8( Suppl 12) : S17S29.
74. Roehrig JT,, Hombach J,, Barrett ADT. 2008. Guidelines for plaque-reduction neutralization testing of human antibodies to dengue viruses. Viral Immunol 21: 123132.
75. Modis Y,, Ogata S,, Clements D,, Harrison SC. 2005. Variable surface epitopes in the crystal structure of dengue virus type 3 envelope glycoprotein. J Virol 79: 12231231.
76. Roehrig JT,, Bolin RA,, Kelly RG. 1998. Monoclonal antibody mapping of the envelope glycoprotein of the dengue 2 virus, Jamaica. Virology 246: 317328.
77. Crill WD,, Roehrig JT. 2001. Monoclonal antibodies that bind to domain III of dengue virus E glycoprotein are the most efficient blockers of virus adsorption to Vero cells. J Virol 75: 77697773.
78. Roehrig JT,, Mathews JH. 1985. The neutralization site on the E2 glycoprotein of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (TC-83) virus is composed of multiple conformationally stable epitopes. Virology 142: 347356.
79. Hunt AR,, Frederickson S,, Maruyama T,, Roehrig JT,, Blair CD. 2010. The first human epitope map of the alphaviral E1 and E2 proteins reveals a new E2 epitope with significant virus neutralizing activity. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4: e739.
80. Cheng LL,, Schultz KT,, Yuill TM,, Israel BA. 2000. Identification and localization of conserved antigenic epitopes on the G2 proteins of California serogroup Bunyaviruses. Viral Immunol 13: 201213.
81. Westaway EG. 1965. The neutralization of arboviruses. II. Neutralization in heterologous virus-serum mixtures with four group B arboviruses. Virology 26: 528537.
82. Westaway EG. 1965. The neutralization of arboviruses. I. Neutralization homologous virus-serum mixtures with two group B arboviruses. Virology 26: 517527.
83. Halstead SB,, O’Rourke EJ. 1977. Antibody-enhanced dengue virus infection in primate leukocytes. Nature 265: 739741.
84. Ferenczi E,, Ban E,, Abraham A,, Kaposi T,, Petranyi G,, Berencsi G,, Vaheri A. 2008. Severe tick-borne encephalitis in a patient previously infected by West Nile virus. Scand J Infect Dis 40: 759761.
85. Pierson TC,, Xu Q,, Nelson S,, Oliphant T,, Nybakken GE,, Fremont DH,, Diamond MS. 2007. The stoichiometry of antibody-mediated neutralization and enhancement of West Nile virus infection. Cell Host Microbe 1: 135145.


Generic image for table

Characteristics of arboviruses affecting humans

Citation: Hunsperger E. 2015. Arboviruses, p 1644-1659. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch95
Generic image for table

Commercial diagnostic tests available for arboviruses

Citation: Hunsperger E. 2015. Arboviruses, p 1644-1659. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch95

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error