Chapter 10 : Origin and Dissemination of Antimicrobial Resistance among Uropathogenic

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Without doubt, antimicrobial agents, in particular antibiotics, have saved countless lives and revolutionized medicine in many respects, leaving few to question their importance to modern society. However, early optimism that antibiotic usage would conquer bacterial infections was soon eclipsed by reports of emerging resistance. Certainly, this has been the case with uropathogens, such as uropathogenic (UPEC), where multidrug-resistant strains are emerging and causing outbreaks worldwide ( ). Here, we will review some of the common mechanisms of antibiotic resistance and the prevalence and dissemination of antibiotic-resistance determinants among UPEC.

Citation: Nolan L, Li G, Logue C. 2017. Origin and Dissemination of Antimicrobial Resistance among Uropathogenic , p 179-205. In Mulvey M, Klumpp D, Stapleton A (ed), Urinary Tract Infections: Molecular Pathogenesis and Clinical Management, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.UTI-0007-2012
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Figure 1

Circular genetic map of pAPEC-O2-ColV, drawn to scale. Arrows indicate predicted genes and their directions of transcription. Yellow arrows indicate virulence-associated genes. Blue arrows indicate genes involved in plasmid transfer and maintenance. Red arrows indicate genes involved in plasmid replication. Gray arrows indicate genes of unknown function. Black arrows indicate mobile genetic elements. Orange slashes indicate gaps in contiguous sequence that were unable to be resolved due to IS elements. Reprinted from the ( ) with permission of the publisher.

Citation: Nolan L, Li G, Logue C. 2017. Origin and Dissemination of Antimicrobial Resistance among Uropathogenic , p 179-205. In Mulvey M, Klumpp D, Stapleton A (ed), Urinary Tract Infections: Molecular Pathogenesis and Clinical Management, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.UTI-0007-2012
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Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Circular genetic map of pAPEC-O2-R. Coding regions are indicated by arrows pointing in the direction of transcription. Yellow arrows indicate coding regions involved in antimicrobial resistance, blue arrows indicate coding regions involved in replication, red and pink arrows indicate coding regions involved in plasmid transfer, brown arrows indicate coding regions involved in plasmid maintenance, green arrows indicate mobile elements, blue-gray arrows indicate conserved hypothetical proteins, and gray arrows indicate unknown hypothetical proteins. Reprinted from ( ) with permission of the publisher.

Citation: Nolan L, Li G, Logue C. 2017. Origin and Dissemination of Antimicrobial Resistance among Uropathogenic , p 179-205. In Mulvey M, Klumpp D, Stapleton A (ed), Urinary Tract Infections: Molecular Pathogenesis and Clinical Management, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.UTI-0007-2012
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Image of Figure 3
Figure 3

Circular map of pAPEC-O103-ColBM. The outer two circles show predicted coding regions in forward and reverse orientations, and different colors indicate different predicted functions. The next circle shows the G_C content in a 1,000-bp window with 10-bp steps. The next five circles show levels of nucleotide homology with other sequenced ColV-type plasmids. Blue indicates >90% homology with pAPEC-O103-ColBM, while black indicates ≤90% homology. The numbers on these circles indicate comparisons with pAPEC-O2-ColV (circle 1), pAPEC-O1-ColBM (circle 2), pVM01 (circle 3), pCVM29188_146 (circle 4), and pSMS-3-5_130 (circle 5). Reprinted from ( ) with permission of the publisher.

Citation: Nolan L, Li G, Logue C. 2017. Origin and Dissemination of Antimicrobial Resistance among Uropathogenic , p 179-205. In Mulvey M, Klumpp D, Stapleton A (ed), Urinary Tract Infections: Molecular Pathogenesis and Clinical Management, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.UTI-0007-2012
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Mechanisms of action of antibacterial agents

Citation: Nolan L, Li G, Logue C. 2017. Origin and Dissemination of Antimicrobial Resistance among Uropathogenic , p 179-205. In Mulvey M, Klumpp D, Stapleton A (ed), Urinary Tract Infections: Molecular Pathogenesis and Clinical Management, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.UTI-0007-2012

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