Chapter 5 : The Vaginal Microbiota and Urinary Tract Infection

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Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common clinical problem across the lifespan of women. Although UTIs are not systematically tracked, making estimates of U.S. incidence somewhat challenging, the most recent combined National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey data from 2009–2010 suggest that approximately 10 million outpatient visits for a diagnosis of UTI occur annually in the United States among both women and men ( ). Women are disproportionately affected, with an estimated lifetime risk of UTI of 60% ( ). In otherwise healthy, sexually active premenopausal women, these infections occur approximately every other year ( ). As women age, UTIs become more common ( ). A population-based study of community-onset UTI among nearly 31,000 residents of Calgary showed that the incidence of UTI among women demonstrates an initial peak in the twenties (30 per 1,000), decreases slightly during the later reproductive years, then steadily increases with every decade of life starting in late middle age, reaching a maximum of 125/1,000 at and above age 80 ( ). Although the cost of treating UTI has not been recently estimated, the last published estimate in 2010 indicated that the annual U.S. domestic cost exceeded two billion dollars ( ).

Citation: Stapleton A. 2017. The Vaginal Microbiota and Urinary Tract Infection, p 79-86. In Mulvey M, Klumpp D, Stapleton A (ed), Urinary Tract Infections: Molecular Pathogenesis and Clinical Management, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.UTI-0025-2016
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