Chapter 15.8 : Management of Infectious Waste

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For effective and efficient management of infectious wastes, a comprehensive waste management plan is essential in order to ensure the safety of the employees handling the waste, compliance with the various regulatory requirements ( ), meeting the standards of the JCAHO ( ) and the guidelines of other professional groups such as the NCCLS ( ), and implementation of cost-effective strategies for wasste disposal. In developing a comprehensive plan for infectious-waste management, consider the following factors because of the constraints that they impose.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. Management of Infectious Waste, p 732-739. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch15.8
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1. Centers for Disease Control. 1987. Recommendations for prevention of HIV transmission in health-care settings. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 36( Suppl. 2S): 1S18S.
2. Centers for Disease Control. 1988. Update: universal precautions for prevention of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and other blood-borne pathogens in health-care settings. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 37: 377387.
3. Centers for Disease Control. 1989. Guidelines for prevention of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus to health-care and public-safety workers. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 38( Suppl. 6): 137.
4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1998. Recommendations for prevention and control of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and HCV-related chronic disease. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 47( RR-19): 139.
5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Institutes of Health. February 2007, posting date. Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories, 5th ed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC. http://www.cdc.gov/OD/ohs/biosfty/bmbl5/ bmbl5toc.htm.
6. Denys, G. A., 2000. Infectious waste management, p. 782 796. In J. Lederberg (ed.), Encyclopedia of Microbiology, 2nd ed., vol. 2. Academic Press, Orlando, FL.
7. Garner, J. S. 1996. Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. Guidelines for isolation precautions in hospitals. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 17: 54 80.
8. Gordon, J. G.,, and G. A. Denys,. 1995. Minimization of waste generation in medical laboratories, p. 163 193. In P. A. Reinhardt,, K. L. Leonard,, and P. C. Ashbrook (ed.), Pollution Prevention and Waste Minimization in Laboratories. Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, MI.
9. Gordon, J. G.,, and G. A. Denys,. 2001. Infectious wastes: efficient and effective management, p. 1139 1157. In S. S. Block (ed.), Disinfection, Sterilization, and Preservation, 5th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
10. Gordon, J. G.,, P. A. Reinhardt,, and G. A. Denys,. 2004. Medical waste management, p. 1773 1785. In C. G. Mayhall (ed.), Hospital Epidemiology and Infection Control, 3rd ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
11. Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. 1998. Hospital Accreditation Standards: Standards, Intents. Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, Chicago, IL.
12. Marsik, F. J.,, and G. A. Denys,. 1995. Sterilization, decontamination, and disinfection procedures for the microbiology laboratory, p. 86 98. In P. R. Murray,, E. J. Baron,, M. A. Pfaller,, F. C. Tenover,, and R. H. Yolken (ed.), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 6th ed. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.
13. NCCLS. 2002. Clinical Laboratory Waste Management. Approved guideline GP5-A2, 2nd ed. NCCLS, Wayne, PA.
14. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. 1991. Occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens:—final rule. Fed. Regist. 56: 6400464182. (Also CFR Title 29, Part 1910.1030: Bloodborne pathogens.)
15. Reinhardt, P. A.,, and J. G. Gordon (ed.). 1991. Infectious and Medical Waste Management. Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, MI.
16. State and Territorial Association of Alternative Treatment Technologies. 1998. Technical Assistance Manual: State Regulatory Oversight of Medical Waste Treatment Technologies. Report from meeting held in New Orleans, LA, 15-16 February 1998. STAATTII.
17. U.S. Department of Transportation. 1991. Performance-oriented packaging standards: revisions and response to petitions for reconsideration. Fed. Regist. 56: 6612466287. (Also CFR Title 49, Parts 171-180, specifically Section 173.197: Regulated medical waste; Part 178: Specifications for packaging; and Section 172.101: Hazardous materials table.)
18. U.S. Department of Transportation. 1996. CFR Title 49, Section 173.134(a)(4): Regulated medical waste.
19. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1986. EPA Guide for Infectious Waste Management. Publication EPA/530-SW-86-014. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
20. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1997. CFR Title 40, Section 60.51c: Definitions, medical/infectious waste

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