Chapter 16.5 : BotulinumToxin—

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

BotulinumToxin—, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817435/9781555815271_Chap16_5-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817435/9781555815271_Chap16_5-2.gif


. is an anaerobic gram-positive rod that produces spores and is ubiquitous in soil and marine sediments throughout the world. Botulism is a neuroparalytic illness resulting from the action of a toxin produced by strains of . These toxins are extremely hazardous to humans, requiring only a minute quantity to cause profound intoxication and death. There are four distinct forms of botulism: (i) food borne, (ii) wound, (iii) infant, and (iv) adult or child. Food-borne botulism, although the most common form, is relatively rare but often fatal. This form of botulism results from the ingestion of food items containing the preformed toxin. The clinical diagnosis of food-borne botulism can be confirmed by isolating the organism from the feces of the patient. Isolation of the organism from remnants of the consumed food item does not provide confirmatory evidence of botulism in the absence of other supporting laboratory data. The demonstration of botulinum toxin in patient feces or serum or in the suspected food item supports the clinical diagnosis. Wound botulism occurs following the colonization of the wound by . Multiplication of the organism may result in the production of toxin. Confirmation requires demonstration of the organism and toxin in serum, feces, or material from the wound. Infant botulism results when ingested spores germinate within the intestinal tract, causing toxin production. Confirmation of infection is dependent on the demonstration of botulinum toxin in the feces.

Citation: Garcia L. 2010. BotulinumToxin—, p 766-768. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817435.ch16.5
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


1. Allen, S. D.,, C. L. Emery,, and D. M. Lyerly,. 2003. Clostridium, p. 835 856. I. P. R. Murray,, E. J. Baron,, J. H. Jorgensen,, M. A. Pfaller,, and R. H. Yolken (ed.), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 8th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
2. Arnon, S. S., et al. 2001. Botulism toxin as a biological weapon. Medical and public health management. JAMA 285: 1059 1070. ( Erratum, 285:2081.).
3. Franz, D. R.,, P. B. Jahrling,, A. M. Friedlander,, D. J. McClain,, D. L. Hoover,, W. R. Bryne,, J. A. Pavlin,, G. W. Christopher,, and E. M. Eitzen, Jr. 1997. Clinical recognition and management of patients exposed to biological warfare agents. JAMA 278: 399 411.
4. Gilchrist, M. J. R.,, W. P. McKinney,, J. M. Miller,, and A. S. Weissfeld. 2000. Cumitech33, Laboratory Safety, Management, and Diagnosis of Biological Agents Associated with Bioterrorism. Coordinating ed., J. W. Snyder. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
5. Miller, J. M. 2000. The laboratory response to agents of bioterrorism. American Society for Microbiology Audio conference Series. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.
6. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2007. Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories, 5th ed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.
7. Holden, J., 2004. Collection and transport of clinical specimens for anaerobic culture, p. 4.2.1 4.2.7. I. H. D. Isenberg (ed.), Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 2nd ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
8. Isenberg, H. D., 2004. Specimen collection, trans-port, and acceptability, p. 2.1.1 2.1.25. I. H. D. Isenberg (ed.), Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 2nd ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
9. Klietmann, W. F.,, and K. L. Ruoff. 2001. Bio-terrorism: implications for the clinical microbiologist. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 14: 364 381.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error