Chapter 15 : c-di-GMP and its Effects on Biofilm Formation and Dispersion: a Review

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is a Gram-negative bacterium that has become an indispensable model organism in our quest to understand the A-to-Z of bacterial biofilms ( ). It is genetically tractable, has a sequenced and annotated genome (http://www.pseudomonas.com), and boasts a number of useful tools ( ) that facilitate both and studies. Although it is commonly found as an environmental isolate, it is also an opportunistic pathogen capable of colonizing plants and mammalian hosts and is particularly significant for its efficient colonization of the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients ( ). The versatility of is in large part attributed to a battery of traits that provide it with selective advantage(s) across diverse environments. Like many other bacteria, is capable of transitioning between motile and sessile/biofilm lifestyles, which is believed to contribute to this bacterium’s versatility.

Citation: Ha D, O’toole G. 2015. c-di-GMP and its Effects on Biofilm Formation and Dispersion: a Review, p 301-317. In Ghannoum M, Parsek M, Whiteley M, Mukherjee P (ed), Microbial Biofilms, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.MB-0003-2014
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Figure 1

c-di-GMP: A central regulator of biofilms. The structure of c-di-GMP is shown (center). This molecule is synthesized from two molecules of GTP by enzymes known as diguanylate cyclases (DGCs), which carry a conserved GGDEF domain. c-di-GMP can be degraded by two families of phosphodiesterases (PDEs); those with an EAL domain linearize the molecule to produce pGpG, and proteins with an HD-GYP domain generate two molecules of GMP from the signal. Illustration ©2014 William Scavone, Kestrel Studio, reprinted with permission.

Citation: Ha D, O’toole G. 2015. c-di-GMP and its Effects on Biofilm Formation and Dispersion: a Review, p 301-317. In Ghannoum M, Parsek M, Whiteley M, Mukherjee P (ed), Microbial Biofilms, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.MB-0003-2014
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Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

A model for biofilm formation and dispersion in . The steps of biofilm formation, as described in this article are (1) reversible attachment, likely via the flagellar pole, (2) irreversible attachment via the long axis of the cell, resulting in a monolayer of cells, (3) microcolony formation, (4) macrocolony formation, and (5) dispersion. See the text for more detailed explanations of each step, which are based largely on laboratory studies. Illustration ©2014 William Scavone, Kestrel Studio, reprinted with permission.

Citation: Ha D, O’toole G. 2015. c-di-GMP and its Effects on Biofilm Formation and Dispersion: a Review, p 301-317. In Ghannoum M, Parsek M, Whiteley M, Mukherjee P (ed), Microbial Biofilms, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.MB-0003-2014
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