1887

Chapter 3 : Biology of Foodborne Pathogens on Produce

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Biology of Foodborne Pathogens on Produce, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817527/9781555813574_Chap03-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817527/9781555813574_Chap03-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter reviews the attachment to and localization of human pathogens on the surfaces of plants. It first describes the physicochemical environment of plant surfaces to which bacteria must attach to survive and proliferate. It then summarizes the major known mechanisms of attachment of bacteria to plants, with special reference to the similarities between the cell surface moieties of plant-associated bacteria and those of human pathogens. The chapter discusses the research that has been conducted on the localization of human pathogenic bacteria on plant surfaces. It presents experimental evidence for the internalization of human pathogens in plants, as well as for their persistence on and in field-grown crops. More recently, research has begun to document the ability of foodborne pathogens to persist once attached to plant surfaces. The chapter presents some of the most relevant findings regarding the persistence of human pathogens on plants, supporting the hypothesis that preharvest bacterial attachment and subsequent survival may result in the consumption of contaminated produce. It further emphasizes the need to understand in greater detail the mechanisms by which foodborne pathogens attach to plant tissues and the ecology of these bacteria in the plant-soil environment. In contrast, the ability of foodborne pathogens to attach to plant surfaces has only begun to be characterized chemically and molecularly.

Citation: Solomon E, Brandl M, Mandrell R. 2006. Biology of Foodborne Pathogens on Produce, p 55-83. In Matthews K, Doyle M (ed), Microbiology of Fresh Produce. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817527.ch3

Key Concept Ranking

Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy
0.43080857
0.43080857
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Schematic representation of select attachment factors described in bacteria. (Artwork courtesy of Nereus Gunther, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Eastern Regional Research Center, Wyndmoor, Pa.)

Citation: Solomon E, Brandl M, Mandrell R. 2006. Biology of Foodborne Pathogens on Produce, p 55-83. In Matthews K, Doyle M (ed), Microbiology of Fresh Produce. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817527.ch3
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Fluorescence (A, C, and D) and scanning electron (B) micrographs of foodborne pathogenic bacteria (arrows) that attached to and colonized various plant surfaces after their inoculation in the laboratory. (A) GFP-labeled serovar Thompson on the vein of a cilantro leaf (micrograph by M. T. Brandl). (B) on the rind surface of a cantaloupe (micrograph by E. B. Solomon). (C) GFP-labeled serovar Newport on root hairs of alfalfa sprouts ( ). (D) GFP-labeled O157:H7 on the epidermal cells of lettuce roots irrigated with contaminated water ( ).

Citation: Solomon E, Brandl M, Mandrell R. 2006. Biology of Foodborne Pathogens on Produce, p 55-83. In Matthews K, Doyle M (ed), Microbiology of Fresh Produce. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817527.ch3
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817527.chap03
1. Ackers, M.-L.,, B. E. Mahon,, E. Leahy,, B. Goode,, T. Damrow,, P. S. Hayes,, W. F. Bibb,, D. H. Rice,, T. J. Barrett,, L. Hutwanger,, P. M. Griffin,, and L. Slutsker. 1998. An outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections associated with leaf lettuce consumption. J. Infect. Dis. 177: 1588 1593.
2. Annous, B. A.,, G. M. Sapers,, A. M. Mattrazzo,, and D. C. Riordan. 2001. Efficacy of washing with a commercial flatbed brush washer, using conventional and experimental washing agents, in reducing populations of Escherichia coli on artificially inoculated apples. J. Food Prot. 64: 159 163.
3. Anonymous. 28 January 2003, posting date. FDA Survey of Domestic Fresh Produce. FY 2000/2001 field assignment. [Online.] U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Washington, D.C. http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/prodsu10.html.
4. Anonymous. 30 January 2001. FDA Survey of Imported Fresh Produce. FY 1999 field assignment. [Online.] U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Washington, D.C. http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/prodsur6.html.
5. Ausmees, N.,, K. Jacobsson,, and M. Lindberg. 2001. A unipolarly located, cell-surface-associated agglutinin, RapA, belongs to a family of Rhizobium-adhering proteins (Rap) in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii. Microbiology 147: 549 559.
6. Barak, J. D.,, L. C. Whitehand,, and A. O. Charkowski. 2002. Differences in attachment of Salmonella enterica serovars and Escherichia coli O157:H7 to alfalfa sprouts. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68: 4758 4763.
7. Bartz, J. A.,, and R. K. Showalter. 1981. Infiltration of tomatoes by bacteria in aqueous suspension. Phytopathology 71: 515 518.
8. Beuchat, L. R. 2002. Ecological factors influencing survival and growth of human pathogens on raw fruits and vegetables. Microbes Infect. 4: 413 423.
9. Bohlool, B. B.,, and E. L. Schmidt. 1974. Lectins: a possible basis for specificity in the Rhizobium-legume root nodule symbiosis. Science 185: 269 271.
10. Bolton, H.,, J. K. Fredrickson,, and L. F. Elliot,. 1993. Microbial ecology of the rhizosphere, p. 646. In F. B. Metting (ed.), Soil Microbial Ecology. Marcel Dekker, New York, N.Y.
11. Brandl, M. T.,, and R. E. Mandrell. 2002. Fitness of Salmonella enterica serovar Thompson in the cilantro phyllosphere. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68: 3614 3621.
12. Brandl, M. T.,, and J.-M. Monier,. 2005. Methods in microscopy for the visualization of bacteria and their behavior on plants. In G. M. Sapers,, J. R. Gorny,, and A. E. Yousef (ed.), Microbiology of Fruits and Vegetables. CRC Press LLC, Ames, Iowa.
13. Breuer, T.,, D. H. Benkel,, R. L. Shapiro,, W. N. Hall,, M. M. Winnett,, M. J. Linn,, J. Neimann,, T. J. Barrett,, S. Dietrich,, F. P. Downes,, D. M. Toney,, J. L. Pearson,, H. Rolka,, L. Slutsker,, and P. M. Griffin. 2001. A multistate outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections linked to alfalfa sprouts grown from contaminated seeds. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 7: 977 982.
14. Buchanan, R. L.,, S. G. Edelson,, R. L. Miller,, and G. M. Sapers. 1999. Contamination of intact apples after immersion in an aqueous environment containing Escherichia coli O157:H7. J. Food Prot. 62: 444 450.
15. Buck, J. W.,, R. R. Walcott,, and L. R. Beuchat. 21 January 2003, posting date. Recent trends in microbiological safety of fruits and vegetables. Plant Health Prog. [Online.] doi:10.1094/PHP-2003-0121-01-RV.
16. Burdman, S.,, G. Dulguerova,, Y. Okon,, and E. Jurkevitch. 2001. Purification of the major outer membrane protein of Azospirillum brasilense, its affinity to plant roots, and its involvement in cell aggregation. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 14: 555 561.
17. Burnett, S. L.,, and L. R. Beuchat. 2000. Human pathogens associated with raw produce and unpasteurized juices, and difficulties in decontamination. J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 25: 281 287.
18. Burnett, S. L.,, J. Chen,, and L. R. Beuchat. 2000. Attachment of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to the surfaces and internal structures of apples as detected by confocal scanning laser microscopy. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66: 4679 4687.
19. Campbell, V. J.,, J. Mohle-Boetani,, R. Reporter,, S. Abbott,, J. Farrar,, M. T. Brandl,, R. E. Mandrell,, and S. B.Werner. 2001. An outbreak of Salmonella serotype Thompson associated with fresh cilantro. J. Infect. Dis. 183: 984 987.
20. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2003. Foodborne Outbreaks Due to Bacterial Etiologies, 2003. [Online.] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Ga. http://www.cdc.gov/foodborneoutbreaks/us_outb/fbo2003/bacterial03.pdf.
21. Charkowski, A. O.,, J. D. Barak,, C. Z. Sarreal,, and R. E. Mandrell. 2002. Differences in growth of Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa sprouts. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68: 3114 3120.
22. Clark, F. E. 1949. Soil microorganisms and plant roots. Adv. Agron. 1: 241 288.
23. Cooley, M. B.,, W. G. Miller,, and R. E. Mandrell. 2003. Colonization of Arabidopsis thaliana with Salmonella enterica or enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and competition by Enterobacter asburiae. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69: 4915 4926.
24. Croes, C. L.,, S. Moens,, E. Van Bastelaere,, J. Vanderleyden,, and K. W. Michiels. 1993. The polar flagellum mediates Azospirillum brasilense adsorption to wheat roots. J. Gen. Microbiol. 139: 2261 2269.
25. Curl, E. A.,, and B. Truelove,. 1986. Root exudates, p. 55 92. In B. Yaron (ed.), The Rhizosphere. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany.
26. Curl, E. A.,, and B. Truelove,. 1986. The structure and function of roots, p. 9 54. In B. Yaron (ed.), The Rhizosphere. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany.
27. Del Gallo, M.,, M. Negi,, and C. A. Neyra. 1989. Calcofluor- and lectin-binding exocellular polysaccharides of Azospirillum brasilense and Azospirillum lipoferum. J. Bacteriol. 171: 3504 3510.
28. Derridj, S., 1996. Nutrients on the leaf surface, p. 25 42. In C. E. Morris,, P. C. Nicot,, and C. Nguyen-The (ed.), Aerial Plant Surface Microbiology. Plenum Press, New York, N.Y.
29. Dong, Y.,, A. L. Iniguez,, B. M. Ahmer,, and E. W. Triplett. 2003. Kinetics and strain specificity of rhizosphere and endophytic colonization by enteric bacteria on seedlings of Medicago sativa and Medicago truncatula. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69: 1783 1790.
30. Eblen, B. S.,, M. O. Walderhaug,, S. Edelson-Mammel,, S. J. Chirtel,, A. De Jesus,, R. I. Merker,, R. L. Buchanan,, and A. J. Miller. 2004. Potential for internalization, growth, and survival of Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in oranges. J. Food Prot. 67: 1578 1584.
31. Esmelindro, A. A.,, S. Girardi Jdos,, A. Mossi,, R. A. Jacques,, and C. Dariva. 2004. Influence of agronomic variables on the composition of mate tea leaves ( Ilex paraguariensis) extracts obtained from CO 2 extraction at 30 degrees C and 175 bar. J. Agric. Food Chem. 52: 1990 1995.
32. Fenlon, D. R.,, I. D. Ogden,, A. Vinten,, and I. Svoboda. 2000. The fate of Escherichia coli and E. coli O157 in cattle slurry after application to land. Symp. Ser. Soc. Appl. Microbiol. 88: 149S 156S.
33. Fukushima, H.,, K. Hoshina,, and M. Gomyoda. 1999. Long-term survival of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O26, O111, and O157 in bovine feces. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65: 5177 5181.
34. Gagliardi, J. V.,, and J. S. Karns. 2002. Persistence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in soil and on plant roots. Environ. Microbiol. 4: 89 96.
35. Gal, M.,, G. M. Preston,, R. C. Massey,, A. J. Spiers,, and P. B. Rainey. 2003. Genes encoding a cellulosic polymer contribute toward the ecological success of Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 on plant surfaces. Mol. Ecol. 12: 3109 3121.
36. Gandhi, M.,, S. Golding,, S. Yaron,, and K. R. Matthews. 2001. Use of green fluorescent protein expressing Salmonella Stanley to investigate survival, spatial location, and control on alfalfa sprouts. J. Food Prot. 64: 1891 1898.
37. Gelvin, S. B. 2003. Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation: the biology behind the “gene-jockeying” tool. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 67: 16 37.
38. Gorski, L.,, J. D. Palumbo,, and R. E. Mandrell. 2003. Attachment of Listeria monocytogenes to radish tissue is dependent upon temperature and flagellar motility. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69: 258 266.
39. Gorski, L.,, J. D. Palumbo,, and K. D. Nguyen. 2004. Strain-specific differences in the attachment of Listeria monocytogenes to alfalfa sprouts. J. Food Prot. 67: 2488 2495.
40. Guo, X.,, J. Chen,, R. E. Brackett,, and L. R. Beuchat. 2001. Survival of salmonellae on and in tomato plants from the time of inoculation at flowering and early stages of fruit development through fruit ripening. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67: 4760 4764.
41. Guo, X.,, M. W. van Iersel,, J. Chen,, R. E. Brackett,, and L. R. Beuchat. 2002. Evidence of association of salmonellae with tomato plants grown hydroponically in inoculated nutrient solution. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68: 3639 3643.
42. Haahtela, K.,, E. Tarkka,, and T. K. Korhonen. 1985. Type 1 fimbria-mediated adhesion of enteric bacteria to grass roots. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 49: 1182 1185.
43. Han, Y.,, D. M. Sherman,, R. H. Linton,, S. S. Nielsen,, and P. E. Nielsen. 2000. The effects of washing and chlorine dioxide gas on survival and attachment of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to green pepper surfaces. Food Microbiol. 17: 521 533.
44. Handelsman, J.,, and E. V. Stabb. 1996. Biocontrol of soilborne plant pathogens. Plant Cell 8: 1855 1869.
45. Hassan, A. N.,, and J. F. Frank. 2004. Attachment of Escherichia coli O157:H7 grown in tryptic soy broth and nutrient broth to apple and lettuce surfaces as related to cell hydrophobicity, surface charge, and capsule production. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 96: 103 109.
46. Hassan, A. N.,, and J. F. Frank. 2003. Influence of surfactant hydrophobicity on the detachment of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from lettuce. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 87: 145 152.
47. Hilborn, E. D.,, J. H. Mermin,, P. A. Mshar,, J. L. Hadler,, A. Voetsch,, C. Wojtkunski,, M. Swartz,, R. Mshar,, M. A. Lambert-Fair,, J. A. Farrar,, M. K. Glynn,, and L. Slutsker. 1999. A multistate outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections associated with consumption of mesclun lettuce. Arch. Intern. Med. 159: 1758 1764.
48. Hirano, S. S.,, L. S. Baker,, and C. D. Upper. 1996. Raindrop momentum triggers growth of leaf-associated populations of Pseudomonas syringae on field-grown snap bean plants. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62: 2560 2566.
49. Hirano, S. S.,, and C. D. Upper. 2000. Bacteria in the leaf ecosystem with emphasis on Pseudomonas syringae—a pathogen, ice nucleus, and epiphyte. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 64: 624 653.
50. Ho, S. C.,, J. L. Wang,, and M. Schindler. 1990. Carbohydrate binding activities of Bradyrhizobium japonicum. I. Saccharide-specific inhibition of homotypic and heterotypic adhesion. J. Cell Biol. 111: 1631 1638.
51. Huang, J.-S. 1986. Ultrastructure of bacterial penetration in plants. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 24: 141 157.
52. Ibekwe, A. M.,, P. M. Watt,, P. J. Shouse,, and C. M. Grieve. 2004. Fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in irrigation water on soils and plants as validated by culture method and realtime PCR. Can. J. Microbiol. 50: 1007 1014.
53. Islam, M.,, J. Morgan,, M. P. Doyle,, and X. Jiang. 2004. Fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in manure compost-amended soil and on carrots and onions grown in an environmentally controlled growth chamber. J. Food Prot. 67: 574 578.
54. Islam, M.,, J. Morgan,, M. P. Doyle,, S. C. Phatak,, P. Millner,, and X. Jiang. 2004. Persistence of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium on lettuce and parsley and in soils on which they were grown in fields treated with contaminated manure composts or irrigation water. Foodborne Pathog. Dis. 1: 27 35.
55. Islam, M.,, M. P. Doyle,, S. C. Phatak,, M. Millner,, and X. Jiang. 2004. Persistence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in soil and on leaf lettuce and parsley grown in fields treated with contaminated manure composts or irrigation water. J. Food Prot. 67: 1365 1370.
56. Islam, M.,, J. Morgan,, M. P. Doyle,, S. C. Phatak,, P. Millner,, and X. Jiang. 2004. Fate of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium on carrots and radishes grown in fields treated with contaminated manure composts or irrigation water. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70: 2497 2502.
57. Itoh, Y.,, Y. Sugita-Konishi,, F. Kasuga,, M. Iwaki,, Y. Hara-Kudo,, N. Saito,, Y. Noguchi,, H. Konuma,, and S. Kumagai. 1998. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 present in radish sprouts. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64: 1532 1535.
58. Jaeger, C. H.,, S. E. Lindow,, S. Miller,, E. Clark,, and M. K. Firestone. 1999. Mapping of sugar and amino acid availability in soil around roots with bacterial sensors of sucrose and tryptophan. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65: 2685 2690.
59. Jeffree, C. E., 1996. Structure and ontogeny of plant cuticles, p. 33 82. In G. Kerstiens (ed.), Plant Cuticles. Bios, Oxford, United Kingdom.
60. Jiang, X.,, J. Morgan,, and M. P. Doyle. 2002. Fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in manure-amended soil. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68: 2605 2609.
61. Joyner, D. C.,, and S. E. Lindow. 2000. Heterogeneity of iron bioavailability on plants assessed with a whole-cell GFP-based bacterial biosensor. Microbiology 146: 2435 2445.
62. Kenney, S. J.,, S. L. Burnett,, and L. R. Beuchat. 2001. Location of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on and in apples as affected by bruising, washing, and rubbing. J. Food Prot. 64: 1328 1333.
63. Korhonen, T. K.,, E. Tarkka,, H. Ranta,, and K. Haahtela. 1983. Type 3 fimbriae of Klebsiella sp.: molecular characterization and role in bacterial adhesion to plant roots. J. Bacteriol. 155: 860 865.
64. Leben, C. 1988. Relative humidity and the survival of epiphytic bacteria with buds and leaves of cucumber plants. Phytopathology 78: 179 185.
65. Leveau, J. H. J.,, and S. E. Lindow. 2001. Appetite of an epiphyte: quantitative monitoring of bacterial sugar consumption in the phyllosphere. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98: 3446 3453.
66. Li, Y.,, R. E. Brackett,, J. Chen,, and L. R. Beuchat. 2001. Survival and growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated onto cut lettuce before or after heating in chlorinated water, followed by storage at 5 or 15 degrees C. J. Food Prot. 64: 305 309.
67. Liao, C. H.,, and G. M. Sapers. 2000. Attachment and growth of Salmonella Chester on apple fruits and in vivo response of attached bacteria to sanitizer treatments. J. Food Prot. 63: 876 883.
68. Lindow, S. E.,, and M. T. Brandl. 2003. Microbiology of the phyllosphere. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69: 1875 1883.
69. Loh, J. T.,, S. C. Ho,, A. W. de Feijter,, J. L. Wang,, and M. Schindler. 1993. Carbohydrate binding activities of Bradyrhizobium japonicum: unipolar localization of the lectin BJ38 on the bacterial cell surface. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90: 3033 3037.
70. Mahon, B. E.,, A. Ponka,, W. N. Hall,, K. Komatsu,, S. E. Dietrich,, A. Siitonen,, G. Cage,, P. S. Hayes,, M. A. Lambert-Fair,, N. H. Bean,, P. M. Griffin,, and L. Slutsker. 1997. An international outbreak of Salmonella infections caused by alfalfa sprouts grown from contaminated seeds. J. Infect. Dis. 175: 876 882.
71. Mandrell, R. E.,, M. A. Apicella,, R. Lindstedt,, and H. Leffler. 1994. Possible interaction between animal lectins and bacterial carbohydrates. Methods Enzymol. 236: 231 254.
72. Mandrell, R. E.,, L. Gorski,, and M. Brandl,. 2005. Attachment of microorganisms to fresh produce. In G. M. Sapers,, J. R. Gorny,, and A. E. Yousef (ed.), Microbiology of Fruits and Vegetables. CRC Press, Ames, Iowa.
73. Matthysse, A. G. 1987. Characterization of nonattaching mutants of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. J. Bacteriol. 169: 313 323.
74. Matthysse, A. G.,, K. V. Holmes,, and R. H. G. Gulrlitz. 1981. Elaboration of cellulose fibrils by Agrobacterium tumefaciens during attachment on carrot cells. J. Bacteriol. 145: 583 595.
75. Matthysse, A. G.,, and S. McMahan. 2001. The effect of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens attR mutation on attachment and root colonization differs between legumes and other dicots. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67: 1070 1075.
76. Mechaber, W. L.,, D. B. Marshall,, R. A. Mechaber,, R. T. Jobe,, and F. S. Chew. 1996. Mapping leaf surface landscapes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93: 4600 4603.
77. Mercier, J.,, and S. E. Lindow. 2000. Role of leaf surface sugars in colonization of plants by bacterial epiphytes. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66: 369 374.
78. Miller, W. G.,, M. T. Brandl,, B. Quinones,, and S. E. Lindow. 2001. Biological sensor for sucrose availability: relative sensitivities of various reporter genes. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67: 1308 1317.
79. Mohle-Boetani, J. C.,, J. A. Farrar,, S. B. Werner,, D. Minassian,, R. Bryant,, S. Abbott,, L. Slutsker,, and D. J. Vugia. 2001. Escherichia coli O157 and Salmonella infections associated with sprouts in California, 1996–1998. Ann. Intern. Med. 135: 239 247.
80. Natvig, E. E.,, S. C. Ingham,, B. H. Ingham,, L. R. Cooperband,, and T. R. Roper. 2002. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Escherichia coli contamination of root and leaf vegetables grown in soils with incorporated bovine manure. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68: 2737 2744.
81. Ojanen-Reuhs, T.,, N. Kalkkinen,, B.Westerlund-Wikstrom,, J. van Doorn,, K. Haahtela,, E. L. Nurmiaho-Lassila,, K. Wengelnik,, U. Bonas,, and T. K. Korhonen. 1997. Characterization of the fimA gene encoding bundle-forming fimbriae of the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria. J. Bacteriol. 179: 1280 1290.
82. Penteado, A. L.,, B. S. Eblen,, and A. J. Miller. 2004. Evidence of Salmonella internalization into fresh mangos during simulated postharvest insect disinfestation procedures. J. Food Prot. 67: 181 184.
83. Quadt-Hallman, A.,, N. Benhamou,, and J. W. Kloepper. 1997. Bacterial endophytes in cotton: mechanisms of entering the plant. Can. J. Microbiol. 43: 577 582.
84. Reina, L. D.,, H. P. Fleming,, and F. Breidt, Jr. 2002. Bacterial contamination of cucumber fruit through adhesion. J. Food Prot. 65: 1881 1887.
85. Reuhs, B. L.,, J. S. Kim,, and A. G. Matthysse. 1997. Attachment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to carrot cells and Arabidopsis wound sites is correlated with the presence of a cell-associated, acidic polysaccharide. J. Bacteriol. 179: 5372 5379.
86. Rodgers, S. L.,, J. N. Cash,, M. Siddiq,, and E. T. Ryser. 2004. A comparison of different chemical sanitizers for inactivating Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes in solution and on apples, lettuce, strawberries, and cantaloupe. J. Food Prot. 67: 721 731.
87. Rojas, C. M.,, J. H. Ham,, W. L. Deng,, J. J. Doyle,, and A. Collmer. 2002. HecA, a member of a class of adhesins produced by diverse pathogenic bacteria, contributes to the attachment, aggregation, epidermal cell killing, and virulence phenotypes of Erwinia chrysanthemi EC16 on Nicotiana clevelandii seedlings. Proc.Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99: 13142 13147.
88. Romantschuk, M. 1992. Attachment of plant pathogenic bacteria to plant surfaces. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 30: 225 243.
89. Romantschuk, M., 2004. Bacterial attachment to leaves, p. 75 78. In R. M. Goodman (ed.), Encyclopedia of Plant and Crop Science. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, N.Y.
90. Romantschuk, M.,, and D. H. Bamford. 1986. The causal agent of halo blight in bean, Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola, attaches to stomata via its pili. Microb. Pathog. 1: 139 148.
91. Sanders, L. C.,, C. S. Wang,, L. L. Walling,, and E. M. Lord. 1991. A homolog of the substrate adhesion molecule vitronectin occurs in four species of flowering plants. Plant Cell 3: 629 635.
92. Seo, K. H.,, and J. F. Frank. 1999. Attachment of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to lettuce leaf surface and bacterial viability in response to chlorine treatment as demonstrated by using confocal scanning laser microscopy. J. Food Prot. 62: 3 9.
93. Smit, G.,, J. W. Kijne,, and B. J. Lugtenberg. 1987. Involvement of both cellulose fibrils and a Ca 2+-dependent adhesin in the attachment of Rhizobium leguminosarum to pea root hair tips. J. Bacteriol. 169: 4294 4301.
94. Smit, G.,, J. W. Kijne,, and B. J. Lugtenberg. 1989. Roles of flagella, lipopolysaccharide, and a Ca 2+-dependent cell surface protein in attachment of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae to pea root hair tips. J. Bacteriol. 171: 569 572.
95. Solomon, E. B.,, C. J. Potenski,, and K. R. Matthews. 2002. Effect of irrigation method on transmission to and persistence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on lettuce. J. Food Prot. 65: 673 676.
96. Solomon, E. B.,, H.-J. Pang,, and K. R. Matthews. 2003. Persistence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on lettuce plants following spray irrigation with contaminated water. J. Food Prot. 66: 2198 2202.
97. Solomon, E. B.,, S. Yaron,, and K. R. Matthews. 2002. Transmission of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from contaminated manure and irrigation water to lettuce plant tissue and its subsequent internalization. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68: 397 400.
98. Stine, S. W.,, I. Song,, C. Y. Choi,, and C. P. Gerba. 2003. Effect of environmental conditions on the survival of microbial pathogens on the surface of cantaloupe, abstr. P-092, p. 125. Abstr. 103rd Gen. Meet. Am. Soc. Microbiol. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.
99. Sudakevitz, D.,, A. Imberty,, and N. Gilboa-Garber. 2002. Production, properties and specificity of a new bacterial L-fucose- and D-arabinose-binding lectin of the plant aggressive pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum, and its comparison to related plant and microbial lectins. J. Biochem. 132: 353 358.
100. Sudakevitz, D.,, N. Kostlanova,, G. Blatman-Jan,, E. P. Mitchell,, B. Lerrer,, M. Wimmerova,, D. J. Katcoff,, A. Imberty,, and N. Gilboa-Garber. 2004. A new Ralstonia solanacearum high-affinity mannose-binding lectin RS-IIL structurally resembling the Pseudomonas aeruginosa fucose-specific lectin PA-IIL. Mol. Microbiol. 52: 691 700.
101. Swart, S.,, B. J. Lugtenberg,, G. Smit,, and J. W. Kijne. 1994. Rhicadhesin-mediated attachment and virulence of an Agrobacterium tumefaciens chvB mutant can be restored by growth in a highly osmotic medium. J. Bacteriol. 176: 3816 3819.
102. Takeuchi, K.,, and J. F. Frank. 2000. Penetration of Escherichia coli O157:H7 into lettuce tissues as affected by inoculum size and temperature and the effect of chlorine treatment on cell viability. J. Food Prot. 63: 434 440.
103. Takeuchi, K.,, C. M. Matute,, A. N. Hassan,, and J. F. Frank. 2000. Comparison of the attachment of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, and Pseudomonas fluorescens to lettuce leaves. J. Food Prot. 63: 1433 1437.
104. Taormina, P. J.,, L. R. Beuchat,, and L. Slutsker. 1999. Infections associated with eating seed sprouts: an international concern. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5: 626 634.
105. Tsien, H. C.,, and E. L. Schmidt. 1981. Localization and partial characterization of soybean lectin-binding polysaccharide of Rhizobium japonicum. J. Bacteriol. 145: 1063 1074.
106. Ukuku, D. O.,, and W. Fett. 2002. Behavior of Listeria monocytogenes inoculated on cantaloupe surfaces and efficacy of washing treatments to reduce transfer from rind to fresh-cut pieces. J. Food Prot. 65: 924 930.
107. Ukuku, D. O.,, and W. F. Fett. 2002. Relationship of cell surface charge and hydrophobicity to strength of attachment of bacteria to cantaloupe rind. J. Food Prot. 65: 1093 1099.
108. Vesper, S. J. 1987. Production of pili (fimbriae) by Pseudomonas fluorescens and correlation with attachment to corn roots. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 53: 1397 1405.
109. Wachtel, M.,, and A. Charkowski. 2002. Cross-contamination of lettuce with Escherichia coli O157:H7. J. Food Prot. 65: 465 470.
110. Wachtel, M. R.,, L. C. Whitehand,, and R. E. Mandrell. 2002. Association of Escherichia coli O157:H7 with preharvest leaf lettuce upon exposure to contaminated irrigation water. J. Food Prot. 65: 18 25.
111. Wagner, V. T.,, and A. G. Matthysse. 1992. Involvement of a vitronectin-like protein in attachment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to carrot suspension culture cells. J. Bacteriol. 174: 5999 6003.
112. Waisel, Y.,, A. Eshel,, and U. Kafkafi. 1996. Plant Roots: the Hidden Half, 2nd ed. Marcel Dekker, New York, N.Y.
113. Wang, G.,, T. Zhao,, and M. P. Doyle. 1996. Fate of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in bovine feces. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62: 2567 2570.
114. Wang, G.,, and M. P. Doyle. 1998. Survival of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in water. J. Food Prot. 61: 662 667.
115. Warriner, K.,, F. Ibrahim,, M. Dickinson,, C. Wright,, and W. M. Waites. 2003. Internalization of human pathogens within growing salad vegetables. Biotechnol. Genet. Eng. Rev. 20: 117 134.
116. Warriner, K.,, S. Spahiolas,, M. Dickinson,, C. Wright,, and W. M. Waites. 2003. Internalization of bioluminescent Escherichia coli and Salmonella Montevideo in growing bean sprouts. J. Appl. Microbiol. 95: 719 727.
117. Wei, C. I.,, T. S. Huang,, J. M. Kim,, W. F. Lin,, M. L. Tamplin,, and J. A. Bartz. 1995. Growth and survival of Salmonella montevideo on tomatoes and disinfection with chlorinated water. J. Food Prot. 58: 829 836.
118. Whatley, M. H.,, J. S. Bodwin,, B. B. Lippincott,, and J. A. Lippincott. 1976. Role of Agrobacterium cell envelope lipopolysaccharide in infection site attachment. Infect. Immun. 13: 1080 1083.
119. Wilson, M.,, and S. E. Lindow. 1994. Coexistence among epiphytic bacterial populations mediated through nutritional resource partitioning. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60: 4468 4477.
120. Zhuang, R.-Y.,, L. R. Beuchat,, and F. J. Angulo. 1995. Fate of Salmonella montevideo on and in raw tomatoes as affected by temperature and treatment with chlorine. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61: 2127 2131.
121. Zogaj, X.,, W. Bokranz,, M. Nimtz,, and U. Romling. 2003. Production of cellulose and curli fimbriae by members of the family Enterobacteriaceae isolated from the human gastrointestinal tract. Infect. Immun. 71: 4151 4158.
122. Zogaj, X.,, M. Nimtz,, M. Rohde,, W. Bokranz,, and U. Romling. 2001. The multicellular morphotypes of Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli produce cellulose as the second component of the extracellular matrix. Mol. Microbiol. 39: 1452 1463.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Major plant attachment factors described in bacteria

Citation: Solomon E, Brandl M, Mandrell R. 2006. Biology of Foodborne Pathogens on Produce, p 55-83. In Matthews K, Doyle M (ed), Microbiology of Fresh Produce. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817527.ch3

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error