Chapter 9 : Antimicrobial Resistance in and spp. and other Anaerobes

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Antimicrobial Resistance in and spp. and other Anaerobes, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817534/9781555813062_Chap09-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817534/9781555813062_Chap09-2.gif


This chapter focuses on issues relating to antimicrobial resistance in some of the more commonly encountered anaerobic bacterial pathogens of animals. Most of the available data on specific antimicrobial resistance relate to type A, causing necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens, and to , causing swine dysentery. Some species are essentially nonpathogenic; others, such as , may act as opportunistic pathogens, occasionally causing disease; and others are classified as major pathogens. Recently, in vitro development of resistance to coumermycin A1 in was reported. The resistance was associated with single-nucleotide mutations in the (B) gene. Coumarins are not used for treatment of infections with spp. and this study was performed to evaluate this resistance as a selective marker for genetic studies. Recently, three different mutations in the ribosomal protein L3 gene and six mutations in the 23S rRNA gene that are associated with tiamulin resistance in and were described. Early studies on the in vitro susceptibility of 18 U.S. strains of indicated that penicillin was the most effective antimicrobial, followed by cefamandole, clindamycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, cefoxitin, tylosin, nitrofurazone, tinidazole, and dihydrostreptomycin.

Citation: Franklin A, Pringle M, Hampson D. 2006. Antimicrobial Resistance in and spp. and other Anaerobes, p 127-144. In Aarestrup F (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria of Animal Origin. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817534.ch9
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Distribution of MICs of tiamulin for 221 German field isolates of isolated between 1989 and 2001. Adapted from reference .

Citation: Franklin A, Pringle M, Hampson D. 2006. Antimicrobial Resistance in and spp. and other Anaerobes, p 127-144. In Aarestrup F (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria of Animal Origin. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817534.ch9
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Abraham, L. J.,, and J. I. Rood. 1985. Molecular analysis of transferable tetracycline resistance plasmids from Clostridium perfringens. J. Bacteriol. 161: 636 640.
2. Ackermann, G.,, A. Degner,, S. H. Cohen,, J. Silva, Jr.,, and A. C. Rodloff. 2003. Prevalence and association of macrolide- lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLS B) resistance with resistance to moxifloxacin in Clostridium difficile. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 51: 599 603.
3. Adachi, Y.,, M. Hara,, K. Hirano,, P. Poomvises,, and P. Ingkaninun. 1994. Biological properties of Serpulina hyodysenteriae and Serpulina innocens like organism with plasmid DNAs, p. 147. In Proceedings of the 13th International Pig Veterinary Society Congress.
4. Adachi, Y.,, C. Tasu,, T. Tanaka,, K. Kajiwara,, and T. Tanaka. 2004. Brachyspira pilosicoli isolated from pigs and dogs in Japan and the susceptibility to 14 antibiotics, p. 268. In Proceedings of the 18th International Pig Veterinary Society Congress.
5. Aldridge, K. E.,, D. Ashcraft,, K. Cambre,, C. L. Pierson,, S. G. Jenkins,, and J. E. Rosenblatt. 2001. Multicenter survey of the changing in vitro antimicrobial susceptibilities of clinical isolates of Bacteroides fragilis group, Prevotella, Fusobacterium, Porphyromonas, and Peptostreptococcus species. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45: 1238 1243.
6. Andersson, G.,, L. Ekman,, I. Månsson,, S. Persson,, S. Rubarth,, and G. Tufvesson. 1971. Lethal complications following administration of oxytetracycline in the horse. Nord. Vet. Med. 23: 9 22.
7. Appelbaum P. C.,, S. K. Spangler,, and M. R. Jacobs. 1990. Beta-lactamase production and susceptibilities to amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, ticarcillin, ticarcillin-clavulanate, cefoxitin, imipenem, and metronidazole of 320 non- Bacteroides fragilis Bacteroides isolates and 129 fusobacteria from 28 U.S. centers. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 34: 1546 1550.
8. Aronsson, B.,, R. Möllby,, and C. E. Nord. 1985. Antimicrobial agents and Clostridium difficile in acute enteric disease: epidemiological data from Sweden, 1980 1982. J. Infect. Dis. 151: 476 481.
9. Atyeo, R. F.,, S. L. Oxberry,, and D. J. Hampson. 1999. Analysis of Serpulina hyodysenteriae strain variation and its molecular epidemiology using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Epidemiol. Infect. 123: 133 138.
10. Bannam, T. L.,, and J. I. Rood. 1991. Relationship between the Clostridium perfringens catQ gene product and chloramphenicol acetyltransferases from other bacteria. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 35: 471 476.
11. Barbut, F.,, D. Decre,, B. Burghoffer,, D. Lesage,, F. Delisle,, V. Lalande,, M. Delmee,, V. Avesani,, N. Sano,, C. Coudert,, and J. C. Petit. 1999. Antimicrobial susceptibilities and serogroups of clinical strains of Clostridium difficile isolated in France in 1991 and 1997. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43: 2607 2611.
12. Båverud, V.,, A. Gustafsson,, A. Franklin,, A. Lindholm,, and A. Gunnarsson. 1997. Clostridium difficile associated with acute colitis in mature horses treated with antibiotics. Equine Vet. J. 29: 279 284.
13. Båverud, V. 2002. Clostridium difficile infections in animals with special reference to the horse. A review. Vet. Q. 24: 203 219.
14. Båverud, V.,, A. Gustafsson,, A. Franklin,, A. Aspán,, and A. Gunnarsson. 2003. Clostridium difficile: prevalence in horses and environment, and antimicrobial susceptibility. Equine Vet. J. 35: 465 471.
15. Båverud, V. 2004. Clostridium difficile diarrhea: infection control in horses. Vet. Clin. N. Am. Equine Pract. 20: 615 630.
16. Båverud, V.,, A. Gunnarsson,, M. Karlsson,, and A. Franklin. 2004. Antimicrobial susceptibility of equine and environmental isolates of Clostridium difficile. Microb. Drug Resist. 10: 57 63.
17. Beier, R.,, G. Amtsberg,, and M. Peters. 1994. Bakteriologische Untersuchungen zum Vorkommen und zur Bedeutung von Clostridium difficile beim Pferd. Pferdeheilkunde 10: 3 8.
18. Benning, V. R.,, and J. J. Mathers. 1999. Comparison of agar dilution and broth microdilution methods of anaerobic antimicrobial susceptibility testing using several veterinary antibiotics against Clostridium perfringens strains originating from porcine and avian sources. Anaerobe 5: 561 569.
19. Benno, Y.,, and T. Mitsuoka. 1984. Susceptibility of Bacteroides from swine abscesses to 13 antibiotics. Am. J. Vet. Res. 45: 2631 2633.
20. Berryman, D. I.,, and J. I. Rood. 1989. Cloning and hybridization analysis of ermP, a macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance determinant from Clostridium perfringens. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33: 1346 1353.
21. Berryman, D. I.,, M. Lyristis,, and J. I. Rood. 1994. Cloning and sequence analysis of ermQ, the predominant macrolidelincosamide- streptogramin B resistance gene in Clostridium perfringens. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 38: 1041 1046.
22. Berryman, D. I.,, and J. I. Rood. 1995. T he closely related ermB-ermAM genes from Clostridium perfringens, Enterococcus faecalis (pAMβ1), and Streptococcus agalactiae (pIP501) are flanked by variants of a directly repeated sequence. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 39: 1830 1834.
23. Binek, M.,, U. Wojcik,, Z. Synkiewicz,, T. Jakubowski,, P. Poomvises,, and P. Ingkaninun. 1994. Dynamics of susceptibility of Serpulina hyodysenteriae to different chemotherapeutics in-vitro, p. 203. In Proceedings of the 13th International Pig Veterinary Society Congress.
24. Bøsling, J.,, S. M. Poulsen,, B. Vester,, and K. S. Long. 2003. Resistance to the peptidyl transferase inhibitor tiamulin caused by mutation of ribosomal protein L3. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47: 2892 2896.
25. Brazier, J. S.,, P. N. Levett,, A. J. Stannard,, K. D. Phillips,, and A. T. Willis. 1985. Antibiotic susceptibility of clinical isolates of clostridia. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 15: 181 185.
26. Brefort, G.,, M. Magot,, H. Ionesco,, and M. Sebald. 1977. Characterization and transferability of Clostridium perfringens plasmids. Plasmid 1: 52 66.
27. Brooke, C. J.,, D. J. Hampson,, and T. V. Riley. 2003. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Brachyspira pilosicoli isolates from humans. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47: 2354 2357.
28. Bryan, L. E.,, and S. Kwan. 1981. Mechanisms of aminoglycoside resistance of anaerobic bacteria and facultative bacteria grown anaerobically. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 8( Suppl. D): 1 8.
29. Buogo, C.,, A. P. Burnens,, J. Perrin,, and J. Nicolet. 1995. Presence of Campylobacter spp., Clostridium difficile, C. perfringens and Salmonella in some litters and in a kennel population of adult dogs. Schweiz. Arch. Tierheilkd. 137: 165 171.
30. Chopra, I.,, and M. Roberts. 2001. Tetracycline antibiotics: mode of action, applications, molecular biology, and epidemiology of bacterial resistance. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 65: 232 260.
31. Cizek, A.,, J. Smola,, and P. Mádr. 1998. In vitro activity of six anti-dysenteric drugs on Serpulina hyodysenteriae and S. pilosicoli strains isolated in the Czech Republic, p. 135. In Proceedings of the 15th International Pig Veterinary Society Congress.
32. Cohen, R. O.,, R. Colodner,, G. Ziv,, and J. Keness. 1996. Isolation and antimicrobial susceptibility of obligate anaerobic bacteria recovered from the uteri of dairy cows with retained fetal membranes and postparturient endometritis. Zentbl. Veterinärmed. B 43: 193 199.
33. Cohen, N. D.,, and A. M. Woods. 1999. Characteristics and risk factors for failure of horses with acute diarrhea to survive: 122 cases (1990-1996). J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 214: 382 390.
34. Daube, G.,, J. Mainil,, B. Limbourg,, and A. Kaekenbeeck. 1992. Etude de l’antibioresistence de Clostridium perfringens par l’emploi de sondes genetiques. Ann. Med. Vet. 136: 53 56.
35. Delmee, M.,, and V. Avesani. 1988. Correlation between serogroup and susceptibility to chloramphenicol, clindamycin, erythromycin, rifampicin and tetracycline among 308 isolates of Clostridium difficile. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 22: 325 331.
36. Depiazzi, L. J.,, W. D. Roberts,, C. D. Hawkins,, M. A. Palmer,, D. R. Pitman,, N. C. McQuade,, P. D. Jelinek,, D. J. Devereaux,, and R. J. Rippon. 1998. Severity and persistence of footrot in Merino sheep experimentally infected with a protease thermostable strain of Dichelobacter nodosus at five sites. Aust. Vet. J. 76: 32 38.
37. Devriese, L. A.,, G. Daube,, J. Hommez,, and F. Haesebrouck. 1993. In vitro susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens isolated from farm animals to growth-enhancing antibiotics. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 75: 55 57.
38. Donaldson, M. T.,, and J. E. Palmer. 1999. Prevalence of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin and Clostridium difficile toxin A in feces of horses with diarrhea and colic. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 215: 358 361.
39. Droual, R.,, H. L. Shivaprasad,, and R. P. Chin. 1994. Coccidiosis and necrotic enteritis in turkeys. Avian Dis. 38: 177 183.
40. Drummond, L. J.,, J. McCoubrey,, D. G. Smith,, J. M. Starr,, and I. R. Poxton. 2003. Changes in sensitivity patterns to selected antibiotics in Clostridium difficile in geriatric inpatients over an 18-month period. J. Med. Microbiol. 52: 259 263.
41. Duhamel, G. E.,, J. M. Kinyon,, M. R. Mathiesen,, D. P. Murphy,, and D. Walter. 1998. In vitro activity of four antimicrobial agents against North American isolates of porcine Serpulina pilosicoli. J. Vet. Diagn. Investig. 10: 350 356.
42. Dünser, M.,, H. Schweighardt,, R. Pangerl,, M. Awad Masalmeh,, and M. Schuh. 1997. Swine dysentery and spirochaetal diarrhoea—a comparative study of enteritis cases caused by Serpulina. Wien. Tierarztl. Monatsschr. 84: 151 161.
43. Egerton, J. R.,, I. M. Parsonson,, and N. P. Graham. 1968. Parenteral chemotherapy of ovine foot-rot. Aust. Vet. J. 44: 275 283.
44. Elwinger, K.,, B. Engström,, O. Fossum,, S. Hassan,, and B. Teglöf. 1994. Effect of coccidiostats on necrotic enteritis and performance in broiler chickens. Swedish J. Agric. Res. 24: 39 44.
45. Engström, B. E.,, C. Fermer,, A. Lindberg,, E. Saarinen,, V. Båverud,, and A. Gunnarsson. 2003. Molecular typing of isolates of Clostridium perfringens from healthy and diseased poultry. Vet. Microbiol. 94: 225 235.
46. Ensink, J. M.,, W. R. Klein,, A. Barneveld,, A. S. van Miert,, and A. G. Vulto. 1996. Side effects of oral antimicrobial agents in the horse: a comparison of pivampicillin and trimethoprim/ sulphadiazine. Vet. Rec. 138: 253 256.
47. Escayg, A. P.,, J. G. Hickford,, and D. W. Bullock. 1997. Association between alleles of the ovine major histocompatibility complex and resistance to footrot. Res. Vet. Sci. 63: 283 287.
48. Even, H.,, J. Rohde,, J. Verspohl,, M. Ryll,, and G. Amtsberg. 1998. Investigations into the occurrence and the antibiotic susceptibility of gram negative anaerobes of the genera Bacteroides, Prevotella, Porphyromonas and Fusobacterium in specimens obtained from diseased animals. Berl. Munch. Tierarztl. Wochenschr. 111: 379 386.
49. Fang, H.,, C. Edlund,, M. Hedberg,, and C. E. Nord. 2002. New findings in beta-lactam and metronidazole resistant Bacteroides fragilis group. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 19: 361 370.
50. Farrow, K. A.,, D. Lyras,, and J. I. Rood. 2000. The macrolidelincosamide- streptogramin B resistance determinant from Clostridium difficile 630 contains two erm(B) genes. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44: 411 413.
51. Farrow, K. A.,, D. Lyras,, and J. I. Rood. 2001. Genomic analysis of the erythromycin resistance element Tn5398 from Clostridium difficile. Microbiology 147: 2717 2728.
52. Fellström, C.,, M. Karlsson,, B. Pettersson,, U. Zimmerman,, A. Gunnarsson,, and A. Aspan. 1999. Emended descriptions of indole negative and indole positive isolates of Brachyspira (Serpulina) hyodysenteriae. Vet. Microbiol. 70: 225 238.
53. Fellström, C.,, U. Zimmerman,, D. Jansson,, A. Gunnarsson,, and M. Karlsson. 2002. In vitro susceptibility of avian isolates of Brachyspira spp. to six antimicrobial agents, p. 356. In Proceedings of the XII International Congress of the World Veterinary Poultry Association.
54. Fossi, M.,, T. Saranpää,, and E. Rautiainen. 1999. In vitro sensitivity of the swine Brachyspira species to tiamulin in Finland 1995-1997. Acta Vet. Scand. 40: 355 358.
55. Gal, M.,, and J. S. Brazier. 2004. Metronidazole resistance in Bacteroides spp. carrying nim genes and the selection of slow-growing metronidazole-resistant mutants. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 54: 109 116.
56. Gazdzinski, P.,, and R. J. Julian. 1992. Necrotic enteritis in turkeys. Avian Dis. 36: 792 798.
57. Goldstein, E. J.,, D. M. Citron,, C. V. Merriam,, Y. A. Warren,, K. Tyrrell,, and H. Fernandez. 2001. Comparative in vitro activity of ertapenem and 11 other antimicrobial agents against aerobic and anaerobic pathogens isolated from skin and soft tissue animal and human bite wound infections. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 48: 641 651.
58. Gradin, J. L.,, and J. A. Schmitz. 1983. Susceptibility of Bacteroides nodosus to various antimicrobial agents. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 183: 434 437.
59. Gresham, A. C.,, B. W. Hunt,, and R. W. Dalziel. 1998. Treatment of swine dysentery—problems of antibiotic resistance and concurrent salmonellosis. Vet. Rec. 143: 619.
60. Gustafsson, A.,, V. Båverud,, A. Gunnarsson,, M. H. Rantzien,, A. Lindholm,, and A. Franklin. 1997. The association of erythromycin ethylsuccinate with acute colitis in horses in Sweden. Equine Vet. J. 29: 314 318.
61. Hächler, H.,, B. Berger-Bächi,, and F. H. Kayser. 1987. Genetic characterization of a Clostridium difficile erythromycinclindamycin resistance determinant that is transferable to Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 31: 1039 1045.
62. Hächler, H.,, and F. H. Kayser,. 1993. Genetics and molecular biology of antibiotic resistance in Clostridium difficile: general and specific overview, p. 156 173. In M. Sebald (ed.), Genetics and Molecular Biology of Anaerobic Bacteria. Springer-Verlag, New York, N.Y.
63. Hampson, D. J.,, and G. E. Duhamel,. Porcine colonic spirochetosis/ intestinal spirochetosis. In B. E. Straw et al. (ed.), Diseases of Swine, 9th ed., in press. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, United Kingdom.
64. Hampson, D. J.,, C. Fellström,, and J. R. Thomson,. Swine dysentery. In B. E. Straw et al. (ed.), Diseases of Swine, 9th ed., in press. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, United Kingdom.
65. Hampson, D. J.,, and A. J. McLaren. 1999. Experimental infection of laying hens with Serpulina intermedia causes reduced egg production and increased faecal water content. Avian Pathol. 28: 113 117.
66. Hirsh, D. C.,, M. C. Indiveri,, S. S. Jang,, and E. L. Biberstein. 1985. Changes in prevalence and susceptibility of obligate anaerobes in clinical veterinary practice. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 186: 1086 1089.
67. Hodgin, L. A.,, and G. Högenauer. 1974. The mode of action of pleuromutilin derivatives. Effect on cell-free polypeptide synthesis. Eur. J. Biochem. 47: 527 533.
68. Hommez, J.,, F. Castryck,, C. Miry,, A. Lein,, L. A. Devriese,, and F. Haesebrouck. 1998. Susceptibility of different Serpulina species in pigs to antimicrobial agents. Vlaams Diergeneeskd. Tijdschr. 67: 32 35.
69. Honkanen-Buzalski, T.,, and P. Huovinen. 1999. Bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents in Finland: FINRES 1999, p. 32 33. Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry and Ministry of Social Affairs and Health, Helsinki, Finland.
70. Humphrey, S. B.,, T. B. Stanton,, N. S. Jensen,, and R. L. Zuerner. 1997. Purification and characterization of VSH-1, a generalized transducing bacteriophage of Serpulina hyodysenteriae. J. Bacteriol. 179: 323 329.
71. Indiveri, M. C.,, and D. C. Hirsh. 1992. Tissues and exudates contain sufficient thymidine for growth of anaerobic bacteria in the presence of inhibitory levels of trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole. Vet. Microbiol. 31: 235 242.
72. Jacobson, M.,, C. Hård af Segerstad,, A. Gunnarsson,, C. Fellström,, K. de Verdier Klingenberg,, P. Wallgren,, and M. Jensen- Waern. 2003. Diarrhoea in the growing pig—a comparison of clinical, morphological and microbial findings between animals from good and poor performance herds. Res. Vet. Sci. 74: 163 169.
73. Jang, S. S.,, and D. C. Hirsh. 1994. Characterization, distribution, and microbiological associations of Fusobacterium spp. in clinical specimens of animal origin. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32: 384 387.
74. Jang, S. S.,, J. E. Breher,, L. A. Dabaco,, and D. C. Hirsh. 1997. Organisms isolated from dogs and cats with anaerobic infections and susceptibility to selected antimicrobial agents. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 210: 1610 1614.
75. Jang, S. S.,, L. M. Hansen,, J. E. Breher,, D. A. Riley,, K. G. Magdesian,, J. E. Madigan,, Y. J. Tang,, J. Silva, Jr.,, and D. C. Hirsh. 1997. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of equine isolates of Clostridium difficile and molecular characterization of metronidazole-resistant strains. Clin. Infect. Dis. 25( Suppl. 2): S266 S267.
76. Jimenez, R.,, S. Piriz,, E. Mateos,, and S. Vadillo. 2004. Minimum inhibitory concentrations for 25 selected antimicrobial agents against Dichelobacter nodosus and Fusobacterium strains isolated from footrot in sheep of Portugal and Spain. J. Vet. Med. B Infect. Dis. Vet. Public Health 51: 245 248.
77. Joens, L. A.,, A. B. Margolin,, and M. J. Hewlett. 1986. The characterization of a plasmid isolated from Treponema hyodysenteriae and Treponema innocens, abstr. H-173, p. 156. Abstr. 86th Annu. Meet. Am. Soc. Microbiol. 1986. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.
78. Johansson, A.,, C. Greko,, B. E. Engström,, and M. Karlsson. 2004. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Swedish, Norwegian and Danish isolates of Clostridium perfringens from poultry, and distribution of tetracycline resistance genes. Vet. Microbiol. 99: 251 257.
79. Johnson, J. L.,, and B. S. Francis. 1975. Taxonomy of the Clostridia: ribosomal ribonucleic acid homologies among the species. J. Gen. Microbiol. 88: 229 244.
80. Johnson, S.,, M. H. Samore,, K. A. Farrow,, G. E. Killgore,, F. C. Tenover,, D. Lyras,, J. I. Rood,, P. DeGirolami,, A. L. Baltch,, M. E. Rafferty,, S. M. Pear,, and D. N. Gerding. 1999. Epidemics of diarrhea caused by a clindamycin-resistant strain of Clostridium difficile in four hospitals. N. Engl. J. Med. 341: 1645 1651.
81. Jones, R. L.,, W. S. Adney,, and R. K. Shideler. 1987. Isolation of Clostridium difficile and detection of cytotoxin in the feces of diarrheic foals in the absence of antimicrobial treatment. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25: 1225 1227.
82. Jordan, D.,, J. W. Plant,, H. I. Nicol,, T. M. Jessep,, and C. J. Scrivener. 1996. Factors associated with the effectiveness of antibiotic treatment for ovine virulent footrot. Aust. Vet. J. 73: 211 215.
83. Karlsson, M.,, C. Fellström,, M. U. Heldtander,, K.-E. Johansson,, and A. Franklin. 1999. Genetic basis of macrolide and lincosamide resistance in Brachyspira (Serpulina) hyodysenteriae. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 172: 255 260.
84. Karlsson, M.,, A. Gunnarsson,, and A. Franklin. 2001. Susceptibility to pleuromutilins in Brachyspira (Serpulina) hyodysenteriae. Anim. Health Res. Rev. 2: 59 65.
85. Karlsson, M.,, A. Franklin,, M. Stampe,, and C. Fellström. 2002. Treatment failure in spirochaetal diarrhoea. Sven. Veterinartidn. 54: 245 247.
86. Karlsson, M.,, J. Rohde,, M. Kessler,, and A. Franklin. 2002. Decreased susceptibility to tiamulin in German isolates of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, p. 189. In Proceedings of the 17th International Pig Veterinary Society Congress.
87. Karlsson, M.,, C. Fellström,, A. Gunnarsson,, A. Landén,, and A. Franklin. 2003. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of porcine Brachyspira (Serpulina) species isolates. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41: 2596 2604.
88. Karlsson, M.,, A. Aspán,, A. Landen,, and A. Franklin. 2004. Further characterization of porcine Brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolates with decreased susceptibility to tiamulin. J. Med. Microbiol. 53: 281 285.
89. Karlsson, M.,, C. Fellström,, K.-E. Johansson,, and A. Franklin. 2004. Antimicrobial resistance in Brachyspira pilosicoli with special reference to point mutations in the 23S rRNA gene associated with macrolide and lincosamide resistance. Microb. Drug Resist. 10: 204 208.
90. Kelly, C. P.,, and J. T. LaMont. 1998. Clostridium difficile infection. Annu. Rev. Med. 49: 375 390.
91. Kinyon, J. M.,, and D. L. Harris. 1980. In vitro susceptibility of Treponema hyodysenteriae and Treponema innocens by the agar dilution method, p. 1125 1128. In Proceedings of the Second International Symposium of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians.
92. Kinyon, J. M.,, D. Murphy,, C. Stryker,, V. Turner,, J. T. Holck,, and G. Duhamel. 2002. Minimum inhibitory concentration for US swine isolates of Brachyspira pilosicoli to valnemulin and four other antibiotic, p. 50. In Proceedings of the 17th International Pig Veterinary Society Congress.
93. Kitai, K.,, M. Kashiwazaki,, Y. Adachi,, T. Kume,, and A. Akarawa. 1979. In vitro activity of 39 antimicrobial agents against Treponema hyodysenteriae. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 15: 392 395.
94. Kitai, K.,, M. Kashiwazaki,, Y. Adachi,, K. Kunugita,, and A. Arakawa. 1987. In vitro antimicrobial activity against reference strains and field isolates of Treponema hyodysenteriae. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 31: 1935 1938.
95. LeBlanc, D. J.,, J. M. Inamine,, and L. N. Lee. 1986. Broad geographical distribution of homologous erythromycin, kanamycin, and streptomycin resistance determinants among group D streptococci of human and animal origin. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 29: 549 555.
96. Lechtenberg, K. F.,, T. G. Nagaraja,, and M. M. Chengappa. 1998. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Fusobacterium necrophorum isolated from bovine hepatic abscesses. Am. J. Vet. Res. 59: 44 47.
97. Leser, T. D.,, J. Z. Amenuvor,, T. K. Jensen,, R. H. Lindecrona,, M. Boye,, and K. Møller. 2002. Culture-independent analysis of gut bacteria: the pig gastrointestinal tract microbiota revisited. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68: 673 690.
98. Lobova, D.,, J. Smola,, and A. Cizek. 2004. Decreased susceptibility to tiamulin and valnemulin among Czech isolates of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. J. Med. Microbiol. 53: 287 291.
99. Lyras, D.,, and J. I. Rood. 1996. Genetic organization and distribution of tetracycline resistance determinants in Clostridium perfringens. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 40: 2500 2504.
100. Lyras, D.,, and J. L. Rood,. 1997. Transposable genetic elements and antibiotic resistance determinants from Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium difficile, p. 73 92. In J. I. Rood,, B. A. McClane,, J. G. Songer,, and R. W. Titball (ed.), The Clostridia, Molecular Biology and Pathogenesis. Academic Press, San Diego, Calif.
101. Madewell, B. R.,, Y. J. Tang,, S. Jang,, J. E. Madigan,, D. C. Hirsh,, P. H. Gumerlock,, and J. Silva, Jr. 1995. Apparent outbreaks of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in horses in a veterinary medical teaching hospital. J. Vet. Diagn. Investig. 7: 343 346.
102. Madewell, B. R.,, J. K. Bea,, S. A. Kraegel,, M. Winthrop,, Y. J. Tang,, and J. Silva, Jr. 1999. Clostridium difficile: a survey of fecal carriage in cats in a veterinary medical teaching hospital. J. Vet. Diagn. Investig. 11: 50 54.
103. Magdesian, K. G.,, J. E. Madigan,, D. C. Hirsh,, S. S. Jang,, Y. J. Tang,, T. E. Carpenter,, L. M. Hansen,, and J. Silva. 1997. Clostridium difficile and horses: a review. Rev. Med. Microbiol. 8: 46 48.
104. Magdesian, K. G.,, D. C. Hirsh,, S. S. Jang,, L. M. Hansen,, and J. E. Madigan. 2002. Characterization of Clostridium difficile isolates from foals with diarrhea: 28 cases (1993- 1997). J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 220: 67 73.
105. Malecki, J. C.,, and L. Coffey. 1987. Treatment of ovine virulent footrot with zinc sulphate/sodium lauryl sulphate footbathing. Aust. Vet. J. 64: 301 304.
106. Marks, S. L.,, and E. J. Kather. 2003. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of canine Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens isolates to commonly utilized antimicrobial drugs. Vet. Microbiol. 94: 39 45.
107. Martel, A.,, L. A. Devriese,, K. Cauwerts,, K. De Gussem,, A. Decostere,, and F. Haesebrouck. 2004. Susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens strains from broiler chickens to antibiotics and anticoccidials. Avian Pathol. 33: 3 7.
108. Martirossian, G.,, B. Sokol-Leszcynska,, J. Mierzejewski,, and F. Meisel-Mikolajczyk. 1992. Occurrence of Clostridium difficile in the digestive system of dogs. Med. Dosw. Mikrobiol. 44: 49 54.
109. Mateos, E.,, S. Piriz,, J. Valle,, M. Hurtado,, and S. Vadillo. 1997. Minimum inhibitory concentrations for selected antimicrobial agents against Fusobacterium necrophorum isolated from hepatic abscesses in cattle and sheep. J. Vet. Pharmacol. Ther. 20: 21 23.
110. McGorum, B. C.,, P. M. Dixon,, and D. G. Smith. 1998. Use of metronidazole in equine acute idiopathic toxaemic colitis. Vet. Rec. 142: 635 638.
111. Messier, S.,, R. Higgins,, and C. Moore. 1990. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of five antimicrobials against Treponema hyodysenteriae and Treponema innocens. J. Vet. Diagn. Investig. 2: 330 333.
112. Molnar, L. 1996. Sensitivity of strains of Serpulina hyodysenteriae isolated in Hungary to chemotherapeutic drugs. Vet. Rec. 138: 158 160.
113. Mullany, P.,, M. Wilks,, I. Lamb,, C. Clayton,, B. Wren,, and S. Tabaqchali. 1990. Genetic analysis of a tetracycline resistance element from Clostridium difficile and its conjugal transfer to and from Bacillus subtilis. J. Gen. Microbiol. 136: 1343 1349.
114. Mullany, P.,, M. Wilks,, and S. Tabaqchali. 1991. Transfer of Tn916 and Tn916 delta E into Clostridium difficile: demonstration of a hot-spot for these elements in the C. difficile genome. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 63: 191 194.
115. Mullany, P.,, M. Wilks,, and S. Tabaqchali. 1995. Transfer of macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLS) resistance in Clostridium difficile is linked to a gene homologous with toxin A and is mediated by a conjugative transposon, Tn5398. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 35: 305 315.
116. Nagaraja, T. G.,, and M. M. Chengappa. 1998. Liver abscesses in feedlot cattle: a review. J. Anim. Sci. 76: 287 298.
117. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. 2004. Methods for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria, 5th ed. Approved standard M11-A6. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, Wayne, Pa.
118. Oh, H.,, N. El Amin,, T. Davies,, P. C. Appelbaum,, and C. Edlund. 2001. gyrA mutations associated with quinolone resistance in Bacteroides fragilis group strains. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45: 1977 1981.
119. Paula, G. R.,, L. S. Falcao,, E. N. Antunes,, K. E. Avelar,, F. N. Reis,, M. A. Maluhy,, M. C. Ferreira,, and R. M. Domingues. 2004. Determinants of resistance in Bacteroides fragilis strains according to recent Brazilian profiles of antimicrobial susceptibility. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 24: 53 58.
120. Pelaez, T.,, L. Alcala,, R. Alonso,, M. Rodriguez-Creixems,, J. M. Garcia-Lechuz,, and E. Bouza. 2002. Reassessment of Clostridium difficile susceptibility to metronidazole and vancomycin. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46: 1647 1650.
121. Perrin, J.,, C. Buogo,, A. Gallusser,, A. P. Burnens,, and J. Nicolet. 1993. Intestinal carriage of Clostridium difficile in neonate dogs. Zentbl. Veterinärmed. B 40: 222 226.
122. Piriz, S.,, J. Valle,, M. A. Hurtado,, E. M. Mateos,, P. Martin- Palomino,, and S. Vadillo. 1995. Efficacy of the E-test in evaluating the antimicrobial susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria of veterinary interest. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 20: 345 348.
123. Piriz Duran, S.,, J. Valle Manzano,, R. Cuenca Valera,, and S. Vadillo Machota. 1990. In-vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Bacteroides and Fusobacterium isolated from footrot in goats. Br. Vet. J. 146: 437 442.
124. Piriz Duran, S.,, R. Cuenca Valera,, J. Valle Manzano,, and S. Vadillo Machota. 1991. Comparative in vitro susceptibility of Bacteroides and Fusobacterium isolated from footrot in sheep to 28 antimicrobial agents. J. Vet. Pharmacol. Ther. 14: 185 192.
125. Poilane, I.,, P. Cruaud,, J. C. Torlotin,, and A. Collignon. 2000. Comparison of the E test to the reference agar dilution method for antibiotic susceptibility testing of Clostridium difficile. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 6: 155 156.
126. Post, K. W.,, and J. G. Songer. 2004. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium difficile isolated from neonatal pigs with enteritis. Anaerobe 10: 47 50.
127. Poulsen, S. M.,, M. Karlsson,, L. B. Johansson,, and B. Vester. 2001. The pleuromutilin drugs tiamulin and valnemulin bind to the RNA at the peptidyl transferase centre on the ribosome. Mol. Microbiol. 41: 1091 1099.
128. Prapasarakul, N.,, K. Ochi,, and Y. Adachi. 2003. In vitro susceptibility and a new point mutation associated with tylosin-resistance in Japanese canine intestinal spirochetes. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 65: 1275 1280.
129. Pringle, M.,, J. Poehlsgaard,, B. Vester,, and K. S. Long. 2004. Mutations in ribosomal protein L3 and 23S ribosomal RNA at the peptidyl transferase centre are associated with reduced susceptibility to tiamulin in Brachyspira spp. isolates. Mol. Microbiol. 54: 1295 1306.
130. Pringle, M.,, A. Landén,, and A. Franklin. Tiamulin resistance in Swedish Brachyspira pilosicoli isolates. Res. Vet. Sci., in press.
131. Quinn, P. J.,, M. E. Carter,, B. Markey,, and G. R. Carter,. 1994. Clostridium species, p. 191 208. In J. I. Rood,, B. A. McClane,, J. G. Songer,, and R. W. Titball (ed.), Clinical Veterinary Microbiology. Wolfe Publishing, Mosby-Year Book Europe Ltd., London, United Kingdom.
132. Raisbeck, M. F.,, G. R. Holt,, and G. D. Osweiler. 1981. Lincomycin-associated colitis in horses. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 179: 362 363.
133. Rasmussen, B. A.,, K. Bush,, and F. P. Tally. 1993. Antimicrobial resistance in Bacteroides. Clin. Infect. Dis. 16( Suppl. 4): S390 S400.
134. Rendell, D. K.,, and A. P. Callinan. 1997. Comparison of erythromycin and oxytetracycline for the treatment of virulent footrot in grazing sheep. Aust. Vet. J. 75: 354.
135. Riley, T. V.,, J. E. Adams,, G. L. O’Neill,, and R. A. Bowman. 1991. Gastrointestinal carriage of Clostridium difficile in cats and dogs attending veterinary clinics. Epidemiol. Infect. 107: 659 665.
136. Ritchie, A. E.,, and L. N. Brown. 1971. An agent possibly associated with swine dysentery. Vet. Rec. 89: 608 609.
137. Ritchie, A. E.,, I. M. Robinson,, L. A. Joens,, and J. M. Kinyon. 1978. A bacteriophage for Treponema hyodysenteriae. Vet. Rec. 103: 34 35.
138. Roberts, M. C.,, L. V. McFarland,, P. Mullany,, and M. E. Mulligan. 1994. Characterization of the genetic basis of antibiotic resistance in Clostridium difficile. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 33: 419 429.
139. Roberts, M. C. 2003. Acquired tetracycline and/or macrolidelincosamides- streptogramin resistance in anaerobes. Anaerobe 9: 63 69.
140. Rohde, J.,, M. Kessler,, C. G. Baums,, and G. Amtsberg. 2004. Comparison of methods for antimicrobial susceptibility testing and MIC values for pleuromutilin drugs for Brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolated in Germany. Vet. Microbiol. 102: 25 32.
141. Rollins, L. D.,, L. N. Lee,, and D. J. LeBlanc. 1985. Evidence for a disseminated erythromycin resistance determinant mediated by Tn917-like sequences among group D streptococci isolated from pigs, chickens, and humans. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 27: 439 444.
142. Rønne, H.,, and J. Szancer. 1990. In vitro susceptibility of Danish field isolates of Treponema hyodysenteriae to chemotherapeutics in swine dysentery (SD) therapy. Interpretation of MIC results based on the pharmacokinetic properties of the antibacterial agents, p. 126. In Proceedings of the 11th International Pig Veterinary Society Congress.
143. Rood, J. I.,, E. A. Maher,, E. B. Somers,, E. Campos,, and C. L. Duncan. 1978. Isolation and characterization of multiply antibiotic-resistant Clostridium perfringens strains from porcine feces. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 13: 871 880.
144. Rood, J. I.,, J. R. Buddle,, A. J. Wales,, and R. Sidhu. 1985. The occurrence of antibiotic resistance in Clostridium perfringens from pigs. Aust. Vet. J. 62: 276 279.
145. Rood, J. I.,, and S. T. Cole. 1991. Molecular genetics and pathogenesis of Clostridium perfringens. Microbiol. Rev. 55: 621 648.
146. Rosenblatt, J. E.,, and D. R. Gustafson. 1995. Evaluation of the Etest for susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 22: 279 284.
147. Salyers, A. A.,, A. Gupta,, and Y. Wang. 2004. Human intestinal bacteria as reservoirs for antibiotic resistance genes. Trends Microbiol. 12: 412 416.
148. Sasaki, Y.,, K. Yamamoto,, Y. Tamura,, and T. Takahashi. 2001. Tetracycline-resistance genes of Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium septicum and Clostridium sordellii isolated from cattle affected with malignant edema. Vet. Microbiol. 83: 61 69.
149. Sebald, M. 1994. Genetic basis for antibiotic resistance in anaerobes. Clin. Infect. Dis. 18(Suppl. 4): 297 304.
150. Sloan, J.,, L. M. McMurry,, D. Lyras,, S. B. Levy,, and J. I. Rood. 1994. The Clostridium perfringens Tet P determinant comprises two overlapping genes: tetA(P), which mediates active tetracycline efflux, and tetB(P), which is related to the ribosomal protection family of tetracycline-resistance determinants. Mol. Microbiol. 11: 403 415.
151. Smith, S. C.,, T. Muir,, M. Holmes,, and P. J. Coloe. 1991. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Australian isolates of Treponema hyodysenteriae. Aust. Vet. J. 68: 408 409.
152. Songer, J. G. 1996. Clostridial enteric diseases of domestic animals. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 9: 216 234.
153. Songer, J. G.,, K. W. Post,, and D. J. Larson. 2000. Infection of neonatal swine with Clostridium difficile. J. Swine Health Prod. 8: 185 189.
154. Spigaglia, P.,, and P. Mastrantonio. 2002. Analysis of macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLS(B)) resistance determinant in strains of Clostridium difficile. Microb. Drug Resist. 8: 45 53.
155. Staempfli, H. R.,, J. F. Prescott,, and M. L. Brash. 1992. Lincomycin-induced severe colitis in ponies: association with Clostridium cadaveris. Can. J. Vet. Res. 56: 168 169.
156. Stanton, T. B.,, E. G. Matson,, and S. B. Humphrey. 2001. Brachyspira (Serpulina) hyodysenteriae gyrB mutants and interstrain transfer of coumermycin A1 resistance. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67: 2037 2043.
157. Stanton, T. B.,, M. G. Thompson,, S. B. Humphrey,, and R. L. Zuerner. 2003. Detection of bacteriophage VSH-1 svp38 gene in Brachyspira spirochetes. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 224: 225 229.
158. Stark, C. A.,, C. Edlund,, S. Sjöstedt,, G. Kristensen,, and C. E. Nord. 1993. Antimicrobial resistance in human oral and intestinal anaerobic microfloras. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 37: 1665 1669.
159. Statens Veterinärmedicinska Anstalt. 2004. SVARM 2003: Swedish Veterinary Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring. National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
160. Steffen, C.,, and H. Matzura. 1989. Nucleotide sequence analysis and expression studies of a chloramphenicolacetyltransferase- coding gene from Clostridium perfringens. Gene. 75: 349 354.
161. Stephens, C. P.,, and D. J. Hampson. 2001. Intestinal spirochete infections of chickens: a review of disease associations, epidemiology and control. Anim. Health Res. Rev. 2: 83 91.
162. Stephens, C. P.,, and D. J. Hampson. 2002. Experimental infection of broiler breeder hens with the intestinal spirochaete Brachyspira (Serpulina) pilosicoli causes reduced egg production. Avian Pathol. 31: 169 175.
163. Suau, A.,, R. Bonnet,, M. Sutren,, J. J. Godon,, G. R. Gibson,, M. D. Collins,, and J. Dore. 1999. Direct analysis of genes encoding 16S rRNA from complex communities reveals many novel molecular species within the human gut. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65: 4799 4807.
164. Tan, Z. L.,, T. G. Nagaraja,, and M. M. Chengappa. 1996. Fusobacterium necrophorum infections: virulence factors, pathogenic mechanism and control measures. Vet. Res. Commun. 20: 113 140.
165. Teng, L. J.,, P. R. Hsueh,, J. C. Tsai,, S. J. Liaw,, S. W. Ho,, and K. T. Luh. 2002. High incidence of cefoxitin and clindamycin resistance among anaerobes in Taiwan. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46: 2908 2913.
166. Then, R. L.,, and P. Angehrn. 1979. Low trimethoprim susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria due to insensitive dihydrofolate reductases. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 15: 1 6.
167. Then, R. L. 1982. Mechanisms of resistance to trimethoprim, the sulfonamides, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Rev. Infect. Dis. 4: 261 269.
168. Thomas, C.,, M. Stevenson,, and T. V. Riley. 2003. Antibiotics and hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea: a systematic review. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 51: 1339 1350.
169. Tompkins, D. S.,, M. R. Millar,, J. Heritage,, and A. P. West. 1987. Beta-lactamase production by intestinal spirochaetes. J. Gen. Microbiol. 133: 761 765.
170. Trampel, D. W.,, J. M. Kinyon,, and N. S. Jensen. 1999. Minimum inhibitory concentration of selected antimicrobial agents for Serpulina isolated from chickens and rheas. J. Vet. Diagn. Investig. 11: 379 382.
171. Trott, D. J.,, T. B. Stanton,, N. S. Jensen,, G. E. Duhamel,, J. L. Johnson,, and D. J. Hampson. 1996. Serpulina pilosicoli sp. nov., the agent of porcine intestinal spirochetosis. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 46: 206 215.
172. Venning, C. M.,, M. A. Curtis,, and J. R. Egerton. 1990. Treatment of virulent footrot with lincomycin and spectinomycin. Aust. Vet. J. 67: 258 260.
173. Walter, D. H.,, and J. M. Kinyon. 1990. Recent MIC determination of six antimicrobials for Treponema hyodysenteriae in the United States; use of tiamulin to eliminate swine dysentery from two farrow to finish herds, p. 129. In Proceedings of the 11th International Pig Veterinary Society Congress.
174. Waters, E. H.,, J. P. Orr,, E. G. Clark,, and C. M. Schaufele. 1998. Typhlocolitis caused by Clostridium difficile in suckling piglets. J. Vet. Diagn. Investig. 10: 104 108.
175. Watkins, K. L.,, T. R. Shryock,, R. N. Dearth,, and Y. M. Saif. 1997. In-vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens from commercial turkey and broiler chicken origin. Vet. Microbiol. 54: 195 200.
176. Weber, F. H.,, and D. L. Earley. 1991. Novel method for measuring growth of Treponema hyodysenteriae and its application for monitoring susceptibility of clinical isolates to antimicrobial agents. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 35: 2012 2015.
177. Weese, J. S.,, H. R. Staempfli,, and J. F. Prescott. 2001. A prospective study of the roles of Clostridium difficile and enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens in equine diarrhoea. Equine Vet. J. 33: 403 409.
178. Wong, S. S.,, P. C. Woo,, W. K. Luk,, and K. Y. Yuen. 1999. Susceptibility testing of Clostridium difficile against metronidazole and vancomycin by disk diffusion and Etest. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 34: 1 6.
179. Wren, B. W.,, P. Mullany,, C. Clayton,, and S. Tabaqchali. 1988. Molecular cloning and genetic analysis of a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase determinant from Clostridium difficile. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 32: 1213 1217.
180. Wüst, J.,, and U. Hardegger. 1983. Transferable resistance to clindamycin, erythromycin, and tetracycline in Clostridium difficile. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 23: 784 786.
181. Yaeger, M.,, N. Funk,, and L. Hoffman. 2002. A survey of agents associated with neonatal diarrhea in Iowa swine including Clostridium difficile and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. J. Vet. Diagn. Investig. 14: 281 287.
182. Zaidenzaig, Y.,, J. E. Fitton,, L. C. Packman,, and W. V. Shaw. 1979. Characterization and comparison of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase variants. Eur. J. Biochem. 100: 609 618.
183. Zuerner, R. L.,, and T. B. Stanton. 1994. Physical and genetic map of the Serpulina hyodysenteriae B78T chromosome. J. Bacteriol. 176: 1087 1092.
184. Zuerner, R. L.,, T. B. Stanton,, F. C. Minion,, C. Li,, N. W. Charon,, D. J. Trott,, and D. J. Hampson. 2004. Genetic variation in Brachyspira: chromosomal rearrangements and sequence drift distinguish B. pilosicoli from B. hyodysenteriae. Anaerobe 10: 229 237.


Generic image for table
Table 1

Resistance to tetracycline and erythromycin or tylosin in of animal origin

Citation: Franklin A, Pringle M, Hampson D. 2006. Antimicrobial Resistance in and spp. and other Anaerobes, p 127-144. In Aarestrup F (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria of Animal Origin. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817534.ch9
Generic image for table
Table 2

Antimicrobial resistance in isolates from horses, piglets, and dogs

Citation: Franklin A, Pringle M, Hampson D. 2006. Antimicrobial Resistance in and spp. and other Anaerobes, p 127-144. In Aarestrup F (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria of Animal Origin. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817534.ch9

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error