Chapter 12 : The Genus Citrobacter

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By the late 1960s and early 1970s, three major groups of biochemically defined citrobacteria were recognized, namely, , which dated back to the original work of Braak in 1928; , described by Frederiksen in 1970; and , an organism which was originally placed in the genus by Young and coworkers. A recently identified new subspecies or possibly even a new species was given the general name of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) enteric group 137 because of uncertainty regarding the taxonomic (genus) status of named species within this group, based upon 16S rRNA analysis. species are not common agents of human disease. Although they are resident commensal flora in the gastrointestinal tract, they are infrequently implicated as primary pathogens. A study performed by researchers at the CDC since the recent taxonomic revisions within the genus suggests that many commercial systems should be able to identify these newly described species with only minor adjustments to their current algorithms. Biotyping is a technique primarily used for epidemiologic purposes. Two biotypes of are distinguished in the older literature, based upon the ability of citrobacteria to produce HS on triple sugar iron (TSI) slants.

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. The Genus Citrobacter, p 181-204. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch12
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Figure 1

Clustering of species into distinct groups, based upon phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA sequences (158).

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. The Genus Citrobacter, p 181-204. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch12
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Generic image for table
Table 1

Current taxonomic composition of the genus

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. The Genus Citrobacter, p 181-204. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch12
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Table 2

Distribution of recently described species

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. The Genus Citrobacter, p 181-204. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch12
Generic image for table
Table 3

Clinical presentations associated with infection

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. The Genus Citrobacter, p 181-204. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch12
Generic image for table
Table 4

Presentations of meningitis

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. The Genus Citrobacter, p 181-204. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch12
Generic image for table
Table 5

. Identification of species by selected commercial systemsa

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. The Genus Citrobacter, p 181-204. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch12
Generic image for table
Table 6

Distinguishing biochemical characteristics of major groups within the genus

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. The Genus Citrobacter, p 181-204. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch12
Generic image for table
Table 8

Biotypes of

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. The Genus Citrobacter, p 181-204. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch12
Generic image for table
Table 7

Relative distribution of former members within the complex

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. The Genus Citrobacter, p 181-204. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch12
Generic image for table
Table 9

Distinguishing features of enteric group 137 from and

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. The Genus Citrobacter, p 181-204. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch12
Generic image for table
Table 10

Potential virulence factors operative in the genus sensu lato

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. The Genus Citrobacter, p 181-204. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch12
Generic image for table
Table 11

Antimicrobial susceptibility of species

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. The Genus Citrobacter, p 181-204. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch12

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