Chapter 13 : The Genus Yersinia

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In 1944, Van Loghem proposed a new genus, , to honor A. J. E. Yersin, the discoverer of the plague bacillus. species are distributed worldwide but occur mainly in moderate or subtropical climes of the Americas, Europe, and Australia. Today, is responsible for epizootic plague in a number of rodent species including ground squirrels, chipmunks, and prairie dogs. In England in 1999, a survey reporting infectious intestinal diseases both in the community and in patients reporting to general practitioners found the incidence of spp. was 6.8 and 0.58/1,000 person-years, respectively. septicemia without lympadenopathy occurs in ~25% of plague cases, based on epidemiologic data from the early 1980s. Separation of yersiniae from other genera and speciation among members of the genus are generally quite straightforward with conventional media. Paradoxically, and are genetically more closely related to each other than to , but the latter two species have more similarities in regard to pathogenesis, including route of infection (oral) and primary clinical presentations (enterocolitis). Multiple functions have been ascribed to individual virulence factors in vitro, making it difficult to determine which attribute is critical in the infective process. Iron-regulated gene expression in yersiniae is under the control of a Fur (for ferric uptake regulation)- like protein analogous to that found in . Using an invasive mouse model, the best results for treating infections have been obtained by using quinolones, doxycycline, and gentamicin.

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. The Genus Yersinia, p 205-232. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch13
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Table 1

Current composition of the genus

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. The Genus Yersinia, p 205-232. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch13
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Table 2

Environmental distribution of yersiniae

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. The Genus Yersinia, p 205-232. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch13
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Table 3

Reported sources from which uncommon species have been isolated

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. The Genus Yersinia, p 205-232. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch13
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Table 4

Manifestations of and bacteremia

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. The Genus Yersinia, p 205-232. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch13
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Table 5

Comparison of isolation rates for

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. The Genus Yersinia, p 205-232. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch13
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Table 6

Differential reactions in screening media for and other isolated from CIN

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. The Genus Yersinia, p 205-232. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch13
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Table 7

A brief overview of virulence characteristics associated with yersiniae

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. The Genus Yersinia, p 205-232. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch13

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